Abstract

Currently the AlGaN-based ultraviolet (UV) solid-state lighting research suffers from numerous challenges. In particular, low internal quantum efficiency, low extraction efficiency, inefficient doping, large polarization fields, and high dislocation density epitaxy constitute bottlenecks in realizing high power devices. Despite the clear advantage of quantum-confinement nanostructure, it has not been widely utilized in AlGaN-based nanowires. Here we utilize the self-assembled nanowires (NWs) with embedding quantum-disks (Qdisks) to mitigate these issues, and achieve UV emission of 337 nm at 32 A/cm2 (80 mA in 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 device), a turn-on voltage of ~5.5 V and droop-free behavior up to 120 A/cm2 of injection current. The device was grown on a titanium-coated n-type silicon substrate, to improve current injection and heat dissipation. A narrow linewidth of 11.7 nm in the electroluminescence spectrum and a strong wavefunctions overlap factor of 42% confirm strong quantum confinement within uniformly formed AlGaN/AlGaN Qdisks, verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nitride-based UV nanowires light-emitting diodes (NWs-LEDs) grown on low cost and scalable metal/silicon template substrate, offers a scalable, environment friendly and low cost solution for numerous applications, such as solid-state lighting, spectroscopy, medical science and security.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (9)

M. Djavid and Z. T. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. May, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, and R. C. Myers, “Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141103 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, N. Wei, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, C. Shen, and B. S. Ooi, “Facile formation of high-quality InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowires on bulk-metal substrates for high-power light-emitters,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1056–1063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Belloeil, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Quantum dot-like behavior of compositional fluctuations in AlGaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 960–966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(36), 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled coalescence of AlGaN nanowire arrays: an architecture for nearly dislocation-free planar ultraviolet photonic device applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7801–7807 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, S. D. Carnevale, F. Yang, T. F. Kent, J. J. Jamison, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Semiconductor nanowire light-emitting diodes grown on metal: a direction toward large-scale fabrication of nanowire devices,” Small 11(40), 5402–5408 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wölz, C. Hauswald, T. Flissikowski, T. Gotschke, S. Fernández-Garrido, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, L. Geelhaar, and H. Riechert, “Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires with high structural perfection on a metallic TiN film,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3743–3747 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7006–7009 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. T. Mi, S. R. Zhao, A. Connie, M. Hadi, and T. Dastjerdi, “High efficiency AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 9373, 937306 (2015).

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, J. I. Deitz, T. J. Grassman, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, B. Gayral, M. Kociak, and B. Daudin, “Probing alloy composition gradient and nanometer-scale carrier localization in single AlGaN nanowires by nanocathodoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 24(30), 305703 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, C. Selcu, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Mixed polarity in polarization-induced p-n junction nanowire light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3029–3035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 4738983 (2012).

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, S. Rajan, and R. C. Myers, “Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 915–920 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Liao, C. Thomidis, C. K. Kao, and T. D. Moustakasa, “AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with high internal quantum efficiency grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. C. Yung, H. Liem, H. S. Choy, and W. K. Lun, “Degradation mechanism beyond device self-heating in high power light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 094509 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

O. Landre, D. Camacho, C. Bougerol, Y. M. Niquet, V. Favre-Nicolin, G. Renaud, H. Renevier, and B. Daudin, “Elastic strain relaxation in GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Knelangen, V. Consonni, A. Trampert, and H. Riechert, “In situ analysis of strain relaxation during catalyst-free nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 21(24), 245705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Renard, R. Songmuang, G. Tourbot, C. Bougerol, B. Daudin, and B. Gayral, “Evidence for quantum-confined Stark effect in GaN/AlN quantum dots in nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121305 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kato, J. Tanaka, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Ultraviolet GaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on n-(111) Si substrates by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1067–1069 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. Inoue, K. Okamoto, T. Nakano, J. Ohta, and H. Fujioka, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Rh ultraviolet mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131910 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Calarco, R. J. Meijers, R. K. Debnath, T. Stoica, E. Sutter, and H. Lüth, “Nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) performed by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2248–2251 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “nextnano: General purpose 3-D simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Li, J. Xiang, F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Wu, H. Yan, D. A. Blom, C. M. Lieber, and C. M. Lieber, “Dopant-free GaN/AlN/AlGaN radial nanowire heterostructures as high electron mobility transistors,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1468–1473 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 353–364 (2000).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Park, “Crystal orientation effects on electronic properties of wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells with spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 6A), 3478–3482 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

O. Ambacher, “Growth and applications of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(20), 2653–2710 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. A. Darhuber, T. Grill, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, D. J. Lockwood, J. P. Noel, P. D. Wang, and C. M. S. Torres, “Elastic relaxation of dry-etched Si/SiGe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), 4825–4831 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, M. Mori, N. Fujita, and K. Kishino, “Growth of self-organized GaN nanostructures on Al2O3(0001) by RF-radical source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(36), L459–L462 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Yao, J. A. Woollam, and S. A. Alterovitz, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 3324–3326 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ajia, I. A.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alatawi, A. A.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alhamoud, A. A.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alias, M. S.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, N. Wei, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, C. Shen, and B. S. Ooi, “Facile formation of high-quality InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowires on bulk-metal substrates for high-power light-emitters,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1056–1063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alterovitz, S. A.

H. Yao, J. A. Woollam, and S. A. Alterovitz, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 3324–3326 (1993).
[Crossref]

Alyamani, A. Y.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, “Growth and applications of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(20), 2653–2710 (1998).
[Crossref]

Andlauer, T.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “nextnano: General purpose 3-D simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M. P.

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

Anjum, D. H.

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, G.

A. A. Darhuber, T. Grill, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, D. J. Lockwood, J. P. Noel, P. D. Wang, and C. M. S. Torres, “Elastic relaxation of dry-etched Si/SiGe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), 4825–4831 (1998).
[Crossref]

Belloeil, M.

M. Belloeil, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Quantum dot-like behavior of compositional fluctuations in AlGaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 960–966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Birner, S.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “nextnano: General purpose 3-D simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blom, D. A.

Y. Li, J. Xiang, F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Wu, H. Yan, D. A. Blom, C. M. Lieber, and C. M. Lieber, “Dopant-free GaN/AlN/AlGaN radial nanowire heterostructures as high electron mobility transistors,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1468–1473 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botton, G. A.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(36), 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled coalescence of AlGaN nanowire arrays: an architecture for nearly dislocation-free planar ultraviolet photonic device applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7801–7807 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bougerol, C.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, B. Gayral, M. Kociak, and B. Daudin, “Probing alloy composition gradient and nanometer-scale carrier localization in single AlGaN nanowires by nanocathodoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 24(30), 305703 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Landre, D. Camacho, C. Bougerol, Y. M. Niquet, V. Favre-Nicolin, G. Renaud, H. Renevier, and B. Daudin, “Elastic strain relaxation in GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Renard, R. Songmuang, G. Tourbot, C. Bougerol, B. Daudin, and B. Gayral, “Evidence for quantum-confined Stark effect in GaN/AlN quantum dots in nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

M. Wölz, C. Hauswald, T. Flissikowski, T. Gotschke, S. Fernández-Garrido, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, L. Geelhaar, and H. Riechert, “Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires with high structural perfection on a metallic TiN film,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3743–3747 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bugnet, M.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(36), 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7801–7807 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calarco, R.

R. Calarco, R. J. Meijers, R. K. Debnath, T. Stoica, E. Sutter, and H. Lüth, “Nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) performed by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2248–2251 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho, D.

O. Landre, D. Camacho, C. Bougerol, Y. M. Niquet, V. Favre-Nicolin, G. Renaud, H. Renevier, and B. Daudin, “Elastic strain relaxation in GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carnevale, S. D.

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, S. D. Carnevale, F. Yang, T. F. Kent, J. J. Jamison, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Semiconductor nanowire light-emitting diodes grown on metal: a direction toward large-scale fabrication of nanowire devices,” Small 11(40), 5402–5408 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, C. Selcu, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Mixed polarity in polarization-induced p-n junction nanowire light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3029–3035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, S. Rajan, and R. C. Myers, “Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 915–920 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chisholm, M. F.

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, H. S.

K. C. Yung, H. Liem, H. S. Choy, and W. K. Lun, “Degradation mechanism beyond device self-heating in high power light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 094509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.-L.

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 353–364 (2000).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
[Crossref]

Connie, A.

Z. T. Mi, S. R. Zhao, A. Connie, M. Hadi, and T. Dastjerdi, “High efficiency AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 9373, 937306 (2015).

Connie, A. T.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Consiglio, G. B.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

Consonni, V.

M. Knelangen, V. Consonni, A. Trampert, and H. Riechert, “In situ analysis of strain relaxation during catalyst-free nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 21(24), 245705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, K.

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 4738983 (2012).

Darhuber, A. A.

A. A. Darhuber, T. Grill, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, D. J. Lockwood, J. P. Noel, P. D. Wang, and C. M. S. Torres, “Elastic relaxation of dry-etched Si/SiGe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), 4825–4831 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dastjerdi, M. H. T.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dastjerdi, T.

Z. T. Mi, S. R. Zhao, A. Connie, M. Hadi, and T. Dastjerdi, “High efficiency AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 9373, 937306 (2015).

Daudin, B.

M. Belloeil, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Quantum dot-like behavior of compositional fluctuations in AlGaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 960–966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, B. Gayral, M. Kociak, and B. Daudin, “Probing alloy composition gradient and nanometer-scale carrier localization in single AlGaN nanowires by nanocathodoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 24(30), 305703 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Landre, D. Camacho, C. Bougerol, Y. M. Niquet, V. Favre-Nicolin, G. Renaud, H. Renevier, and B. Daudin, “Elastic strain relaxation in GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Renard, R. Songmuang, G. Tourbot, C. Bougerol, B. Daudin, and B. Gayral, “Evidence for quantum-confined Stark effect in GaN/AlN quantum dots in nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Debnath, R. K.

R. Calarco, R. J. Meijers, R. K. Debnath, T. Stoica, E. Sutter, and H. Lüth, “Nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) performed by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2248–2251 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deitz, J. I.

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, J. I. Deitz, T. J. Grassman, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Djavid, M.

M. Djavid and Z. T. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(36), 364006 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7006–7009 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, X. Z.

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

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Y. Li, J. Xiang, F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Wu, H. Yan, D. A. Blom, C. M. Lieber, and C. M. Lieber, “Dopant-free GaN/AlN/AlGaN radial nanowire heterostructures as high electron mobility transistors,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1468–1473 (2006).
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Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

Liu, X.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(36), 364006 (2016).
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S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7801–7807 (2015).
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K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
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S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
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S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
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Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, H. Guo, Z. Liu, and G. A. Botton, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(36), 364006 (2016).
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A. A. Darhuber, T. Grill, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, D. J. Lockwood, J. P. Noel, P. D. Wang, and C. M. S. Torres, “Elastic relaxation of dry-etched Si/SiGe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), 4825–4831 (1998).
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K. C. Yung, H. Liem, H. S. Choy, and W. K. Lun, “Degradation mechanism beyond device self-heating in high power light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 094509 (2011).
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M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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B. J. May, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, and R. C. Myers, “Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141103 (2016).
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A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
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A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, J. I. Deitz, T. J. Grassman, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101103 (2015).
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McComb, D. W.

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, J. I. Deitz, T. J. Grassman, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101103 (2015).
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A. T. M. G. Sarwar, S. D. Carnevale, F. Yang, T. F. Kent, J. J. Jamison, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Semiconductor nanowire light-emitting diodes grown on metal: a direction toward large-scale fabrication of nanowire devices,” Small 11(40), 5402–5408 (2015).
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R. Calarco, R. J. Meijers, R. K. Debnath, T. Stoica, E. Sutter, and H. Lüth, “Nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) performed by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2248–2251 (2007).
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B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled coalescence of AlGaN nanowire arrays: an architecture for nearly dislocation-free planar ultraviolet photonic device applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
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S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7006–7009 (2015).
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S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7801–7807 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
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Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 4738983 (2012).

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B. J. May, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, and R. C. Myers, “Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141103 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, S. D. Carnevale, F. Yang, T. F. Kent, J. J. Jamison, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Semiconductor nanowire light-emitting diodes grown on metal: a direction toward large-scale fabrication of nanowire devices,” Small 11(40), 5402–5408 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. M. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, J. I. Deitz, T. J. Grassman, D. W. McComb, and R. C. Myers, “Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101103 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, C. Selcu, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Mixed polarity in polarization-induced p-n junction nanowire light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3029–3035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, S. Rajan, and R. C. Myers, “Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 915–920 (2012).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 4738983 (2012).

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O. Landre, D. Camacho, C. Bougerol, Y. M. Niquet, V. Favre-Nicolin, G. Renaud, H. Renevier, and B. Daudin, “Elastic strain relaxation in GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 153306 (2010).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, N. Wei, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, C. Shen, and B. S. Ooi, “Facile formation of high-quality InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowires on bulk-metal substrates for high-power light-emitters,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1056–1063 (2016).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, A. T. M. G. Sarwar, C. Selcu, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Mixed polarity in polarization-induced p-n junction nanowire light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3029–3035 (2013).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-Free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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O. Landre, D. Camacho, C. Bougerol, Y. M. Niquet, V. Favre-Nicolin, G. Renaud, H. Renevier, and B. Daudin, “Elastic strain relaxation in GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 153306 (2010).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, N. Wei, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, C. Shen, and B. S. Ooi, “Facile formation of high-quality InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowires on bulk-metal substrates for high-power light-emitters,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1056–1063 (2016).
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Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, N. Wei, A. Prabaswara, M. S. Alias, B. Janjua, C. Shen, and B. S. Ooi, “Facile formation of high-quality InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowires on bulk-metal substrates for high-power light-emitters,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1056–1063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled coalescence of AlGaN nanowire arrays: an architecture for nearly dislocation-free planar ultraviolet photonic device applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7801–7807 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, I. Shih, Z. Mi, T. Gonzalez, M. P. Andrews, X. Z. Du, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical properties of strain-free AlN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 4881558 (2014).

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. R.

Z. T. Mi, S. R. Zhao, A. Connie, M. Hadi, and T. Dastjerdi, “High efficiency AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 9373, 937306 (2015).

Zibold, T.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, and P. Vogl, “nextnano: General purpose 3-D simulations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, C. Zhao, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, D. Priante, C. Shen, R. T. ElAfandy, D. H. Anjum, A. A. Alhamoud, A. A. Alatawi, Y. Yang, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “True yellow light-emitting diodes as phosphor for tunable color-rendering index laser-based white light,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2089–2095 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled coalescence of AlGaN nanowire arrays: an architecture for nearly dislocation-free planar ultraviolet photonic device applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structural characterization of the NWs. (a) Cross section SEM image shows vertically aligned NWs. (b) Top view SEM image of the device grown on Ti/Si substrate shows tightly packed NWs. (c) High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) of AlGaN nanowire showing the n-type AlGaN layer, AlGaN/AlGaN QDisks, p-type AlGaN, and p-GaN layer. (d) Active region is showing 10 pairs of uniform Qdisks formation. (d) Zoomed-in image of the Qdisks show compositional variation across the Qdisks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 3D depiction of the UV NWs LED grown on Ti/Si template substrate. (b) RTPL spectrum, with peak intensity at 303 nm and 335 nm emitted from the barrier and quantum disk using 266 nm as the excitation source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Band diagram, under forward bias of 3.5V. (b) Wave function profiles corresponding to electron and holes, in the active region. (c) Polarization-induced fixed charges. (d) Recombination rates including Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), Auger and direct recombination in the active region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Current-voltage characteristics along with the measured relative optical power output. Reverse bias characteristics as an inset. (b) Relative EQE of the device with no apparent rollover up to 120 A/cm2 with inset showing probed devices and its 3D depiction. (c) EL spectrum of nanowire device with changing current bias from 0 to 32 A/cm2 showing an emission at 337 nm at 80 mA with inset showing negligible EL intensity around 400 nm at higher bias. (d) Peak shift and change in FWHM of EL spectrum with increase in bias current.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The reported UV NWs devices work with different emission wavelength and their respective onset voltages.

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