Abstract

A process for fabrication of ultra-precise diffraction gratings for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy was developed. A grating pattern with constant or variable line spacing (VLS) is recorded on a quartz plate by use of e-beam lithography with nanometer scale accuracy of the groove placement. The pattern is transferred to a massive grating blank by large area nanoimprint followed by dry or/and wet etching for groove shaping. High fidelity of the nanoimprint transfer step was confirmed by differential wavefront measurements. Successful implementation of the suggested fabrication approach was demonstrated by fabrication of a lamellar 900 lines/mm VLS grating for a soft x-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Warwick, Y.-D. Chuang, D. L. Voronov, and H. A. Padmore, “A Multiplexed High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(4), 736–743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1986 (1)

M. C. Hettrick and J. H. Underwood, “Varied space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 237–245 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abbamonte, P.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Anderson, E. H.

Arena, D. A.

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artemiev, N.

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

Bisogni, V.

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, S.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Byrum, T.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Cabrini, S.

Cambie, R.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, R. Cambie, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, L. I. Goray, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6320–6325 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, Y.-D.

T. Warwick, Y.-D. Chuang, D. L. Voronov, and H. A. Padmore, “A Multiplexed High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(4), 736–743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coburn, S.

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhuey, S.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dhuey, S. D.

Diez, S.

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

Dvorak, J.

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Eggenstein, F.

Erko, A.

Fedorov, A. V.

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gawlitza, P.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gleason, S.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Goray, L. I.

Goto, Sh.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, R. Cambie, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, L. I. Goray, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6320–6325 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gwalt, G.

Hettrick, M. C.

M. C. Hettrick and J. H. Underwood, “Varied space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 237–245 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hidalgo, S. A.

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Hulbert, S. L.

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jarrige, I.

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Jensen, C.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Jiang, L.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Kaznatcheev, K.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Kimura, T.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koike, M.

Kriesel, K.

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruijs, R.

Kutz, O.

Lemke, S.

Leonhardt, W.

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louis, E.

Lum, P.

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

Manton, J.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Masunaga, T.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsuyama, S.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mertin, M.

Mimura, H.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morton, K.

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namioka, T.

Naulleau, P.

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, H.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okada, H.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Packe, I.

Padmore, H. A.

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, L. I. Goray, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4771–4790 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Warwick, Y.-D. Chuang, D. L. Voronov, and H. A. Padmore, “A Multiplexed High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(4), 736–743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, R. Cambie, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, L. I. Goray, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6320–6325 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reininger, R.

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudolph, I.

Salmassi, F.

Sánchez-Hanke, C.

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfers, F.

Senba, Y.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Senf, F.

Sheung, J.

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Siewert, F.

Sokolov, A.

Sturm, J. M.

Tan, H.

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsumura, T.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Underwood, J. H.

M. C. Hettrick and J. H. Underwood, “Varied space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 237–245 (1986).
[Crossref]

Voronov, D. L.

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, L. I. Goray, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4771–4790 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Warwick, Y.-D. Chuang, D. L. Voronov, and H. A. Padmore, “A Multiplexed High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(4), 736–743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, R. Cambie, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, L. I. Goray, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6320–6325 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waberski, Ch.

Wang, Z.

Warwick, T.

D. L. Voronov, L. I. Goray, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4771–4790 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Warwick, Y.-D. Chuang, D. L. Voronov, and H. A. Padmore, “A Multiplexed High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(4), 736–743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, R. Cambie, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, L. I. Goray, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6320–6325 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.

Yamakawa, D.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, K.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yashchuk, V. V.

Yumoto, H.

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeschke, T.

Zhang, W.

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. C. Hettrick and J. H. Underwood, “Varied space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, 237–245 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. L. Voronov, P. Lum, P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, A. V. Fedorov, and H. A. Padmore, “X-ray diffraction gratings: precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043112 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

T. Warwick, Y.-D. Chuang, D. L. Voronov, and H. A. Padmore, “A Multiplexed High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(4), 736–743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Gao, H. Tan, W. Zhang, K. Morton, and S. Y. Chou, “Air cushion press for excellent uniformity, high yield, and fast nanoimprint across a 100 mm field,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2438–2441 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

T. Kimura, H. Ohashi, H. Mimura, D. Yamakawa, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, T. Tsumura, H. Okada, T. Masunaga, Y. Senba, Sh. Goto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “A stitching figure profiler of large X-ray mirrors using RADSI for subaperture data acquisition,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 229–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. L. Voronov, S. Diez, P. Lum, S. A. Hidalgo, T. Warwick, N. Artemiev, and H. A. Padmore, “Fabrication of x-ray gratings by direct write mask-less lithography,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 88480Q (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Reininger, K. Kriesel, S. L. Hulbert, C. Sánchez-Hanke, and D. A. Arena, “A soft x-ray beamline capable of canceling the performance impairment due to power absorbed on its optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 033108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, V. Bisogni, S. Coburn, and W. Leonhardt, “Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(11), 115109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (11)

http://www.inprentus.com/

http://www.shimadzu.com/opt/products/dif/o-k25cur0000006z3f.html

http://www.horiba.com/scientific/products/diffraction-gratings/for-scientific-applications/vacuum-uv-and-soft-x-ray-applications/

http://www.microresist.de/en

http://foundry.lbl.gov/facilities/nanofabrication/expertise.html

S. Gleason, J. Manton, J. Sheung, T. Byrum, C. Jensen, L. Jiang, J. Dvorak, I. Jarrige, K. Kaznatcheev, and P. Abbamonte, “Intrinsic resolving power of XUV diffraction gratings measured with Fizeau interferometry,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

https://als.lbl.gov/beamlines/8-0-1/

http://www.pcgrate.com/about/pcgrates

http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/multi2.html BL 6.3.2.

http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/forschung/oe/fg/nanometeroptik/technologiezentrum-optische-praezisionsgitter/historie-und-aktueller-stand-der-gitterentwicklung_en.html

http://www.esrf.eu/ID32

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of a nanofabrication-based process for making advanced x-ray gratings. The process includes large-area nanoimprinting using e-beam patterned molds (steps #1 and #2), plasma etch for residual layer and adjustment of the duty cycle ratio of grating grooves (#3 and #4), silicon dry etch (#5a and #6a) or lift-off process (# 5b and #6b) for lamellar grooves, wet anisotropic etching for blazed grooves (#7 and #8), and multilayer deposition (#9).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic arrangement of the wavefront measurements for groove placement accuracy monitoring. A diffraction grating is mounted in the Littrow configuration in front of a Fizeau phase shifting interferometer (1 - laser, 2 – collimator, 3 – reference flat, 4- beam splitter, 5 – camera). Two wavefronts for positive and negative order diffraction geometry are recorded. Difference between the wavefronts exhibits an error map caused by displacement of grating grooves from their ideal positions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of 120 × 30 mm2 2000 lines/mm test grating: e-beam written Cr pattern on 6” × 6” × 1/4” quartz plate mold (a), the pattern transferred to the nanoimprint resist on a 6” semiconductor Si wafer (b), Cr pattern on the Si wafer transferred by lift-off (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential wavefront error maps for the mold (a) and imprint (b) of the 2000 lines/mm test pattern (full color scale corresponds to peak-to-valley wavefront errors of +/−40 nm for the both maps); average profiles of the error maps (c); groove density of the imprinted pattern calculated in terms of the wavefront errors (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of theoretical diffraction efficiency of a 900 lines/mm grating on a groove depth for different duty cycle ratios at the energy of 600 eV and the incidence angle of 88.854°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Grating substrate/quartz mold sandwich exhibits defect free large area imprinting (left). Final 900 lines/mm lamellar VLS grating coated with a gold layer (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM images of the 2000 lines/mm resist pattern after nanoimprint (a), after duty cycle adjustment by Oxygen plasma etch (b), and the final Si grating after CHF3 plasma etch and resist removal (c).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

An AFM image and a groove profile of the 900 lines/mm VLS grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Detector angle scan for the incidence angle of 88.85° and an energy of 600 eV (a). Efficiency of the 1st diffraction order in a wide energy range (b): experimental efficiency is shown with symbols; theoretical efficiency calculated for the AFM measured groove depth of 11.7 nm and different duty cycle ratios are shown with the curves.

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