Abstract

Scintillator-based X-ray imaging is a powerful technique for noninvasive real-space microscopic structural investigation such as synchrotron-based computed tomography. The resolution of an optical image formed by scintillation emission is fundamentally diffraction limited. To overcome this limit, stimulated scintillation emission depletion (SSED) X-ray imaging, based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, has been recently developed. This technique imposes new requirements on the scintillator material: efficient de-excitation by the STED-laser and negligible STED-laser excited luminescence. In this work, luminescence depletion was measured in several commonly-used Ce3+, Tb3+, and Eu3+ - doped scintillators using various STED lasers. The depletion of Tb3+ and Eu3+ via 4f-4f transitions was more efficient (Ps = 8…19 mW) than Ce3+ depletion via 5d-4f transitions (Ps = 43…45 mW). Main origins of STED-laser excited luminescence were one- and two-photon excitation, and scintillator impurities. LSO:Tb scintillator and a 628 nm cw STED-laser is the most promising combination for SSED satisfying the above-mentioned requirements.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

A. N. Butkevich, G. Y. Mitronova, S. C. Sidenstein, J. L. Klocke, D. Kamin, D. N. H. Meineke, E. D’Este, P.-T. Kraemer, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent rhodamines and fluorogenic carbopyronines for super-resolution STED microscopy in living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(10), 3290–3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

J. Hanne, H. J. Falk, F. Görlitz, P. Hoyer, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, and S. W. Hell, “STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Vasil’ev, D. A. Spassky, V. V. Voronov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Khakhalin, N. V. Vasil’eva, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “Effect of Al and Ce ion concentrations on the optical absorption and luminescence in Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce3+ epitaxial films,” Inorg. Mater. 51(10), 1008–1016 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D trends in inorganic single-crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(4), 463–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. K. Sharma, S. Som, R. Jain, and A. K. Kunti, “Spectral and CIE parameters of red emitting Gd3Ga5O12:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Lumin. 159, 317–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, X. Wen, B. Wang, and S. He, “Optical depletion mechanism of upconverting luminescence and its potential for multi-photon STED-like microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32401–32412 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P. A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, D. Grigorievc, T. Baumbach, and M. Fiederle, “Investigation of the luminescence, crystallographic and spatial resolution properties of LSO:Tb scintillating layers used for X-ray imaging applications,” Radiat. Meas. 62, 28–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Z. Marton, H. B. Bhandari, C. Brecher, S. R. Miller, B. Singh, and V. V. Nagarkar, “High efficiency microcolumnar Lu2O3:Eu scintillator thin film for hard X-ray microtomography,” JPCS 425, 062016 (2013).

P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. P. Feofilov, A. B. Kulinkin, T. Gacoin, G. Mialon, G. Dantelle, R. S. Meltzer, and C. Dujardin, “Mechanisms for Ce3+ excitation at energies below the zero-phonon line in YAG crystals and nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(11), 3082–3088 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ogiegło, A. Zych, K. V. Ivanovskikh, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Luminescence and energy transfer in Lu3Al5O12 scintillators co-doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(33), 8464–8474 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Zorenko, M. Nikl, V. Gorbenko, V. Savchyn, T. Voznyak, R. Kucerkova, O. Sidletskiy, B. Grynyov, and A. Fedorov, “Growth and luminescent properties of Lu2SiO5 and Lu2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 846–852 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Rhee, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, S. N. Bagayev, H. Yagi, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, and J. Dong, “Stimulated Raman scattering in “garnet” Lu3Al5O12 ceramics – a novel host-materiel for Ln- and TM-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(6), 458–464 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Kolesov, R. Reuter, K. Xia, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, and J. Wrachtrup, “Super-resolution upconversion microscopy of praseodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153413 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

P. C. Ricci, M. Salis, R. Corpino, C. M. Carbonaro, E. Fortin, and A. Anedda, “A kinetics model for Tb3+ recombinations in low doped Tb:Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043512 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. V. Khodyuk, J. T. M. de Haas, and P. Dorenbos, “Nonproportional response between 0.1-100 keV energy by means of highly monochromatic synchrotron X-Rays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1175–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, T. Martin, V. Chevalier, M. Couchaud, T. Baumbach, K. Dupré, M. Kühbacher, and A. Rack, “A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 571–583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dorenbos, “Fundamental Limitations in the Performance of Ce3+ -, Pr3+ -, and Eu2+ - Activated Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1162–1167 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Scintillation properties of LuAG:Ce, YAG:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals for gamma-ray detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3800–3805 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Martin, P. A. Douissard, M. Couchaud, A. Cecilia, T. Baumbach, K. Dupre, and A. Rack, “LSO-based single crystal film scintillator for synchrotron-based hard X-ray micro-imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 1412–1418 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy with continuous wave beams,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 915–918 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tatsuya and O. Yasutake, “Amplification and lasing characteristics of Tb 3+ -doped fluoride fiber in the 0.54 µm band,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(41), L991–L993 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Rittweger, B. R. Rankin, V. Westphal, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence depletion mechanisms in super-resolving STED microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 483–487 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. K. Sardar, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, U. V. Valiev, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of Tb3+(4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083108 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Martin and A. Koch, “Recent developments in X-ray imaging with micrometer spatial resolution,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(2), 180–194 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. S. Peijzel, A. Meijerink, R. T. Wegh, M. F. Reid, and G. W. Burdick, “A complete 4fn energy level diagram for all trivalent lanthanide ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(2), 448–453 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Kastrup and S. W. Hell, “Absolute optical cross section of individual fluorescent molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(48), 6646–6649 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, I. Konstankevych, B. Grinev, and M. Globus, “Scintillation properties of Lu3Al5O12:Ce single-crystalline films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486(1-2), 309–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

P. Rambaldi, R. Moncorgé, J. P. Wolf, C. Pédrini, and J. Y. Gesland, “Efficient and stable pulsed laser operation of Ce:LiLuF4 around 308 nm,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 163–166 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Koch, C. Raven, P. Spanne, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray imaging with submicrometer resolution employing transparent luminescent screens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(7), 1940–1951 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “Light emission mechanism of Lu2(SiO4)O:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40(4), 380–383 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Brenier, A. Suchocki, C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and C. Madej, “Spectroscopy of Mn4+-doped Ca-substituted gadolinium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(6), 3219–3227 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. Amaranath, S. Buddhudu, and F. J. Bryant, “Spectroscopic properties of Tb3+-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 66–73 (1990).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

Alekhin, M. S.

Amaranath, G.

G. Amaranath, S. Buddhudu, and F. J. Bryant, “Spectroscopic properties of Tb3+-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 66–73 (1990).
[Crossref]

Andersson-Engels, S.

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anedda, A.

P. C. Ricci, M. Salis, R. Corpino, C. M. Carbonaro, E. Fortin, and A. Anedda, “A kinetics model for Tb3+ recombinations in low doped Tb:Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bagaev, S. N.

P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
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T. Martin and A. Koch, “Recent developments in X-ray imaging with micrometer spatial resolution,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(2), 180–194 (2006).
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A. Koch, C. Raven, P. Spanne, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray imaging with submicrometer resolution employing transparent luminescent screens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(7), 1940–1951 (1998).
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D. K. Sardar, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, U. V. Valiev, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of Tb3+(4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083108 (2006).
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R. Kolesov, R. Reuter, K. Xia, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, and J. Wrachtrup, “Super-resolution upconversion microscopy of praseodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153413 (2011).
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Koschan, M.

Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
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Kraemer, P.-T.

A. N. Butkevich, G. Y. Mitronova, S. C. Sidenstein, J. L. Klocke, D. Kamin, D. N. H. Meineke, E. D’Este, P.-T. Kraemer, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent rhodamines and fluorogenic carbopyronines for super-resolution STED microscopy in living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(10), 3290–3294 (2016).
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Krause, B.

A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P. A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, D. Grigorievc, T. Baumbach, and M. Fiederle, “Investigation of the luminescence, crystallographic and spatial resolution properties of LSO:Tb scintillating layers used for X-ray imaging applications,” Radiat. Meas. 62, 28–34 (2014).
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Kucerkova, R.

Y. Zorenko, M. Nikl, V. Gorbenko, V. Savchyn, T. Voznyak, R. Kucerkova, O. Sidletskiy, B. Grynyov, and A. Fedorov, “Growth and luminescent properties of Lu2SiO5 and Lu2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 846–852 (2011).
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Kühbacher, M.

P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, T. Martin, V. Chevalier, M. Couchaud, T. Baumbach, K. Dupré, M. Kühbacher, and A. Rack, “A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 571–583 (2010).
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P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
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Kulinkin, A. B.

S. P. Feofilov, A. B. Kulinkin, T. Gacoin, G. Mialon, G. Dantelle, R. S. Meltzer, and C. Dujardin, “Mechanisms for Ce3+ excitation at energies below the zero-phonon line in YAG crystals and nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(11), 3082–3088 (2012).
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S. K. Sharma, S. Som, R. Jain, and A. K. Kunti, “Spectral and CIE parameters of red emitting Gd3Ga5O12:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Lumin. 159, 317–324 (2015).
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Limsuwan, P.

W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Scintillation properties of LuAG:Ce, YAG:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals for gamma-ray detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3800–3805 (2009).
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Liu, H.

R. Wu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, X. Wen, B. Wang, and S. He, “Optical depletion mechanism of upconverting luminescence and its potential for multi-photon STED-like microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32401–32412 (2015).
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C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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Loiko, P. A.

P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
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Luo, Z.

Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
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Lux, O.

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Rhee, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, S. N. Bagayev, H. Yagi, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, and J. Dong, “Stimulated Raman scattering in “garnet” Lu3Al5O12 ceramics – a novel host-materiel for Ln- and TM-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(6), 458–464 (2011).
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Madej, C.

A. Brenier, A. Suchocki, C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and C. Madej, “Spectroscopy of Mn4+-doped Ca-substituted gadolinium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(6), 3219–3227 (1992).
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Marshall, C. D.

Martin, T.

A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P. A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, D. Grigorievc, T. Baumbach, and M. Fiederle, “Investigation of the luminescence, crystallographic and spatial resolution properties of LSO:Tb scintillating layers used for X-ray imaging applications,” Radiat. Meas. 62, 28–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, T. Martin, V. Chevalier, M. Couchaud, T. Baumbach, K. Dupré, M. Kühbacher, and A. Rack, “A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 571–583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Martin, P. A. Douissard, M. Couchaud, A. Cecilia, T. Baumbach, K. Dupre, and A. Rack, “LSO-based single crystal film scintillator for synchrotron-based hard X-ray micro-imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 1412–1418 (2009).
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T. Martin and A. Koch, “Recent developments in X-ray imaging with micrometer spatial resolution,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(2), 180–194 (2006).
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Marton, Z.

Z. Marton, H. B. Bhandari, C. Brecher, S. R. Miller, B. Singh, and V. V. Nagarkar, “High efficiency microcolumnar Lu2O3:Eu scintillator thin film for hard X-ray microtomography,” JPCS 425, 062016 (2013).

Medda, R.

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy with continuous wave beams,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 915–918 (2007).
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J. M. Ogiegło, A. Zych, K. V. Ivanovskikh, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Luminescence and energy transfer in Lu3Al5O12 scintillators co-doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(33), 8464–8474 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Peijzel, A. Meijerink, R. T. Wegh, M. F. Reid, and G. W. Burdick, “A complete 4fn energy level diagram for all trivalent lanthanide ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(2), 448–453 (2005).
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Meineke, D. N. H.

A. N. Butkevich, G. Y. Mitronova, S. C. Sidenstein, J. L. Klocke, D. Kamin, D. N. H. Meineke, E. D’Este, P.-T. Kraemer, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent rhodamines and fluorogenic carbopyronines for super-resolution STED microscopy in living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(10), 3290–3294 (2016).
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Melcher, C. L.

Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
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H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “Light emission mechanism of Lu2(SiO4)O:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40(4), 380–383 (1993).
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Meltzer, R. S.

S. P. Feofilov, A. B. Kulinkin, T. Gacoin, G. Mialon, G. Dantelle, R. S. Meltzer, and C. Dujardin, “Mechanisms for Ce3+ excitation at energies below the zero-phonon line in YAG crystals and nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(11), 3082–3088 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meng, F.

Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
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Mialon, G.

S. P. Feofilov, A. B. Kulinkin, T. Gacoin, G. Mialon, G. Dantelle, R. S. Meltzer, and C. Dujardin, “Mechanisms for Ce3+ excitation at energies below the zero-phonon line in YAG crystals and nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(11), 3082–3088 (2012).
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Mihokova, E.

A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P. A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, D. Grigorievc, T. Baumbach, and M. Fiederle, “Investigation of the luminescence, crystallographic and spatial resolution properties of LSO:Tb scintillating layers used for X-ray imaging applications,” Radiat. Meas. 62, 28–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, S. R.

Z. Marton, H. B. Bhandari, C. Brecher, S. R. Miller, B. Singh, and V. V. Nagarkar, “High efficiency microcolumnar Lu2O3:Eu scintillator thin film for hard X-ray microtomography,” JPCS 425, 062016 (2013).

Mitronova, G. Y.

A. N. Butkevich, G. Y. Mitronova, S. C. Sidenstein, J. L. Klocke, D. Kamin, D. N. H. Meineke, E. D’Este, P.-T. Kraemer, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent rhodamines and fluorogenic carbopyronines for super-resolution STED microscopy in living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(10), 3290–3294 (2016).
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Moncorgé, R.

P. Rambaldi, R. Moncorgé, J. P. Wolf, C. Pédrini, and J. Y. Gesland, “Efficient and stable pulsed laser operation of Ce:LiLuF4 around 308 nm,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 163–166 (1998).
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Moszynski, M.

W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Scintillation properties of LuAG:Ce, YAG:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals for gamma-ray detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3800–3805 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P. F.

Nagarkar, V. V.

Z. Marton, H. B. Bhandari, C. Brecher, S. R. Miller, B. Singh, and V. V. Nagarkar, “High efficiency microcolumnar Lu2O3:Eu scintillator thin film for hard X-ray microtomography,” JPCS 425, 062016 (2013).

Nann, T.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nash, K. L.

D. K. Sardar, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, U. V. Valiev, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of Tb3+(4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083108 (2006).
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Nikl, M.

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D trends in inorganic single-crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(4), 463–481 (2015).
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A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P. A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, D. Grigorievc, T. Baumbach, and M. Fiederle, “Investigation of the luminescence, crystallographic and spatial resolution properties of LSO:Tb scintillating layers used for X-ray imaging applications,” Radiat. Meas. 62, 28–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zorenko, M. Nikl, V. Gorbenko, V. Savchyn, T. Voznyak, R. Kucerkova, O. Sidletskiy, B. Grynyov, and A. Fedorov, “Growth and luminescent properties of Lu2SiO5 and Lu2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 846–852 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nitschke, R.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

Ogieglo, J. M.

J. M. Ogiegło, A. Zych, K. V. Ivanovskikh, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Luminescence and energy transfer in Lu3Al5O12 scintillators co-doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(33), 8464–8474 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlovich, V. A.

P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Patton, G.

Pavlyuk, A. A.

P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
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Payne, S. A.

Pedrini, C.

A. Brenier, A. Suchocki, C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and C. Madej, “Spectroscopy of Mn4+-doped Ca-substituted gadolinium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(6), 3219–3227 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pédrini, C.

P. Rambaldi, R. Moncorgé, J. P. Wolf, C. Pédrini, and J. Y. Gesland, “Efficient and stable pulsed laser operation of Ce:LiLuF4 around 308 nm,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 163–166 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peijzel, P. S.

P. S. Peijzel, A. Meijerink, R. T. Wegh, M. F. Reid, and G. W. Burdick, “A complete 4fn energy level diagram for all trivalent lanthanide ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(2), 448–453 (2005).
[Crossref]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

D. A. Vasil’ev, D. A. Spassky, V. V. Voronov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Khakhalin, N. V. Vasil’eva, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “Effect of Al and Ce ion concentrations on the optical absorption and luminescence in Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce3+ epitaxial films,” Inorg. Mater. 51(10), 1008–1016 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, J.

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quarles, G. J.

Rack, A.

A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P. A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, D. Grigorievc, T. Baumbach, and M. Fiederle, “Investigation of the luminescence, crystallographic and spatial resolution properties of LSO:Tb scintillating layers used for X-ray imaging applications,” Radiat. Meas. 62, 28–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, T. Martin, V. Chevalier, M. Couchaud, T. Baumbach, K. Dupré, M. Kühbacher, and A. Rack, “A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 571–583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Martin, P. A. Douissard, M. Couchaud, A. Cecilia, T. Baumbach, K. Dupre, and A. Rack, “LSO-based single crystal film scintillator for synchrotron-based hard X-ray micro-imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 1412–1418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rambaldi, P.

P. Rambaldi, R. Moncorgé, J. P. Wolf, C. Pédrini, and J. Y. Gesland, “Efficient and stable pulsed laser operation of Ce:LiLuF4 around 308 nm,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 163–166 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rankin, B. R.

E. Rittweger, B. R. Rankin, V. Westphal, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence depletion mechanisms in super-resolving STED microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 483–487 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raven, C.

Reid, M. F.

P. S. Peijzel, A. Meijerink, R. T. Wegh, M. F. Reid, and G. W. Burdick, “A complete 4fn energy level diagram for all trivalent lanthanide ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(2), 448–453 (2005).
[Crossref]

Resch-Genger, U.

U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5(9), 763–775 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reuter, R.

R. Kolesov, R. Reuter, K. Xia, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, and J. Wrachtrup, “Super-resolution upconversion microscopy of praseodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153413 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rhee, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Rhee, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, S. N. Bagayev, H. Yagi, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, and J. Dong, “Stimulated Raman scattering in “garnet” Lu3Al5O12 ceramics – a novel host-materiel for Ln- and TM-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(6), 458–464 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ricci, P. C.

P. C. Ricci, M. Salis, R. Corpino, C. M. Carbonaro, E. Fortin, and A. Anedda, “A kinetics model for Tb3+ recombinations in low doped Tb:Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, B. R. Rankin, V. Westphal, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence depletion mechanisms in super-resolving STED microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 483–487 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ronda, C. R.

J. M. Ogiegło, A. Zych, K. V. Ivanovskikh, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Luminescence and energy transfer in Lu3Al5O12 scintillators co-doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(33), 8464–8474 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahl, S. J.

J. Hanne, H. J. Falk, F. Görlitz, P. Hoyer, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, and S. W. Hell, “STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7127 (2015).
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Salis, M.

P. C. Ricci, M. Salis, R. Corpino, C. M. Carbonaro, E. Fortin, and A. Anedda, “A kinetics model for Tb3+ recombinations in low doped Tb:Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, U. V. Valiev, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of Tb3+(4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Savchyn, V.

Y. Zorenko, M. Nikl, V. Gorbenko, V. Savchyn, T. Voznyak, R. Kucerkova, O. Sidletskiy, B. Grynyov, and A. Fedorov, “Growth and luminescent properties of Lu2SiO5 and Lu2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 846–852 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schweitzer, J. S.

H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “Light emission mechanism of Lu2(SiO4)O:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40(4), 380–383 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

S. K. Sharma, S. Som, R. Jain, and A. K. Kunti, “Spectral and CIE parameters of red emitting Gd3Ga5O12:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Lumin. 159, 317–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. A. Kaminskii, H. Rhee, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, S. N. Bagayev, H. Yagi, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, and J. Dong, “Stimulated Raman scattering in “garnet” Lu3Al5O12 ceramics – a novel host-materiel for Ln- and TM-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(6), 458–464 (2011).
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Snigirev, A.

Sokolov, V. O.

D. A. Vasil’ev, D. A. Spassky, V. V. Voronov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Khakhalin, N. V. Vasil’eva, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “Effect of Al and Ce ion concentrations on the optical absorption and luminescence in Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce3+ epitaxial films,” Inorg. Mater. 51(10), 1008–1016 (2015).
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S. K. Sharma, S. Som, R. Jain, and A. K. Kunti, “Spectral and CIE parameters of red emitting Gd3Ga5O12:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Lumin. 159, 317–324 (2015).
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C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Scintillation properties of LuAG:Ce, YAG:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals for gamma-ray detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3800–3805 (2009).
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H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “Light emission mechanism of Lu2(SiO4)O:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40(4), 380–383 (1993).
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Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
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R. Kolesov, R. Reuter, K. Xia, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, and J. Wrachtrup, “Super-resolution upconversion microscopy of praseodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153413 (2011).
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C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
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L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
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L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
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Y. Tatsuya and O. Yasutake, “Amplification and lasing characteristics of Tb 3+ -doped fluoride fiber in the 0.54 µm band,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(41), L991–L993 (2007).
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M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D trends in inorganic single-crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(4), 463–481 (2015).
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D. K. Sardar, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, U. V. Valiev, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of Tb3+(4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083108 (2006).
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P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
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R. Kolesov, R. Reuter, K. Xia, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, and J. Wrachtrup, “Super-resolution upconversion microscopy of praseodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153413 (2011).
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R. Wu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, X. Wen, B. Wang, and S. He, “Optical depletion mechanism of upconverting luminescence and its potential for multi-photon STED-like microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32401–32412 (2015).
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C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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Zhao, G.

L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
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Zheng, L.

L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
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Y. Zorenko, M. Nikl, V. Gorbenko, V. Savchyn, T. Voznyak, R. Kucerkova, O. Sidletskiy, B. Grynyov, and A. Fedorov, “Growth and luminescent properties of Lu2SiO5 and Lu2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 846–852 (2011).
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Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, I. Konstankevych, B. Grinev, and M. Globus, “Scintillation properties of Lu3Al5O12:Ce single-crystalline films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486(1-2), 309–314 (2002).
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J. M. Ogiegło, A. Zych, K. V. Ivanovskikh, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Luminescence and energy transfer in Lu3Al5O12 scintillators co-doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(33), 8464–8474 (2012).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D trends in inorganic single-crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(4), 463–481 (2015).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (2)

L. Kastrup and S. W. Hell, “Absolute optical cross section of individual fluorescent molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(48), 6646–6649 (2004).
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A. N. Butkevich, G. Y. Mitronova, S. C. Sidenstein, J. L. Klocke, D. Kamin, D. N. H. Meineke, E. D’Este, P.-T. Kraemer, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent rhodamines and fluorogenic carbopyronines for super-resolution STED microscopy in living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(10), 3290–3294 (2016).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Rittweger, B. R. Rankin, V. Westphal, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence depletion mechanisms in super-resolving STED microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 483–487 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (5)

T. Martin, P. A. Douissard, M. Couchaud, A. Cecilia, T. Baumbach, K. Dupre, and A. Rack, “LSO-based single crystal film scintillator for synchrotron-based hard X-ray micro-imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 1412–1418 (2009).
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W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Scintillation properties of LuAG:Ce, YAG:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals for gamma-ray detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3800–3805 (2009).
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H. Suzuki, T. A. Tombrello, C. L. Melcher, and J. S. Schweitzer, “Light emission mechanism of Lu2(SiO4)O:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40(4), 380–383 (1993).
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Inorg. Mater. (1)

D. A. Vasil’ev, D. A. Spassky, V. V. Voronov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Khakhalin, N. V. Vasil’eva, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “Effect of Al and Ce ion concentrations on the optical absorption and luminescence in Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce3+ epitaxial films,” Inorg. Mater. 51(10), 1008–1016 (2015).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. K. Sardar, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, U. V. Valiev, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Absorption intensities and emission cross sections of Tb3+(4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083108 (2006).
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J. Lumin. (2)

S. K. Sharma, S. Som, R. Jain, and A. K. Kunti, “Spectral and CIE parameters of red emitting Gd3Ga5O12:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Lumin. 159, 317–324 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. M. Ogiegło, A. Zych, K. V. Ivanovskikh, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Luminescence and energy transfer in Lu3Al5O12 scintillators co-doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(33), 8464–8474 (2012).
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J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

L. Zheng, G. Zhao, C. Yan, X. Xu, L. Su, Y. Dong, and J. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of pure and ytterbium-doped rare earth silicate crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(11), 1421–1428 (2007).
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J. Solid State Chem. (1)

P. S. Peijzel, A. Meijerink, R. T. Wegh, M. F. Reid, and G. W. Burdick, “A complete 4fn energy level diagram for all trivalent lanthanide ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(2), 448–453 (2005).
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J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

T. Martin and A. Koch, “Recent developments in X-ray imaging with micrometer spatial resolution,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13(2), 180–194 (2006).
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P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, T. Martin, V. Chevalier, M. Couchaud, T. Baumbach, K. Dupré, M. Kühbacher, and A. Rack, “A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 571–583 (2010).
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JPCS (1)

Z. Marton, H. B. Bhandari, C. Brecher, S. R. Miller, B. Singh, and V. V. Nagarkar, “High efficiency microcolumnar Lu2O3:Eu scintillator thin film for hard X-ray microtomography,” JPCS 425, 062016 (2013).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Tatsuya and O. Yasutake, “Amplification and lasing characteristics of Tb 3+ -doped fluoride fiber in the 0.54 µm band,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(41), L991–L993 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

C. T. Xu, Q. Zhan, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, J. Qian, S. He, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 663–697 (2013).
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Laser Phys. (1)

P. A. Loiko, V. I. Dashkevich, S. N. Bagaev, V. A. Orlovich, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Kornienko, S. M. Vatnik, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Spectroscopic characterization and pulsed laser operation of Eu 3+:KGd(WO 4) 2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105811 (2013).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Rhee, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, S. N. Bagayev, H. Yagi, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, and J. Dong, “Stimulated Raman scattering in “garnet” Lu3Al5O12 ceramics – a novel host-materiel for Ln- and TM-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(6), 458–464 (2011).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Hanne, H. J. Falk, F. Görlitz, P. Hoyer, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, and S. W. Hell, “STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7127 (2015).
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Nat. Methods (2)

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy with continuous wave beams,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 915–918 (2007).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

Y. Wu, Z. Luo, H. Jiang, F. Meng, M. Koschan, and C. L. Melcher, “Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 780, 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, I. Konstankevych, B. Grinev, and M. Globus, “Scintillation properties of Lu3Al5O12:Ce single-crystalline films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 486(1-2), 309–314 (2002).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra of LuAG:Ce, GGAG:Ce, LSO:Ce, LSO:Tb, and GGG:Eu scintillators. The spectra were measured with the methods described in the corresponding reports [24, 26, 31, 35]. The vertical lines represent the STED laser wavelengths, and the hatched areas designate the transmission windows of the detection filters used in the depletion measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the experimental setup for the luminescence depletion measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Top) LuAG:Ce luminescence intensity excited by the 405 nm laser as a function of 568 nm and 628 nm STED-laser power. (Bottom) LuAG:Ce luminescence intensity excited by the 568 nm and 628 nm STED lasers and normalized to luminescence intensity excited by the 405 nm laser as shown in Appendix A. All laser powers were measured before the objective and corrected for the objective transmittance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Top) GGAG:Ce luminescence intensity excited by the 405 nm laser as a function of 628 nm STED-laser power. (Bottom) GGAG:Ce luminescence intensity excited by the 628 nm STED lasers and normalized to the 405 nm excited luminescence intensity as shown in Appendix A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LSO:Ce luminescence intensity excited by the 405 nm laser as a function of 488 nm and 532 nm STED laser power. The luminescence excited by the STED-laser is negligible.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Top curves) LSO:Tb luminescence intensity excited by the 488 nm laser as a function of time-averaged power of the 601 nm and 621 nm pulsed STED-lasers and as a function of power of the 542 nm and 628 nm cw STED-lasers. (Bottom curves) LSO:Tb luminescence intensity excited by the 542 nm and 601 nm STED-lasers and normalized to the 488 nm excited luminescence intensity as shown in Appendix A.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Top curves) GGG:Eu luminescence intensity excited by the 405 nm laser as a function of 628 nm STED-laser power. (Bottom curves) GGG:Eu luminescence intensity excited by the 628 nm STED lasers and normalized to the 405 nm excited luminescence intensity. Hollow points are measured values, and solid points are the values corrected for the STED-laser excited luminescence, see Appendix A.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scintillation properties of the screens used in the luminescence depletion measurements. Columns from left to right: the thickness of the active layer, the light yield expressed in optical photons per absorbed X-ray energy and corrected for the non-linearity of the X-ray response at 10-20 keV [27–32], and the scintillation decay time [28, 33, 34].

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the luminescence depletion measurements. Columns from left to right: the scintillator compound; the STED-laser type and wavelength; STED-laser power at which the luminescence intensity is reduced by half; maximum STED-laser power applied to the scintillator; fraction of luminescence intensity remained at this STED-laser power; measured luminescence signal, excited by the STED laser of this power; main origins of the STED-laser excited luminescence.

Equations (1)

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P s = Ahc λ STED σ STED τ fl

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