Abstract

In this paper, few-layer porous graphene is integrated onto the surface of a metasurface layer to provide a uniform static electric field to efficiently control liquid crystal, thereby enabling flexible metamaterial designs. We demonstrate a tunable cross-shaped metamaterial absorber with different arm lengths driven by this combined metasurface and graphene electrode. The resulting absorber supports a resonant frequency tunable from 0.75 to 1 THz with a high-quality factor, and amplitude modulation of ~80% at these frequencies with an applied voltage of 10 V. Furthermore, the near-field intensity and hot spot distribution can be manipulated over a broad range.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chen, W. F. Chiang, M. C. Tsai, S. A. Jiang, T. H. Chang, S. H. Wang, and C. Y. Huang, “Continuously tunable and fast-response terahertz metamaterials using in-plane-switching dual-frequency liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2021–2024 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tadokoro, T. Nishikawa, B. Kang, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. Nakajima, “Measurement of beam profiles by terahertz sensor card with cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4456–4459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. S. Yang, T. T. Tang, P. H. Chen, R.-P. Pan, P. Yu, and C.-L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter with indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2511–2513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial Light Modulator for THz Applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

Andreone, A.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beccherelli, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, T. H.

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, H. T.

Chen, P.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. H.

Chen, W. C.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Tunable Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z. X.

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiang, W. F.

Chigrinov, V.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chikhi, N.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, L. Q.

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, S. J.

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z. B.

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hangyo, M.

Hu, W.

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

Isic, G.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S. A.

Jin, B. B.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.-B.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, B.

Kim, S. S.

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

Liang, L. J.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, X. W.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.-W.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lisitskiy, M.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Lu, Y. N.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.-Q.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

Ming, Y.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murauski, A.

Nakajima, M.

Nishikawa, T.

Niu, J.

Padilla, W. J.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial Light Modulator for THz Applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Tunable Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R.-P.

Papari, G.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. W.

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qian, H.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y. Q.

Ruan, X.

Rubin, S.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santamato, E.

Savo, S.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial Light Modulator for THz Applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shao, G. H.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y. J.

Shrekenhamer, D.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial Light Modulator for THz Applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Tunable Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Tadokoro, Y.

Takano, K.

Tan, S.

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, T. T.

Tkachenko, V.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. C.

Vasic, B.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. G.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. H.

Wei, B. Y.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. B.

Wu, J.-B.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. H.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Z.-J.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

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B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yahiaoui, R.

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F. P.

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. S.

Yang, H.

Yang, K.-L.

Yu, P.

Zhang, W. L.

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z. G.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.-G.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial Light Modulator for THz Applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. P. Yan, W. L. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

L. Wang, S. J. Ge, Z. X. Chen, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers,” Chin. Phys. B 25(9), 094222 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid Crystal Tunable Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial/graphene absorber: (a) schematic, and (b) optical image of the metasurface (inset: a unit cell of the metasurface), P = 150 μm, lx = 120 μm, ly = 100 μm, w = 10 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulations of the static electric field and LC director distributions shown at a plane centered in the LC layer when the operating voltage is 10 V: (a) cross-shaped electrode, and (b) metamaterial/graphene electrode with the same metal ground.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulations of the tunability of the terahertz resonant frequencies and hot spots of the metamaterial absorber: (a) tunable absorption of TE and TM mode (b) electric field of the corresponding points in (a) at a plane 1 μm above the cross-shaped metasurface. A: 0.864 THz, 0 V, B: 0.884 THz, 10 V, C: 0.742 THz, 10 V, D: 0.742 THz, 0 V. The orientation of LC is horizontal at 0 V while vertical at 10 V.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimentally measured frequency- and polarization-dependent THz transmittances of the pristine, few-layer porous graphene coated cross-shaped electrode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimentally measured absorption response of the THz metamaterial absorber. (a) Frequency dependent absorption for different applied voltages. (b) Frequency location of the absorption maximum as a function of applied voltage.

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