Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate and investigate, for first time to our best knowledge, a second-order few-mode Raman amplifier for low noise distributed fiber amplification. The 1455 and 1360 nm pumps are both injected into the few-mode fiber (FMF) in the forms of two degenerate LP11 modes in the backward direction. Within the band from 1542 to 1558 nm, maximum on-off gains of 4 dB are achieved for both LP01 and LP11 modes, and the differential modal gain (DMG) is less than 0.4 dB. The noise figure (NF) improvements at 1550 nm for LP01 and LP11 modes are 1.2 dB and 1.1 dB, respectively, compared with the conventional first-order pumping scheme. The lowest NFs of less than −2 dB are achieved for both modes. We build an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) in the few-mode distributed Raman amplifier (FM-DRA) to measure the signal evolutions, and the results indicate a proof-of-concept low noise amplification for second-order pumping with respect to the conventional first-order pumping case. Due to the second-order pumping, broadened Raman amplification band has been observed with improved gain flatness for both LP01 and LP11 modes, which is also of great importance in the optical communication systems. The second-order FM-DRA can be used potentially in future high capacity mode-division multiplexing (MDM) optical communication systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, A. H. Gnauck, R.-J. Essiambre, J. Toulouse, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Transmission over 1050-km few-mode fiber based on bidirectional distributed Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1864–1871 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Raman amplification in multimode fibers with random mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1188–1190 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B. Min, W. J. Lee, and N. Park, “Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1486–1488 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Amezcua Correa, R.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antonelli, C.

Antonio Lopez, E.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

Bennett, K.

Bickham, S.

Bigot, L.

Bigot-Astruc, M.

Bouteiller, J. C.

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brar, K.

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, “Raman amplification for fiber communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 79–93 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Castaneda, M. A. U.

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Christensen, E. N.

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corbett, B.

de Waardt, H.

DeMarco, J. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dhar, A.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A. D.

Eskildsen, L.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.-J.

M. Esmaeelpour, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, A. H. Gnauck, R.-J. Essiambre, J. Toulouse, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Transmission over 1050-km few-mode fiber based on bidirectional distributed Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1864–1871 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Esmaeelpour, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, A. H. Gnauck, R.-J. Essiambre, J. Toulouse, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Transmission over 1050-km few-mode fiber based on bidirectional distributed Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1864–1871 (2016).
[Crossref]

Friis, S. M. M.

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukai, C.

Gnauck, A. H.

Grégoire, N.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Headley, C.

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Huang, B.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. K.

Huijskens, F. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inan, B.

Ip, E.

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Judkins, J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y.

Kang, Q.

Kidorf, H.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koebele, C.

Koefoed, J. G.

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Koreshkov, K.

Korolev, A.

Kurokawa, K.

Kuschnerov, M.

LaRochelle, S.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lau, A. P. T.

Le Cocq, G.

Le Rouge, A.

Lee, W. J.

B. Min, W. J. Lee, and N. Park, “Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1486–1488 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M. J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16601–16611 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, M. J.

Lim, E. L.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Ma, L.

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
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Ma, M.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
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H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

B. Min, W. J. Lee, and N. Park, “Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1486–1488 (2000).
[Crossref]

Montero, C.

Morency, S.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
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Moreno, V.

Nakajima, K.

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D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
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Nissov, M.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
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R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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Park, N.

B. Min, W. J. Lee, and N. Park, “Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1486–1488 (2000).
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Pedrazzani, R.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
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H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
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Radic, S.

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
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Richardson, D. J.

Rottwitt, K.

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
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H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
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Ryf, R.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
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M. Esmaeelpour, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, A. H. Gnauck, R.-J. Essiambre, J. Toulouse, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Transmission over 1050-km few-mode fiber based on bidirectional distributed Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1864–1871 (2016).
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Salsi, M.

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R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
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P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
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Veljanovski, V.

Wang, T.

Winfield, R.

Wong, N. H. L.

Wood, W.

Xia, C.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
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Xu, X.

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yaman, F.

Yano, Y.

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
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Zhou, J.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage, S. Radic, and C. Headley, “Dual-order Raman pump,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 212–214 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Min, W. J. Lee, and N. Park, “Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1486–1488 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (3)

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Li, J. Du, L. Ma, M. J. Li, S. Jiang, X. Xu, and Z. He, “Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Commun. 383, 42–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16601–16611 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and characterization of a few-mode EDFA supporting four mode groups for mode division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27051–27061 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, E. L. Lim, Q. Kang, T. C. May-Smith, N. H. L. Wong, R. Standish, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Cladding pumped few-mode EDFA for mode division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29008–29013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M. J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, “An analytical approach for gain optimization in multimode fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21393–21402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

E. N. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, S. M. M. Friis, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

M. Wada, T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, T. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “4-LP mode distributed raman amplification technique with graded-index multi-mode fiber transmission Line,” in Proceedings of the 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), Paper ThC2–2.

R. Ryf, A. Sierra, R.-J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, M. Esmaeelpour, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, Jr., “Mode-equalized distributed Raman amplification in 137-km few-mode fiber” in Proceedings of the 37th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2011), Paper Th.13.K.5.
[Crossref]

Y. Weng, T. Wang, and Z. Pan, “Optimization of mode-dependent gain efficiency based on intermodal Raman scattering for few-mode distributed Raman amplifier,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper SW1P.5.
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, and P. J. Winzer, “Analysis of mode-dependent gain in Raman amplified few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW1D.2.
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X. Wu, K. Xu, C. Huang, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexed 3x28 Gbit/s on-chip photonic interconnects, ” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G.6.

P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in Proceedings of the 37th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2011), Paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.
[Crossref]

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, and C. Headley, “Quasi-constant signal power transmission,” in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2002), Paper S3.04.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Configuration of experimental setup and NFPs at 1550 nm after MSPL1 and after 70 km 4-LP mode fiber. MSPL: mode-selective photonics lantern; WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. (b) Spliced point between the 2-LP mode and 4-LP mode fibers. (c) Relative index difference of the 2-LP mode and 4-LP mode fibers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured Raman on-off gain as a function of wavelength in the cases of (a) first-order and (b) second-order pumping.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured ASE noise power as a function of wavelength in the cases of (a) first-order and (b) second-order pumping. The OSA resolution bandwidth is set to 0.2 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effective NF and total pump power as a function of 1455 nm pump power: (a) LP01 mode, gain is fixed to 4 dB. (b) LP11 mode, gain is fixed to 3.8 dB.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured and (b) simulated signal power evolutions for LP01 mode in the cases of no pumping, first-order pumping and second-order pumping.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured and (b) simulated signal power evolutions for LP11 mode in the cases of no pumping, first-order pumping and second-order pumping.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the 4-LP mode fiber from [27]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Intensity overlap integral fm,n (in 109/m2) for the 4-LP mode fiber

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d P v,m ± dz = α v,m P v,m ± ± n η v,m,n P v,n ± P v,m ± μ>ν n g μ,ν Γ f m,n ( P μ,n + + P μ,n ) ±hv μ>ν n g μ,ν f m,n ( P μ,n + + P μ,n ) [ 1+ ( e h(μν)/kT 1 ) 1 ]Δν P v,m ± μ<ν n ν μ g μ,ν Γ f m,n ( P μ,n + + P μ,n ) P v,m ± μ<ν n ν μ g μ,ν f m,n 2hμ[ 1+ ( e h(νμ)/kT 1 ) 1 ]Δμ,
f m,n = + + I m (x,y) I n (x,y)dxdy + + I m (x,y)dxdy + + I n (x,y)dxdy
G on-off = P s on (L) P s off (L)
G on-off 11 = G on-off 01 ( P f 21 +( 1P ) f 22 P f 11 +( 1P ) f 12 ) =4.2dB( 0.21×5.34+0.79×5.65 0.21×8.07+0.79×5.34 )=3.97dB,
NF= 1 G onoff ( 1+ P ASE E ph B 0 )

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