Abstract

Dynamical back-action cooling of phonons in optomechanical systems having one optical mode is well studied. Systems with two optical modes have the potential to reach significantly higher cooling rate through resonant enhancement of both pump and scattered light. Here we experimentally investigate the role of dual optical densities of states on Brillouin optomechanical cooling, and the deviation from theory caused by thermal locking to the pump laser. Using this, we demonstrate a room temperature system operating very close to the strong coupling regime, where saturation of cooling is anticipated.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nature Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Multimode phonon cooling via three-wave parametric interactions with optical fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, X. Luan, and C. W. Wong, “Dynamic dissipative cooling of a mechanical resonator in strong coupling optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 153606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, and C. A. Regal, “Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object,” Science 339, 801–804 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, “A hybrid on-chip optomechanical transducer for ultrasensitive force measurements,” Nature Nanotech. 7, 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous brillouin cooling,” Nature Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, G. Bahl, and T. Carmon, “Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical brillouin cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063806 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

G. Heinrich, J. G. E. Harris, and F. Marquardt, “Photon shuttle: Landau-zener-stückelberg dynamics in an optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011801 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

P. Rabl, C. Genes, K. Hammerer, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Phase-noise induced limitations on cooling and coherent evolution in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063819 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nature Phys. 5, 489–493 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, P. Del’Haye, N. Nooshi, K. J. Vahala, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Radiation pressure cooling of a micromechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

1999 (1)

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, “Cooling of a mirror by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3174–3177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Multimode phonon cooling via three-wave parametric interactions with optical fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. P. M.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, M. S.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anetsberger, G.

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ansmann, M.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rabl, C. Genes, K. Hammerer, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Phase-noise induced limitations on cooling and coherent evolution in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063819 (2009).
[Crossref]

As-pelmeyer, M.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bahl, G.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nature Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous brillouin cooling,” Nature Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, G. Bahl, and T. Carmon, “Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical brillouin cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bauerle, D.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bialczak, R. C.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blaser, F.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blasius, T. D.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bohm, H. R.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowen, W. P.

W. P. Bowen and G. J. Milburn, Quantum Optomechanics (CRC Press, 2015).

Briant, T.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmon, T.

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous brillouin cooling,” Nature Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, G. Bahl, and T. Carmon, “Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical brillouin cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063806 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, J.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cicak, K.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleland, A. N.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clerk, A. A.

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cohadon, P. F.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, “Cooling of a mirror by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3174–3177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cohadon, P.-F.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del’Haye, P.

A. Schliesser, P. Del’Haye, N. Nooshi, K. J. Vahala, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Radiation pressure cooling of a micromechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Devoret, M. H.

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dobrindt, J.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
[Crossref]

Donner, T.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gavartin, E.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, “A hybrid on-chip optomechanical transducer for ultrasensitive force measurements,” Nature Nanotech. 7, 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genes, C.

P. Rabl, C. Genes, K. Hammerer, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Phase-noise induced limitations on cooling and coherent evolution in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girvin, S. M.

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groblacher, S.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammerer, K.

P. Rabl, C. Genes, K. Hammerer, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Phase-noise induced limitations on cooling and coherent evolution in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nature Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harlow, J. W.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. G. E.

G. Heinrich, J. G. E. Harris, and F. Marquardt, “Photon shuttle: Landau-zener-stückelberg dynamics in an optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011801 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, “Cooling of a mirror by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3174–3177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, G.

G. Heinrich, J. G. E. Harris, and F. Marquardt, “Photon shuttle: Landau-zener-stückelberg dynamics in an optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hertzberg, J. B.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, J. T.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofheinz, M.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

Jayich, A. M.

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jha, S. S.

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Multimode phonon cooling via three-wave parametric interactions with optical fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karrai, K.

C. H. Metzger and K. Karrai, “Cavity cooling of a microlever,” Nature 432, 1002–1005 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nature Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, “A hybrid on-chip optomechanical transducer for ultrasensitive force measurements,” Nature Nanotech. 7, 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, P. Del’Haye, N. Nooshi, K. J. Vahala, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Radiation pressure cooling of a micromechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krause, A.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krause, A. G.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. C.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nature Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Langer, G.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehnert, K. W.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lenander, M.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, X. Luan, and C. W. Wong, “Dynamic dissipative cooling of a mechanical resonator in strong coupling optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 153606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, X.

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, X. Luan, and C. W. Wong, “Dynamic dissipative cooling of a mechanical resonator in strong coupling optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 153606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucero, E.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, F.

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous brillouin cooling,” Nature Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, G. Bahl, and T. Carmon, “Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical brillouin cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063806 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Heinrich, J. G. E. Harris, and F. Marquardt, “Photon shuttle: Landau-zener-stückelberg dynamics in an optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011801 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinis, J. M.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Metzger, C. H.

C. H. Metzger and K. Karrai, “Cavity cooling of a microlever,” Nature 432, 1002–1005 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

W. P. Bowen and G. J. Milburn, Quantum Optomechanics (CRC Press, 2015).

Neeley, M.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nooshi, N.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, P. Del’Haye, N. Nooshi, K. J. Vahala, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Radiation pressure cooling of a micromechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243905 (2006).
[Crossref]

O’Connell, A. D.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nature Phys. 5, 489–493 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paternostro, M.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernice, W. P. H.

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peterson, R. W.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, and C. A. Regal, “Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object,” Science 339, 801–804 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinard, M.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, “Cooling of a mirror by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3174–3177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Poot, M.

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
[Crossref]

Purdy, T. P.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, and C. A. Regal, “Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object,” Science 339, 801–804 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabl, P.

P. Rabl, C. Genes, K. Hammerer, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Phase-noise induced limitations on cooling and coherent evolution in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Regal, C. A.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, and C. A. Regal, “Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object,” Science 339, 801–804 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riviere, R.

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sank, D.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sankey, J. C.

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, P. Del’Haye, N. Nooshi, K. J. Vahala, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Radiation pressure cooling of a micromechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schoelkopf, R. J.

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schwab, K. C.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmonds, R. W.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirois, A. J.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, H. X.

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
[Crossref]

Teufel, J. D.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thompson, J. D.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tomes, M.

G. Bahl, M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, and T. Carmon, “Observation of spontaneous brillouin cooling,” Nature Phys. 8, 203–207 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, G. Bahl, and T. Carmon, “Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical brillouin cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hossein-Zadeh and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of optical spring effect in a microtoroidal optomechanical resonator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1611–1613 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, P. Del’Haye, N. Nooshi, K. J. Vahala, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Radiation pressure cooling of a micromechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243905 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verlot, P.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, “A hybrid on-chip optomechanical transducer for ultrasensitive force measurements,” Nature Nanotech. 7, 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nature Phys. 11, 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nature Phys. 5, 489–493 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weides, M.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wenner, J.

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, J. D.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson-Rae, I.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
[Crossref]

Winger, M.

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, X. Luan, and C. W. Wong, “Dynamic dissipative cooling of a mechanical resonator in strong coupling optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 153606 (2013).
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Xiao, Y.-F.

Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, X. Luan, and C. W. Wong, “Dynamic dissipative cooling of a mechanical resonator in strong coupling optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 153606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
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Yang, L.

Zehnpfennig, J.

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
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Zeilinger, A.

S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
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Zwerger, W.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
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Zwickl, B. M.

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
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J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (7)

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator,” Nature 464, 697–703 (2010).
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C. H. Metzger and K. Karrai, “Cavity cooling of a microlever,” Nature 432, 1002–1005 (2004).
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O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
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S. Gigan, H. R. Bohm, M. Paternostro, F. Blaser, G. Langer, J. B. Hertzberg, K. C. Schwab, D. Bauerle, M. As-pelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Self-cooling of a micromirror by radiation pressure,” Nature 444, 67–70 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Groblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
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J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452, 72–75 (2008).
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Nature Nanotech. (3)

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nature Nanotech. 6, 726–732 (2011).
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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, and K. W. Lehnert, “Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit,” Nature Nanotech. 4, 820–823 (2009).
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E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, “A hybrid on-chip optomechanical transducer for ultrasensitive force measurements,” Nature Nanotech. 7, 509–514 (2012).
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Nature Photon. (1)

A. G. Krause, M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer,” Nature Photon. 6, 768–772 (2012).
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Nature Phys. (4)

A. Schliesser, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nature Phys. 4, 415–419 (2008).
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Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nature Phys. 5, 489–493 (2009).
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New J. Phys. (1)

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, J. Dobrindt, T. J. Kippenberg, and W. Zwerger, “Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators,” New J. Phys. 10, 095007 (2008).
[Crossref]

New J. Physics (1)

A. M. Jayich, J. C. Sankey, B. M. Zwickl, C. Yang, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Girvin, A. A. Clerk, F. Marquardt, and J. G. E. Harris, “Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity,” New J. Physics 10, 095008 (2008).
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Opt. Express (1)

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M. Tomes, F. Marquardt, G. Bahl, and T. Carmon, “Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical brillouin cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063806 (2011).
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G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Multimode phonon cooling via three-wave parametric interactions with optical fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013815 (2013).
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Y.-C. Liu, Y.-F. Xiao, X. Luan, and C. W. Wong, “Dynamic dissipative cooling of a mechanical resonator in strong coupling optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 153606 (2013).
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T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, and C. A. Regal, “Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object,” Science 339, 801–804 (2013).
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W. P. Bowen and G. J. Milburn, Quantum Optomechanics (CRC Press, 2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Generalized modal arrangement required for dynamical back-action cooling of a (ΩB, qB) phonon mode in a resonator supporting two optical modes (ω1, k1) and (ω2, k2). Here ωL and ωAS (ωS) denote the frequencies of pump laser and the anti-Stokes (Stokes) scattered light. (b) Our experiments are performed in a whispering gallery microresonator that is optically coupled using a tapered fiber waveguide. Optomechanical cooling of an acoustic whispering gallery mode (WGM) having nonzero momentum qB ≠ 0 is achieved by means of forward Brillouin scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup used for investigating role of optical DoS in Brillouin cooling. Top-right inset shows fiber-transmission measurement of the two optical modes (ω1, k1) and (ω2, k2) during a laser sweep. (b) The normalized phonon spectrum S n ¯ ( ω ) exhibits a cooling trend with increasing the pump laser. The small shift in mechanical resonance frequency occurs due to the optical spring effect [10, 25]. Solid lines are Lorentzian fits to the data. (c) The mode temperature Teff is presented as a function of Δ2. It shows that the cooled mode temperature does not follow a symmetric Lorentzian-type curve, which is indicative that the pump optical density of states also affects the cooling.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Role of two optical DoS on optomechanical damping rate Γopt. (a) Ideally, the pump (ωL) and anti-Stokes (ωAS) detuning track together due to the fixed acoustic mode frequency. (b) Practically, thermal locking of the pump to its host optical mode causes the true anti-Stokes detuning to vary faster than the true pump detuning.   Δ 1 o is the intended detuning while Δ1 is the true detuning. (c) Equation 2 predicts that Γopt is a Lorentzian function with respect to either of the true detunings Δ1 and Δ2. (d) Thermal locking of the pump to the ω1 mode causes Δ1 to no longer track the intended detuning   Δ 1 o, resulting in a skewed cooling rate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Data points (diamonds) are the measured optomechanical damping rate Γopt a function of pump and anti-Stokes detuning Δ1 and Δ2. The 3d surface is the predicted result based on Eq. (2), using the optomechanical single-photon coupling strength g0/2π = 2.6 Hz. The inset shows the intracavity photon number n ¯ cav with respect to Δ1, as deduced from Eq. (2). (b) Dependence of η1 and (c) η2 (see text) on anti-Stokes detuning Δ2 and pump detuning Δ1, respectively. Red dashed lines are derived from Eq. (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission of a probe laser tuned the anti-Stokes optical mode (ω2, k2) is measured through the optical waveguide, while a fixed pump laser is tuned on the lower (ω1, k1) optical mode. The red line shows optical absorption without optomechanical coupling (G ≈ 0). For G ≠ 0, induced transparency appears in the (ω2, k2) mode due to destructive interference mediated by phonons [22]. Blue markers show experimental data and blue-bold line is the fit to theory. (b) The mechanical noise spectrum is measured for ΩB/2π = 164.8 MHz, for G/κ2 ≈ 0 and G/κ2 ≈ 0.362.

Equations (2)

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S I I ( ω ) = N + ( 4 κ ex | g 0 | 2 n ¯ cav κ 2 2 + 4 Δ 2 2 ) S b b ¯ ( ω )
Γ opt = 4 κ 2 | g 0 | 2 n ¯ cav κ 2 2 + 4 Δ 2 2 where n ¯ cav = 4 κ ex | α in | 2 κ 1 2 + 4 Δ 1 2

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