Abstract

Using solution of the full three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) in prolate spheroidal coordinates, we investigate the orientation dependence of ionization of H2+ in near-infrared laser fields. It is found that, the ionization probability decreases as a function of the alignment angle in tunneling ionization regime, while it ascends with the increase of orientation angle in multiphoton ionization regime for the internuclear distance R=2 a.u. Furthermore, the result obtained by the length gauge strong-field approximation theory is in qualitative agreement with that calculated by the TDSE but the radiation gauge strong-field approximation and molecular ADK theories fail to reproduce the TDSE result. Analysis indicates that the above intriguing feature can be ascribed to the interference between the partial electron wave packets emitted from different molecular cores, which becomes evident at low laser intensity due to increased width of the initial mechanical momentum of the photoelectron at ionization moment. In addition, when the internuclear distance increases to R=4 a.u., the ionization yields decrease vs alignment angle in both tunneling and multiphoton regimes since the electron wavefunction of the 1σg orbit is more concentrated in the molecular axis than that of R=2 a.u.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  3. D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D.M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  47. J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  48. W. Becker, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, and D. B. Milošević, “Dressed-state strong-field approximation for laser-induced molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033403 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  53. L. Guo, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “TimeĺCenergy analysis of above-threshold ionization in the transverse direction of the linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 50, 125006 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  56. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Ionization of N2, O2, and linear carbon clusters in a strong laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 023410 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  57. V. I. Usachenko and S. I. Chu, “Strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated light homonuclear diatomic molecules: A generalized strong-field approximation-linear combination of atomic orbitals model,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063410 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  58. D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

L. Guo, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “TimeĺCenergy analysis of above-threshold ionization in the transverse direction of the linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 50, 125006 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

F. H. M. Faisal, “Strong-field S-matrix theory with final-state Coulomb interaction in all orders,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Johansen, K. G. Bay, L. Christensen, J. Thøgersen, D. Dimitrovski, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment-dependent strong-field ionization yields of carbonyl sulfide molecules induced by mid-infrared laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 49, 205601 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Hu, J. Chen, X. L. Hao, and W. D. Li, “Effect of low-energy electron interference on strong-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 023424 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

V. P. Majety and A. Scrinzi, “Dynamic Exchange in the Strong Field Ionization of Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 103002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Śpiewanowski and L. B. Madsen, “Alignment- and orientation-dependent strong-field ionization of molecules: Field-induced orbital distortion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 043406 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. L. Hu, Z. X. Zhao, and T. Y. Shi, “B-spline one-center method for molecular HartreeĺCFock calculations,” Int. J. Quan. Chem. 114, 441 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. D. Bandrauk, F. Fillion-Gourdeau, and E. Lorin, “Atoms and molecules in intense laser fields: gauge invariance of theory and models,” J. Phys. B 46, 153001 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Hu, Z. X. Zhao, and T. Y. Shi, “Alignment-Dependent Ionization of CO2 in the Intense Laser Fields: Single-Active-Electron Approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 103103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Z. Y. Lin, X. Y Jia, C. L. Wang, Z. L. Hu, H. P. Kang, W. Quan, X. Y. Lai, X. J. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. P. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Hansen, L. Holmegaard, J. H. Nielsen, H. Stapelfeldt, D. Dimitrovski, and L. B. Madsen, “Orientation-dependent ionization yields from strong-field ionization of fixed-in-space linear and asymmetric top molecules,” J. Phys. B 45, 015101 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, J. M. Yuan, and Z. X. Zhao, “Alignment-dependent ionization of H2+: From multiphoton ionization to tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 033421 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053409 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

Y. Li, X. Y. Jia, S. P. Yang, W. D. Li, and J. Chen, “S-matrix study on alignment dependence of single ionization of molecular ions with different active orbitals,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 063302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Han and L. B. Madsen, “Comparison between length and velocity gauges in quantum simulations of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063430 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 1240 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dimitrovski, C. P. J. Martiny, and L. B. Madsen, “Strong-field ionization of polar molecules: Stark-shift-corrected strong-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053404 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Takemoto and A. Becker, “Multiple Ionization Bursts in Laser-Driven Hydrogen Molecular Ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 203004 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-Dependent Ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 223001 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Effects of electron structure and multielectron dynamical response on strong-field multiphoton ionization of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041401 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. F. Zhao, C. Jin, A. T. Le, T. F. Jiang, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of angular dependence of strong-field tunneling ionization for CO2,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 051402 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-Field Tunneling without Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Popruzhenko, G. G. Paulus, and D. Bauer, “Coulomb-corrected quantum trajectories in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053409 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct Measurement of the Angular Dependence of Ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. H. M. Faisal, “Gauge-invariant intense-field approximations to all orders,” J. Phys. B 40, F145 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio study of the orientation effects in multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation from the ground and excited electronic states of H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043412 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, and D. B. Milošević, “Dressed-state strong-field approximation for laser-induced molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033403 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. B. Milošević, “Strong-field approximation for ionization of a diatomic molecule by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063404 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Imaging electron molecular orbitals via ionization by intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 033415 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (7)

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature (London) 435, 470 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D.M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Selstø, M. Førre, J. P. Hansen, and L. B. Madsen, “Strong Orientation Effects in Ionization of H2+ by Short, Intense, High-Frequency Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: Nuclear interferences in H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. I. Usachenko and S. I. Chu, “Strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated light homonuclear diatomic molecules: A generalized strong-field approximation-linear combination of atomic orbitals model,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063410 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Ionization of N2, O2, and linear carbon clusters in a strong laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 023410 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-Dependent Strong Field Ionization of Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, S. L. Chin, H. Walther, J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Signatures of symmetry-induced quantum-interference effects observed in above-threshold-ionization spectra of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 041402 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Bachau, E. Cormier, P. Decleva, J. E. Hansen, and F. Martín, “Applications of B-splines in atomic and molecular physics,” Rep. Pro. Phys. 64, 1815 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed Molecular Ionization for a Class of Diatomics in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Saenz, “Enhanced ionization of molecular hydrogen in very strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 051402 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

E. Constant, H. Stapelfeldt, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Enhanced Ionization of Molecular Ions in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4140 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chen, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Complete Keidysh theory and its limiting cases,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1476 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986).

1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

F. H. M. Faisal, “Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms,” J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

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Altucci, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
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Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986).

Bachau, H.

H. Bachau, E. Cormier, P. Decleva, J. E. Hansen, and F. Martín, “Applications of B-splines in atomic and molecular physics,” Rep. Pro. Phys. 64, 1815 (2001).
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Bandrauk, A. D.

A. D. Bandrauk, F. Fillion-Gourdeau, and E. Lorin, “Atoms and molecules in intense laser fields: gauge invariance of theory and models,” J. Phys. B 46, 153001 (2013).
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G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Imaging electron molecular orbitals via ionization by intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 033415 (2006).
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G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: Nuclear interferences in H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
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D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D.M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
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D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
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Bay, K. G.

R. Johansen, K. G. Bay, L. Christensen, J. Thøgersen, D. Dimitrovski, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment-dependent strong-field ionization yields of carbonyl sulfide molecules induced by mid-infrared laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 49, 205601 (2016).
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Becker, A.

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A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Ionization of N2, O2, and linear carbon clusters in a strong laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 023410 (2004).
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F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, S. L. Chin, H. Walther, J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Signatures of symmetry-induced quantum-interference effects observed in above-threshold-ionization spectra of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 041402 (2001).
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J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed Molecular Ionization for a Class of Diatomics in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280 (2000).
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Becker, W.

W. Becker, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, and D. B. Milošević, “Dressed-state strong-field approximation for laser-induced molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033403 (2007).
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D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
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W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35 (2002).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro, A.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-Dependent Ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 223001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caumes, J. P.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

L. Guo, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “TimeĺCenergy analysis of above-threshold ionization in the transverse direction of the linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 50, 125006 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033415 (2016).
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S. L. Hu, J. Chen, X. L. Hao, and W. D. Li, “Effect of low-energy electron interference on strong-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 023424 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Lin, X. Y Jia, C. L. Wang, Z. L. Hu, H. P. Kang, W. Quan, X. Y. Lai, X. J. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. P. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053409 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 1240 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, X. Y. Jia, S. P. Yang, W. D. Li, and J. Chen, “S-matrix study on alignment dependence of single ionization of molecular ions with different active orbitals,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 063302 (2010).
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J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, and D. B. Milošević, “Dressed-state strong-field approximation for laser-induced molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033403 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, R. H. Lu, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, Z. Shu, M. Q. Liu, and J. Chen, “Accuracy of the semiclassical picture of photonionization in intense laser field” (Submitted).

Chen, S. G.

W. Becker, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, and D. B. Milošević, “Dressed-state strong-field approximation for laser-induced molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033403 (2007).
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J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402 (2007).
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Chen, S. L.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chen, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
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Cheng, Y.

Z. Y. Lin, X. Y Jia, C. L. Wang, Z. L. Hu, H. P. Kang, W. Quan, X. Y. Lai, X. J. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. P. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223001 (2012).
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Chien, C.-Y.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chen, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
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Chin, S. L.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, S. L. Chin, H. Walther, J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Signatures of symmetry-induced quantum-interference effects observed in above-threshold-ionization spectra of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 041402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Christensen, L.

R. Johansen, K. G. Bay, L. Christensen, J. Thøgersen, D. Dimitrovski, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment-dependent strong-field ionization yields of carbonyl sulfide molecules induced by mid-infrared laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 49, 205601 (2016).
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Chu, S. I.

D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Effects of electron structure and multielectron dynamical response on strong-field multiphoton ionization of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041401 (2009).
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D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio study of the orientation effects in multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation from the ground and excited electronic states of H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043412 (2007).
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V. I. Usachenko and S. I. Chu, “Strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated light homonuclear diatomic molecules: A generalized strong-field approximation-linear combination of atomic orbitals model,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063410 (2005).
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Chu, W.

Z. Y. Lin, X. Y Jia, C. L. Wang, Z. L. Hu, H. P. Kang, W. Quan, X. Y. Lai, X. J. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. P. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223001 (2012).
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Constant, E.

E. Constant, H. Stapelfeldt, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Enhanced Ionization of Molecular Ions in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4140 (1996).
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Corkum, P. B.

D. Pavičić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct Measurement of the Angular Dependence of Ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243001 (2007).
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D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D.M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
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I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-Dependent Strong Field Ionization of Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
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E. Constant, H. Stapelfeldt, and P. B. Corkum, “Observation of Enhanced Ionization of Molecular Ions in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4140 (1996).
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Cormier, E.

H. Bachau, E. Cormier, P. Decleva, J. E. Hansen, and F. Martín, “Applications of B-splines in atomic and molecular physics,” Rep. Pro. Phys. 64, 1815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Decleva, P.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-Dependent Ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 223001 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Bachau, E. Cormier, P. Decleva, J. E. Hansen, and F. Martín, “Applications of B-splines in atomic and molecular physics,” Rep. Pro. Phys. 64, 1815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986).

Dimitrovski, D.

R. Johansen, K. G. Bay, L. Christensen, J. Thøgersen, D. Dimitrovski, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment-dependent strong-field ionization yields of carbonyl sulfide molecules induced by mid-infrared laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 49, 205601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hansen, L. Holmegaard, J. H. Nielsen, H. Stapelfeldt, D. Dimitrovski, and L. B. Madsen, “Orientation-dependent ionization yields from strong-field ionization of fixed-in-space linear and asymmetric top molecules,” J. Phys. B 45, 015101 (2012).
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D. Dimitrovski, C. P. J. Martiny, and L. B. Madsen, “Strong-field ionization of polar molecules: Stark-shift-corrected strong-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053404 (2010).
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Ding, D. J.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dooley, P. W.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-Dependent Strong Field Ionization of Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D.M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichmann, U.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-Field Tunneling without Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233001 (2008).
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Faisal, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Faisal, “Strong-field S-matrix theory with final-state Coulomb interaction in all orders,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 031401 (2016).
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F. H. M. Faisal, “Gauge-invariant intense-field approximations to all orders,” J. Phys. B 40, F145 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Ionization of N2, O2, and linear carbon clusters in a strong laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 023410 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, S. L. Chin, H. Walther, J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Signatures of symmetry-induced quantum-interference effects observed in above-threshold-ionization spectra of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 041402 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed Molecular Ionization for a Class of Diatomics in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2280 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. M. Faisal, “Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms,” J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
[Crossref]

Fillion-Gourdeau, F.

A. D. Bandrauk, F. Fillion-Gourdeau, and E. Lorin, “Atoms and molecules in intense laser fields: gauge invariance of theory and models,” J. Phys. B 46, 153001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Førre, M.

S. Selstø, M. Førre, J. P. Hansen, and L. B. Madsen, “Strong Orientation Effects in Ionization of H2+ by Short, Intense, High-Frequency Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G. N.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gorling, K.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-Field Tunneling without Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, S. L. Chin, H. Walther, J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Signatures of symmetry-induced quantum-interference effects observed in above-threshold-ionization spectra of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 041402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “TimeĺCenergy analysis of above-threshold ionization in the transverse direction of the linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 50, 125006 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053409 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 1240 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Guo, R. H. Lu, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, Z. Shu, M. Q. Liu, and J. Chen, “Accuracy of the semiclassical picture of photonionization in intense laser field” (Submitted).

Han, S. S.

L. Guo, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “TimeĺCenergy analysis of above-threshold ionization in the transverse direction of the linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 50, 125006 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053409 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, and J. Chen, “Time-energy analysis of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 1240 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Guo, R. H. Lu, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, Z. Shu, M. Q. Liu, and J. Chen, “Accuracy of the semiclassical picture of photonionization in intense laser field” (Submitted).

Han, Y. C.

Y. C. Han and L. B. Madsen, “Comparison between length and velocity gauges in quantum simulations of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. E.

H. Bachau, E. Cormier, P. Decleva, J. E. Hansen, and F. Martín, “Applications of B-splines in atomic and molecular physics,” Rep. Pro. Phys. 64, 1815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. L.

J. L. Hansen, L. Holmegaard, J. H. Nielsen, H. Stapelfeldt, D. Dimitrovski, and L. B. Madsen, “Orientation-dependent ionization yields from strong-field ionization of fixed-in-space linear and asymmetric top molecules,” J. Phys. B 45, 015101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. P.

S. Selstø, M. Førre, J. P. Hansen, and L. B. Madsen, “Strong Orientation Effects in Ionization of H2+ by Short, Intense, High-Frequency Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hao, X. L.

S. L. Hu, J. Chen, X. L. Hao, and W. D. Li, “Effect of low-energy electron interference on strong-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 023424 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heesel, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmegaard, L.

J. L. Hansen, L. Holmegaard, J. H. Nielsen, H. Stapelfeldt, D. Dimitrovski, and L. B. Madsen, “Orientation-dependent ionization yields from strong-field ionization of fixed-in-space linear and asymmetric top molecules,” J. Phys. B 45, 015101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, S. L.

L. Guo, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “TimeĺCenergy analysis of above-threshold ionization in the transverse direction of the linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 50, 125006 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. L. Hu, J. Chen, X. L. Hao, and W. D. Li, “Effect of low-energy electron interference on strong-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 023424 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Hu, Z. X. Zhao, and T. Y. Shi, “B-spline one-center method for molecular HartreeĺCFock calculations,” Int. J. Quan. Chem. 114, 441 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. L. Hu, Z. X. Zhao, and T. Y. Shi, “Alignment-Dependent Ionization of CO2 in the Intense Laser Fields: Single-Active-Electron Approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 103103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, R. H. Lu, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, Z. Shu, M. Q. Liu, and J. Chen, “Accuracy of the semiclassical picture of photonionization in intense laser field” (Submitted).

Hu, Z. L.

Z. Y. Lin, X. Y Jia, C. L. Wang, Z. L. Hu, H. P. Kang, W. Quan, X. Y. Lai, X. J. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. P. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaron-Becker, A.

A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Ionization of N2, O2, and linear carbon clusters in a strong laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 023410 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jia, X. Y

Z. Y. Lin, X. Y Jia, C. L. Wang, Z. L. Hu, H. P. Kang, W. Quan, X. Y. Lai, X. J. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. P. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, X. Y.

Y. Li, X. Y. Jia, S. P. Yang, W. D. Li, and J. Chen, “S-matrix study on alignment dependence of single ionization of molecular ions with different active orbitals,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 063302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T. F.

S. F. Zhao, C. Jin, A. T. Le, T. F. Jiang, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of angular dependence of strong-field tunneling ionization for CO2,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 051402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

S. F. Zhao, C. Jin, A. T. Le, T. F. Jiang, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of angular dependence of strong-field tunneling ionization for CO2,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 051402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jin, M. X.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Johansen, R.

R. Johansen, K. G. Bay, L. Christensen, J. Thøgersen, D. Dimitrovski, L. B. Madsen, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment-dependent strong-field ionization yields of carbonyl sulfide molecules induced by mid-infrared laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 49, 205601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kajumba, N.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling Two-Center Interference in Molecular High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamta, G. L.

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Other (1)

L. Guo, R. H. Lu, S. S. Han, S. L. Hu, Z. Shu, M. Q. Liu, and J. Chen, “Accuracy of the semiclassical picture of photonionization in intense laser field” (Submitted).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a): Normalized ionization probability as a function of alignment angle β obtained by TDSE with decreasing laser intensity for H 2 + at R=2 a.u. (b) and (c): Same as (a), but calculated by MO-ADK and LGSFA, respectively (see text). I0=1014W/cm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a): Vector potential and electric field of a six-cycle pulse (T=2π/ω). (b) and (c): Time-momentum distribution of H atom calculated by LGSFA in laser fields with intensities 3I0 and 0.8I0, respectively (the black line denotes -A(t)). (d) and (e): Normalized distribution of mechanical momentum for H atom in laser fields with intensities 3I0 and 0.8I0 at t=2.75T, respectively. (f): Normalized ionization probabilities of H 2 + obtained by the model Pion =∫ cos2(M · R/2) f (M)dM near the peak electric field. For more details see the text. I0=1014W/cm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a): Normalized ionization probability as a function of alignment angle β calculated by RGSFA with decreasing laser intensity for H 2 + at R=2 a.u. (b): Corresponding normalized momentum distributions of photoelectrons from H 2 + calculated without the trigonometric function at intensities of 3I0 and 0.8I0 for RGSFA. The green full triangles denote the trigonometric part cos2(PR/2) as a function of momentum (see text). I0 =1014 W/cm2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b): Normalized alignment-dependent ionization probability of H 2 + obtained by TDSE and LGSFA with decreasing laser intensity for R=4 a.u. and I0 = 1014W/cm2 (see text).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Two-dimensional distribution of the 1σg wavefunction of H 2 + at different internuclear distances: (a): R=2 a.u. (b): R=4 a.u.

Equations (9)

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i t Ψ ( r , t ) = [ H 1 ( r ) r E ( t ) ] Ψ ( r , t ) .
H 1 = 2 R 2 ( ξ 2 η 2 ) [ ξ ( ξ 2 1 ) ξ + η ( 1 η 2 ) η + ξ 2 η 2 ( ξ 2 1 ) ( 1 η 2 ) 2 φ 2 ] 2 R [ 1 ξ + η + 1 ξ η ] .
H t = R 2 ( ξ η cos β + ( ξ 2 1 ) ( 1 η 2 ) cos φ sin β ) E ( t ) ,
Ψ ( ξ , η , φ , t ) = μ , ν , m C μ , ν , m ( t ) ( ξ 2 1 ) | m | / 2 B μ k ( ξ ) ( 1 η 2 ) | m | / 2 B ν k ( η ) e i m φ / 2 π ,
W = 2 π N e n = n 0 | A p n | 2 δ ( E p + I p n ω ) d P ,
A p n = 1 T 0 T d t exp [ i ( E 0 2 8 ω 3 sin 2 ω t + E 0 ε P ω 2 sin ω t ) ] exp [ i ( P 2 2 + I p + U p ) t ] E 0 sin ω t F ˜ ( P + A ( t ) ) ,
F ˜ ( M ) = exp [ i M r ] ( ε r ) Φ 0 ( r , R ) d r .
F ˜ ( M ) = 2 cos ( M R / 2 ) exp [ i M r ] ( ε r ) ϕ 1 s ( r ) d r 2 [ 1 + S 1 s ( R ) ] ,
W = 2 π N e n = n 0 P ( U p n ω ) 2 d P J n 2 ( P α , U p 2 ω ) | e i r P Φ 0 ( r , R ) d r | 2 .

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