Abstract

High-speed interconnects in data-center and campus-area networks crucially rely on efficient and technically simple transmission techniques that use intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) to bridge distances of up to a few kilometers. This requires electro-optic modulators that combine low operation voltages with large modulation bandwidth and that can be operated at high symbol rates using integrated drive circuits. Here we explore the potential of silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM) for generating high-speed IM/DD signals at line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s. Using a SiGe BiCMOS signal-conditioning chip, we demonstrate that intensity-modulated duobinary (IDB) signaling allows to efficiently use the electrical bandwidth, thereby enabling line rates of up to 100 Gbit/s at bit error ratios (BER) of 8.5 × 10−5. This is the highest data rate achieved so far using a silicon-based MZM in combination with a dedicated signal-conditioning integrated circuit (IC). We further show four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM4) at lines rates of up to 120 Gbit/s (BER = 3.2 × 10−3) using a high-speed arbitrary-waveform generator and a 0.5 mm long MZM. This is the highest data rate hitherto achieved with a sub-millimeter MZM on the silicon photonic platform.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (4)

2016 (5)

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ban, T. De Keulenaer, Z. Li, J. Van Kerrebrouck, J. H. Sinsky, B. Kozicki, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Torfs, “A Wide-Band, 5-Tap Transversal Filter With Improved Testability for Equalization up to 84 Gb/s,” IEEE Microw. Comp. Lett. 25(11), 739–741 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2012 (1)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2006 (1)

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

A. Sekey, “An Analysis of the Duobinary Technique,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 14(2), 126–130 (1966).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

A. Lender, “The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission,” Trans. Am. Inst. Elec. Eng. Part I: Commun. Electron. 82, 214–218 (1963).

Abadía, N.

Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altenhain, L.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

Avramopoulos, H.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bach, H. G.

Bach, H.-G.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Baeuerle, B.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ban, Y.

Y. Ban, T. De Keulenaer, Z. Li, J. Van Kerrebrouck, J. H. Sinsky, B. Kozicki, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Torfs, “A Wide-Band, 5-Tap Transversal Filter With Improved Testability for Equalization up to 84 Gb/s,” IEEE Microw. Comp. Lett. 25(11), 739–741 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barklund, A.

Bauwelinck, J.

Benight, S.

Beretta, A.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bielik, A.

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cangini, G.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chagnon, M.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Choi, J. H.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Keulenaer, T.

Dede, A.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Dupuy, J. Y.

Dupuy, J.-Y.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Fedeli, J.-M.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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Fournier, M.

Freude, W.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

Geistert, K.

Ghosh, S.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
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Giesecke, A. L.

Grote, N.

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V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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Groumas, P.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Haffner, C.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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Hafner, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Harati, P.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Hartmann, W.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

Heni, W.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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Hettrich, H.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

Hoessbacher, C.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Huang, S.

Jacobsen, G.

Jacques, M.

Jen, A.

Jen, A. K. Y.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

Johnson, L. E.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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Johnston, P. V.

Jorge, F.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Josten, A.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Juchli, L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Kaiser, C.

Kashio, N.

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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Katopodis, V.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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Kohl, M.

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Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

Korn, D.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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Li, J.

Li, R.

Li, Z.

Y. Ban, T. De Keulenaer, Z. Li, J. Van Kerrebrouck, J. H. Sinsky, B. Kozicki, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Torfs, “A Wide-Band, 5-Tap Transversal Filter With Improved Testability for Equalization up to 84 Gb/s,” IEEE Microw. Comp. Lett. 25(11), 739–741 (2015).
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Liu, Y.

Luo, J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low V π L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

Lutz, J.

Malsam, D.

Melikyan, A.

Miller, E.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Möller, M.

Muehlbrandt, S.

Niegemann, J.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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Osman, M.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
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Ozaki, J.

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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Pahl, K. P.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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Palmer, R.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

Pang, X.

Patel, D.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfeifle, J.

Phillips-Sylvain, N.

Pierco, R.

Plant, D. V.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Randel, S.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

Riet, M.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Robinson, B. H.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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Ronniger, G.

Salamin, Y.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schatz, R.

Schindler, P.

Schindler, P. C.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, R.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

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Y. Ban, T. De Keulenaer, Z. Li, J. Van Kerrebrouck, J. H. Sinsky, B. Kozicki, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Torfs, “A Wide-Band, 5-Tap Transversal Filter With Improved Testability for Equalization up to 84 Gb/s,” IEEE Microw. Comp. Lett. 25(11), 739–741 (2015).
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Tanobe, H.

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

Torfs, G.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
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A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
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Verplaetse, M.

Vyncke, A.

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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
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Waldow, M.

Wang, Q. J.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Westergren, U.

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P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
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Woessner, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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Wolf, S.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less Amplifier-Less Generation and Transmission of QAM Signals Using Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

Xiong, X.

Yin, X.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Yu, H.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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Zhang, Z.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, V. Katopodis, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, R. Dinu, G. Cangini, E. Miller, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, M. Spyropoulou, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Tunable 100 Gbaud Transmitter Based on Hybrid Polymer-to-Polymer Integration for Flexible Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 407–418 (2016).
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Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A Low-Voltage 35-GHz Silicon Photonic Modulator-Enabled 112-Gb/s Transmission System,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
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Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Zwick, T.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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T. De Keulenaer, J. De Geest, G. Torfs, J. Bauwelinck, Y. Ban, J. Sinsky, and B. Kozicki, “56+ Gb/s serial transmission using duo-binary signaling,” in DesignCon (2015), paper 10TH–3.

J. Van Kerrebrouck, T. De Keulenaer, J. De Geest, R. Pierco, R. Vaernewyck, A. Vyncke, M. Fogg, M. Rengarajan, G. Torfs, and J. Bauwelinck, “100 Gb/s serial transmission over copper using duo-binary signaling,” in DesignCon (2016).

P. Dong, J. Lee, Y. Chen, L. L. Buhl, S. Chandrasekhar, J. H. Sinsky, and K. Kim, “Four-Channel 100-Gb/s per Channel Discrete Multi-Tone Modulation Using Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2015), paper Th5B.4.
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying–Supplementary Information,” submitted for publication (2017).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, W. Freude, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) IQ Modulator for 100 GBd 16QAM Operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers (OSA, 2017), paper Th5C.1.

W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “100 Gbit/s OOK using a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (IEEE, 2015), paper PDP 1.4.
[Crossref]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, D. Elder, L. Dalton, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Record-High In-Device Electro-Optic Coefficient of 359 pm/V in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2017), paper STu3N.2.
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, T. De Keulenaer, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, M. Verplaetse, R. Pierco, R. Vaernewyck, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, W. Freude, E. Mentovich, J. Bauwelinck, and C. Koos, “100 Gbit/s Serial Transmission Using a Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator and a Duobinary Driver IC,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2017), paper W4I.5.
[Crossref]

M. Scholten, T. Coe, and J. Dillard, “Continuously-Interleaved BCH (CI-BCH) FEC Delivers Best-in-Class NECG for 40G and 100G Metro Applications,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OSA, 2010), paper NTuB3.
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “120 Gbit/s PAM-4 Signaling Using a Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2016), paper Th.2.P2.SC2.7.

S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, C. Koos, S. Randel, and M. Schell, “100 GBd Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection with an InP-based Monolithic DFB Laser Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2017), paper Th5C.5.
[Crossref]

J. D. Ambrosia and S. G. Kipp, “The 2015 Ethernet Roadmap,” Ethernet Alliance White Paper (2015).

“IEEE P802.3bs 400 Gb/s Ethernet Task Force,” http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/ .

D. M. Kuchta, “Directly modulated VCSELs at ≥50 Gb/s for short reach data communications,” in 2016 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (IEEE, 2016), paper MD1.

J. Verbist, M. Verplaetse, A. Srinivasan, P. De Heyn, T. De Keulenaer, R. Pierco, R. Vaernewyck, A. Vyncke, P. Absil, G. Torfs, X. Yin, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, and J. Bauwelinck, “First Real-Time 100-Gb/s NRZ-OOK Transmission over 2 km with a Silicon Photonic Electro-Absorption Modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers (OSA, 2017), paper Th5C.4.

J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, J. Han, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and T. Nakamura, “Record-high Modulation-efficiency Depletion-type Si-based Optical Modulator with In-situ B Doped Strained SiGe Layer on Si Waveguide for 1.3 um Wavelength,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2016), paper Tu.3.A.4.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2016), paper Tu.3.A.4.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device concept of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). (a) The device is fabricated in a standard commercial fabrication run on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. (b) Shows a top view of the electrodes with contact pads in ground-signal-ground (GSG) configuration. The light is split by a multi-mode-interference coupler (MMI) into the two arms of the MZM. (c) Shows the cross section of the SOH MZM. Each arm comprises an optical slot waveguide filled with an electro-optic (EO) organic cladding material. The GSG transmission line for the electrical signal is connected to the rails of the slot waveguide by thin conductive n-doped silicon slabs and aluminum (Al) vias through the protective oxide cladding. During the poling process, a DC voltage Upol (green circuit) is applied across the floating ground electrodes at an elevated temperature of the device. The molecules align according to the poling voltage and remain in that orientation (green arrow) after cooling down the device. A modulating voltage Ud applied to the signal electrode induces an electric field in the slot (red arrow) that is anti-parallel (parallel) in the left (right) arm of the MZM leading to push-pull operation. Due to the high overlap of the RF electric field (d) and the optical mode (e) in the slot waveguide the modulation is highly efficient.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Chirp characterization of an SOH Mach-Zehnder modulator using the fiber response peak method [29]. (a) Transfer function for small-signal intensity modulation of the SOH MZM connected to a 75 km-long fiber span. Dips in the transfer function originate from fiber dispersion. (b) For data evaluation, the product f u 2 L of the square of the resonance frequency fu and the fiber length L is plotted versus the dip order u. The chirp parameter α and the fiber dispersion D can then be extracted from the slope and from the vertical offset of a straight line fitted to the data points [29–31]. We find a chirp factor of |α| ≈0.09.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for data transmission with an SOH modulator and an BiCMOS signal-conditioning IC: The signal-conditioning chip is fed by 4 × 12.5 Gbit/s or 4 × 25 Gbit/s pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) to generate a 50 Gbit/s on-off keying (OOK) signal or a 100 Gbit/s duobinary (DB) signal. The output of the IC connects via a coaxial cable to a radio-frequency (RF) amplifier and a microwave probe to the SOH Mach-Zehnder modulator. The modulator is terminated by a 50 Ω impedance. Light from a laser source is coupled to the silicon chip via grating couplers. After modulation, the optical signal is amplified, optionally transmitted over a 5 km long fiber and detected on a photodiode (PD). The PD can be connected to a bit error ratio tester (BERT), a sampling oscilloscope and a real-time oscilloscope.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Eye diagrams and BER for 50 Gbit/s OOK signaling. (a) Back-to-back (b2b) configuration (b) Transmission over a 5 km long dispersion compensated fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup for PAM4 signal generation: The electrical drive signals are generated in an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), amplified in a radio frequency (RF) amplifier, and fed to the modulator via microwave probes. The modulator is electrically terminated with an external 50 Ω impedance. Light from a laser source is coupled to the chip via grating couplers. After modulation, the optical signal is amplified, bandpass filtered and detected on a photodiode (PD) connected to a high-speed oscilloscope.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PAM4 eye diagrams for symbol rates of 28 GBd, 40 GBd, 56 GBd and 60 GBd along with the measured bit error ratios (BER). At 28 GBd, no bit error was found in our recording. The BER increases with the symbol rate because the pre-compensation of the low-pass characteristic of driver electronics and modulator emphasizes high-frequency noise. For all measured symbol rates, the BER stays below 4.4 × 10−3, which represents the threshold for hard-decision forward error correction (FEC) with 7% overhead.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Eye diagrams for 100 Gbit/s IDB signaling. The BER values stay below the FEC threshold 4.4 × 10−3 for 7% overhead. (a) Back-to-back (b2b) measurement (b) Transmission over a 5 km long dispersion-compensated fiber link.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Overview of all measured BER values for comparison. Dots represent the back-to-back (b2b) results for OOK (• black), PAM4 (• blue) and IDB (• red). For OOK and IDB the modulators were operated by a BiCMOS signal-conditioning IC and transmission over a 5 km dispersion compensated fiber link is shown (♦diamonds). Due to bandwidth limitations of the used components the BER increases with the data rate. All measured BER values stay below the threshold for FEC with 7% overhead. OOK at 50 Gbit/s is found to be error free.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Comparison of non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation formats and associated power spectra of random pulse sequences with a fixed data rate f d . Because rectangular pulses are assumed, all spectra have a sinc 2 -shape. Discrete spectral lines are disregarded. (a) Non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK), (b) 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), and (c) three level duobinary (DB), assuming rectangular pulse shapes and identical peak levels A. While OOK and DB operate at the same symbol rate f s =1/T , PAM4 encodes two bit per symbol so that the symbol rate can be halved, f s =1/ ( 2T ) . Duobinary signaling works with three signal levels and a (precoded) binary bit stream is encoded with a, e.g., delay-and-add-circuit. Therefore, starting from rectangular NRZ pulses the DB correlation time is doubled as compared to OOK, and the bandwidth is halved. Since for the same average power the distance between neighboring PAM4 and DB levels is reduced as compared to OOK, the noise tolerance is reduced.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Bit error ratio (BER) calculated by Eq. (2) for the modulation formats on-off keying (OOK), 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), and intensity-modulated duobinary (IDB) signaling as a function of the electrical signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR). Equal electrical peak powers are assumed, leading to the best noise tolerance for two level OOK. The level spacing becomes smaller for IDB (three signal levels) and PAM4 (four signal levels), and the noise tolerance worsens. For PAM4 we use Gray coding.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Comparison of OOK, PAM4 and IDB modulation formats

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Table 2 Overview of modulator data for three experiments. A DC voltage in the range 0V…Uπ for setting the operating point was applied in all measurements.

Equations (6)

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α=2P dϕ/ dt dP/ dt .
BER OOK = 1 2 erfc( A 2 2 σ ), BER PAM4 = 3 8 erfc( A 6 2 σ )+ 1 4 erfc( 3A 6 2 σ ) 1 8 erfc( 5A 6 2 σ ) 3 8 erfc( A 6 2 σ ), BER IDB = 3 4 erfc( A 4 2 σ ) 1 4 erfc( 3A 4 2 σ ) 3 4 erfc( A 4 2 σ ).
P S OOK = A 2 2 , P S PAM4 = 7 A 2 18 , P S IDB = 3 A 2 8 .
W bit OOK = ( U d /2) 2 50Ω 1 r OOK .
W bit IDB = 1 2 ( U d /2) 2 50Ω 1 r IDB .
W bitPAM4 = 1 2 [ ( U d /2) 2 50Ω + ( U d /6) 2 50Ω ] 1 r PAM4 .

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