Abstract

We demonstrate a composite multiscale entropy (CMSE) method of terahertz (THz) signal complexity analysis to distinguish different biological tissues. The THz signals reflected from fresh porcine skin and muscle tissues were measured and analyzed. The statistically significant difference and separation of the two tissues based on several parameters were analyzed and compared for THz spectroscopy and imaging, which verified the better performance of the CMSE method and further enhancement of the contrast among THz signals that interact with different tissues. This process provides a better analysis and discrimination method for THz spectroscopy and imaging in biomedical applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. A. Thuraisingham and G. A. Gottwald, “On multiscale entropy analysis for physiological data,” Physica A 366(1), 323–332 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Fan, E. P. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon.Res. 4(3), A29 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. P. W. Mielke and K. J. Berry, “Two-sample multivariate similarity permutation comparison,” Psychol. Rep. 100(1), 257–262 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, H. Cheon, S. W. Cho, S. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1122–1129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Y. He, B. S. Ung, E. P. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon.Res. 4(3), A29 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

Y. B. Ji, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

P. W. Mielke and K. J. Berry, “Two-sample multivariate similarity permutation comparison,” Psychol. Rep. 100(1), 257–262 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. A. Thuraisingham and G. A. Gottwald, “On multiscale entropy analysis for physiological data,” Physica A 366(1), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Costa, C.-K. Peng, A. L. Goldberger, and J. M. Hausdorff, “Multiscale entropy analysis of human gait dynamics,” Physica A 330(1–2), 53–60 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Costa, A. L. Goldberger, and C. K. Peng, “Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiologic time series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(6), 068102 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. S. Richman and J. R. Moorman, “Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 278(6), H2039–H2049 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ahn, K.-M.

Ahuja, A. T.

Ando, N.

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbab, M. H.

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, K. J.

P. W. Mielke and K. J. Berry, “Two-sample multivariate similarity permutation comparison,” Psychol. Rep. 100(1), 257–262 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brun, M. A.

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budak, H.

H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceylan, H.

H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

Chen, T.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. N.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheon, H.

Cheung, W.-H.

Cho, K.-S.

Cho, S. W.

Choi, H. J.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, H. Cheon, S. W. Cho, S. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1122–1129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-J.

Choi, Y.

Costa, M.

C. K. Peng, M. Costa, and A. L. Goldberger, “Adaptive data analysis of complex fluctuations in physiologic time series,” Adv. Adapt. Data Anal. 1(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Costa, C.-K. Peng, A. L. Goldberger, and J. M. Hausdorff, “Multiscale entropy analysis of human gait dynamics,” Physica A 330(1–2), 53–60 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Costa, A. L. Goldberger, and C. K. Peng, “Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiologic time series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(6), 068102 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costa, M. D.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickey, T. C.

Do, Y.-W.

Eishii, Y.

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon.Res. 4(3), A29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Formanek, F.

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, W.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberger, A. L.

C. K. Peng, M. Costa, and A. L. Goldberger, “Adaptive data analysis of complex fluctuations in physiologic time series,” Adv. Adapt. Data Anal. 1(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Costa, A. L. Goldberger, and C. K. Peng, “Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiologic time series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(6), 068102 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonul, N.

H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottwald, G. A.

R. A. Thuraisingham and G. A. Gottwald, “On multiscale entropy analysis for physiological data,” Physica A 366(1), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, W. Z.

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haam, S.

Han, H.-W.

Hausdorff, J. M.

M. Costa, C.-K. Peng, A. L. Goldberger, and J. M. Hausdorff, “Multiscale entropy analysis of human gait dynamics,” Physica A 330(1–2), 53–60 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, B. S. Ung, E. P. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshina, H.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, K.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

Huh, Y.-M.

Jeon, T.-I.

Jeong, K.

Ji, Y. B.

Jung, E.-A.

Kan, K. W.

Kan, W.-C.

Kang, H. G.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, K.-R.

Kim, S.-H.

Klein, M. B.

Kocpinar, E. F.

H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Goldberger, A.

M. Costa, C.-K. Peng, A. L. Goldberger, and J. M. Hausdorff, “Multiscale entropy analysis of human gait dynamics,” Physica A 330(1–2), 53–60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. M.

Lee, K. Y.

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Lee, S. K.

Lee, S.-S.

Lee, W.-S.

Li, F.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. R.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, M.-H.

Lin, S. G.

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lipsitz, L. A.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. S.

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manor, B.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, K.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mielke, P. W.

P. W. Mielke and K. J. Berry, “Two-sample multivariate similarity permutation comparison,” Psychol. Rep. 100(1), 257–262 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyoshi, N.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moon, K.-W.

Moorman, J. R.

J. S. Richman and J. R. Moorman, “Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 278(6), H2039–H2049 (2000).
[PubMed]

Mourad, P. D.

Nakajima, S.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Newton, E.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

Novak, V.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Kelly, P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Otani, C.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

Park, C. H.

Park, D. W.

Park, J. Y.

Parrott, E. P.

Y. He, B. S. Ung, E. P. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon.Res. 4(3), A29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Parrott, E. P. J.

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C. K.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Peng, M. Costa, and A. L. Goldberger, “Adaptive data analysis of complex fluctuations in physiologic time series,” Adv. Adapt. Data Anal. 1(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Costa, A. L. Goldberger, and C. K. Peng, “Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiologic time series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(6), 068102 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-K.

M. Costa, C.-K. Peng, A. L. Goldberger, and J. M. Hausdorff, “Multiscale entropy analysis of human gait dynamics,” Physica A 330(1–2), 53–60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Pinder, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richman, J. S.

J. S. Richman and J. R. Moorman, “Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 278(6), H2039–H2049 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sekine, M.

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sim, Y. C.

Son, J.-H.

Starobinets, O.

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thuraisingham, R. A.

R. A. Thuraisingham and G. A. Gottwald, “On multiscale entropy analysis for physiological data,” Physica A 366(1), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S.

Ung, B. S. Y.

S. Fan, E. P. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon.Res. 4(3), A29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

Wang, C. C.

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winebrenner, D. P.

Wu, C. W.

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. D.

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiong, G. L.

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, M.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuda, A.

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. T.

Zhao, J. H.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, S. C.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L. G.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, H. J.

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Adapt. Data Anal. (1)

C. K. Peng, M. Costa, and A. L. Goldberger, “Adaptive data analysis of complex fluctuations in physiologic time series,” Adv. Adapt. Data Anal. 1(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

J. S. Richman and J. R. Moorman, “Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 278(6), H2039–H2049 (2000).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Arbab, T. C. Dickey, D. P. Winebrenner, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2339–2347 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, C. H. Park, H. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G. M. Lee, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, J.-H. Son, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. J. Oh, S. K. Lee, and J.-S. Suh, “Feasibility of terahertz reflectometry for discrimination of human early gastric cancers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1398–1406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, B. S. Ung, E. P. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, H. Cheon, S. W. Cho, S. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1122–1129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Entropy (Basel) (1)

S. D. Wu, C. W. Wu, S. G. Lin, C. C. Wang, and K. Y. Lee, “Time series analysis using composite multiscale entropy,” Entropy (Basel) 15(3), 1069–1084 (2013).
[Crossref]

Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (1)

H. Budak, N. Gonul, H. Ceylan, and E. F. Kocpinar, “Impact of long term Fe(3+) toxicity on expression of glutathione system in rat liver,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(1), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Syst. Appl. (1)

L. Zhang, G. L. Xiong, H. S. Liu, H. J. Zou, and W. Z. Guo, “Bearing fault diagnosis using multi-scale entropy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference,” Expert Syst. Appl. 37(8), 6077–6085 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

B. Manor, M. D. Costa, K. Hu, E. Newton, O. Starobinets, H. G. Kang, C. K. Peng, V. Novak, and L. A. Lipsitz, “Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109(6), 1786–1791 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Photon.Res. (1)

S. Fan, E. P. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon.Res. 4(3), A29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Costa, A. L. Goldberger, and C. K. Peng, “Multiscale entropy analysis of complex physiologic time series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(6), 068102 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica A (2)

R. A. Thuraisingham and G. A. Gottwald, “On multiscale entropy analysis for physiological data,” Physica A 366(1), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Costa, C.-K. Peng, A. L. Goldberger, and J. M. Hausdorff, “Multiscale entropy analysis of human gait dynamics,” Physica A 330(1–2), 53–60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Rep. (1)

P. W. Mielke and K. J. Berry, “Two-sample multivariate similarity permutation comparison,” Psychol. Rep. 100(1), 257–262 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

Q. Sun, Y. He, K. Liu, S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Recent advances in terahertz technology for biomedical applications,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 7(3), 345–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Flowchart of the CMSE algorithm. (b) Schematic illustration of the coarse-grained procedure (scale factor = 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the reflective THz spectroscopic and imaging system. (b) Average reference THz pulsed signal (10 measurement times). For clarity, the standard deviation of the reference THz signal is not marked in the figure. (c) Corresponding multiscale entropy results with the standard deviations (10 measurement times).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average time-domain THz signal of the fresh muscle and skin tissues (n = 6). For clarity, the standard deviation is not marked in the figure. (b) Corresponding average frequency-domain spectrum, (c) refractive index, and (d) absorption coefficient of the fresh muscle and skin tissues with the standard deviations (n = 6).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average value and corresponding standard deviation of the entropies at different scales of the fresh muscle and skin tissues (n = 6).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

THz imaging results of the fresh muscle and skin tissues and the corresponding dichotomized difference images based on multiscale entropy at the scales of 5 and 10.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the time- and frequency-domain amplitudes of the different tissues (n = 6)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characteristics of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of the different tissues (n = 6)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Characteristics of the entropies at different scales in the different tissues (n = 6)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CMSE(x,τ,m,r)= 1 τ k=1 τ SampEn( y k (τ) ,m,r)
y k,j (τ) = 1 τ i=(j1)τ+k jτ+k1 x i , 1j  N τ  , 1kτ
d= ( s 1 s 2 ) T ( s 1 s 2 )
Rd= d mean( s 1 , s 2 ) = ( s 1 s 2 ) T ( s 1 s 2 ) ( i=1 n ( s 1i + s 2i )) / (2×n)

Metrics