We demonstrate a monolithic frequency converter incorporating up to four tuning degrees of freedom, three temperature and one strain, allowing resonance of pump and generated wavelengths simultaneous with optimal phase-matching. With a Rb-doped periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) implementation, we demonstrate efficient continuous-wave second harmonic generation from 795 nm to 397 nm, with low-power efficiency of 72 %/W and high-power slope efficiency of 4.5 %. The measured performance shows good agreement with theoretical modeling of the device. We measure optical bistability effects, and show how they can be used to improve the stability of the output against pump frequency and amplitude variations.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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12 March 2017: Corrections were made to the abstract and body text.

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2015 (1)

2013 (2)

2010 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).

Ast, S.

Berger, V.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).

Canalias, C.

Fukui, T.

Furusawa, A.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).

Kubota, S.

Laurell, F.

Lindgren, G.

Masuda, H.

Mehmet, M.

Nagashima, K.

Pasiskevicius, V.

Schnabel, R.

Wiechmann, W.

Yonezawa, H.

Zukauskas, A.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a): A crystal with active section with length La periodically poled and maintained in phase-matching temperature Ta, while sides 1 and 2 with lengths L1 and L2 are in temperatures T1 and T2 respectively. Side 1 has reflection and transmission amplitude coefficients r1 and t1 and side 2 r2 and t2 for the red pump light. Side 1 is assumed to be completely reflective for the blue second harmonic, and r and t stand for the second harmonic reflection and transmission coefficients for side 2. (b): A photo (by K.Kutluer) of the crystal used in the experiment with the active section visible.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a): The lower plate with crystal (green) resting on top of it. I1, I2 and Ia denominate currents flowing through the corresponding ITO heaters (red) and nickel electrodes (black); (b): Side view of the lower plate, showing temperature sensors; (c): Typical temperature distributions an the crystal axis calculated from FEM model for sensor temperatures T1 = 38C and T2 = 37.5C (green), T1 = T2 = 40C (orange), T1 = T2 = 39C (blue). For all three Ta = 39C. (d): Example temperature distribution on the plane containing the crystal optical axis (dashed line) from FEM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Elastooptic effect based tuning, each data point is the cavity resonance shift recorded from the cavity scan for a given piezo voltage. (b) Phase matching curve, experimental data and fitted dpm(T), with the center temperature as a free parameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blue power for different settings of the side temperatures. Experiment is compared to theory from the first section. Temperature in both plots is sensor temperature (in case of theory calculated from FEM model). Reason for discrepancies is principally that lengths of the side sections are not controlled, and not known precisely.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a): Scans by the piezo (15s long) through red resonance for different input power levels. Each plot shows scan decreasing and increasing pressure, according to the arrows. (b): Measurement of SH power when slowly sweeping TD and keeping the piezo-based lock running, along with a sinusoidal fit. (c): Measurement of SH power when slowly sweeping TS and keeping the piezo-based lock running.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Blue points represent SH power measured as function of a pump power and green curve represents a cuadratic fit to the measurements below 50mW of pump power. The inset shows comparison between two cavity and phase matching optimization methods, the full independent optimization we propose (black curve), and optimization of 4 degrees of freedom with just crystal temperature (red curve)

Equations (6)

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out ( ω ) = χ eff ( 2 ) J blue J pm J phase J red 2 ( in ( ω ) ) 2
J red = t 1 1 r 1 r 2 exp [ 2 i ( ϕ 1 ( ω ) + ϕ a ( ω ) + ϕ 2 ( ω ) ) ] ,
J blue = 1 1 r exp [ 2 α L ] exp [ 2 i ( ϕ 1 ( 2 ω ) + ϕ a ( 2 ω ) + ϕ 2 ( 2 ω ) ) ] ,
J pm = exp [ i ( ϕ a ( ω ) 1 2 ϕ a ( 2 ω ) q 2 ) ] sinc ( ϕ a ( ω ) 1 2 ϕ a ( 2 ω ) 1 2 q ) ,
χ eff ( 2 ) = χ ( 2 ) e α ( L a + L 2 ) ,
J phase = 1 + r 2 2 r exp [ α L ] exp [ i ( 2 ϕ 1 ( 2 ω ) + ϕ a ( 2 ω ) ) ] exp [ 2 i ( ϕ a ( ω ) + 2 ϕ 2 ( ω ) ) ] ,