Abstract

We demonstrate low-loss GaN/AlGaN planar waveguides grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. By using a proper AlGaN cladding layer and reducing surface roughness we reach <1dB/cm propagation losses at 633nm. These low propagation losses allow an efficient second harmonic generation using modal phase matching between a TM0 pump at 1260nm and a TM2 second harmonic at 630nm. A maximal power conversion of 2% is realized with an efficiency of 0.15%·W−1cm−2. We provide a modelling that demonstrates broadband features of GaN/AlGaN platform by showing second harmonic wavelengths tunability from the visible up to the near-infrared spectral region. We discuss drawbacks of modal phase matching and propose a novel solution which allows a drastic improvement of modal overlaps with the help of a planar polarity inversion. This new approach is compatible with low propagation losses and may allow as high as 100%·W−1cm−2 conversion efficiencies in the future.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Guo, C. Zou, and H. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500 %/ W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3(10), 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. S. Hum and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phasematching,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 180–198 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Vézian, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “From spiral growth to kinetic roughening in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN(0001),” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125329 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

N. Grandjean, A. Dussaigne, S. Pezzagna, and P. Vennéguès, “Control of the polarity of GaN films using an Mg adsorption layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1), 460–464 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Byer, “Quasi phase-matching second harmonic generation : tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

Alden, D.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Androussi, Y.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bagal, A.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blanc, D.

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouchoux, A. M.

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S.

Brault, J.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brimont, C.

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bruch, A. W.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bryden, W. A.

Byer, R.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Byer, “Quasi phase-matching second harmonic generation : tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cachard, A.

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J.-F.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, E.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Condon, N.

Davydov, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

de Micheli, M.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Micheli, M. P.

Decoster, D.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Denbaars, S. P.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dogheche, E.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duboz, J. Y.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dussaigne, A.

N. Grandjean, A. Dussaigne, S. Pezzagna, and P. Vennéguès, “Control of the polarity of GaN films using an Mg adsorption layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1), 460–464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eddy, C.

El Kurdi, M.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

D. S. Hum and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phasematching,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 180–198 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Byer, “Quasi phase-matching second harmonic generation : tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. Y.

Franke, A.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Freitas, J.

Galli, M.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gayral, B.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Grandjean, A. Dussaigne, S. Pezzagna, and P. Vennéguès, “Control of the polarity of GaN films using an Mg adsorption layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1), 460–464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gromovyi, M.

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillet, T.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Hahn, D. N.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Balderrama, L. H.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hite, J.

Hoffmann, A.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hum, D. S.

D. S. Hum and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phasematching,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 180–198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Byer, “Quasi phase-matching second harmonic generation : tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kaess, F.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Katz, M.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ketterson, J. B.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kiehne, G. T.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kirste, R.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kistenmacher, T. J.

Kub, F.

Kung, P.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leroux, M.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leung, B.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Byer, “Quasi phase-matching second harmonic generation : tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Vézian, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “From spiral growth to kinetic roughening in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN(0001),” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mastro, M.

Mexis, M.

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

Minkov, M.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miragliotta, J.

Mishra, U. K.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mita, S.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohamed, M. S.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Natali, F.

S. Vézian, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “From spiral growth to kinetic roughening in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN(0001),” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ng, H. M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, S.

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

Paltiel, Y.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S. S.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pavlidis, D.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W. H.

Pernice, W. H. P.

Pezzagna, S.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Grandjean, A. Dussaigne, S. Pezzagna, and P. Vennéguès, “Control of the polarity of GaN films using an Mg adsorption layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1), 460–464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Plumereau, C.

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

Poot, M.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Reddy, P.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roland, I.

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roux, J. F.

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ryu, K. K.

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Savona, V.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Saxler, A.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

Semond, F.

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Vézian, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “From spiral growth to kinetic roughening in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN(0001),” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sicron, N.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simbula, A.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stolz, A.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

Tang, H. X.

Ternyak, O.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tien, P. K.

Troadec, D.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Troha, T.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsvetkov, D. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Twigg, M.

Ulrich, R.

Vennéguès, P.

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Grandjean, A. Dussaigne, S. Pezzagna, and P. Vennéguès, “Control of the polarity of GaN films using an Mg adsorption layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1), 460–464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vézian, S.

S. Vézian, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “From spiral growth to kinetic roughening in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN(0001),” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

Webb-Wood, G.

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Weimann, N. G.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Westreich, O.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wickenden, D. K.

Wieck, A. D.

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. K. L.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

Yun, F.

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9602–9610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zgonik, M.

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zou, C.

ACS Photonics (1)

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Imaging of Photonic Crystal Localized Modes through Third-Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1240–1247 (2016).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” APL Photonics 2(3), 031301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Y. Zeng, I. Roland, X. Checoury, Z. Han, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and P. Boucaud, “Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, P. Vennéguès, N. Grandjean, A. D. Wieck, and J. Massies, “Submicron periodic poling and chemical patterning of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 062106 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Alden, W. Guo, R. Kirste, F. Kaess, I. Bryan, T. Troha, A. Bagal, P. Reddy, L. H. Hernandez-Balderrama, A. Franke, S. Mita, C. H. Chang, A. Hoffmann, M. Zgonik, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Fabrication and structural properties of AlN submicron periodic lateral polar structures and waveguides for UV-C applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261106 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Blanc, A. M. Bouchoux, C. Plumereau, A. Cachard, and J. F. Roux, “Phase-matched frequency doubling in an aluminum nitride waveguide with a tunable laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 659–661 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, “Optical waveguide loss minimized into gallium nitride based structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Systematic measurement of Alx Ga1−xN refractive indices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

D. S. Hum and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phasematching,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 180–198 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Byer, “Quasi phase-matching second harmonic generation : tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. K. L. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. Denbaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. De Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. Grandjean, A. Dussaigne, S. Pezzagna, and P. Vennéguès, “Control of the polarity of GaN films using an Mg adsorption layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1), 460–464 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Vézian, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “From spiral growth to kinetic roughening in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN(0001),” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaN-based ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

I. Roland, M. Gromovyi, Y. Zeng, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. de Micheli, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TM-modes profiles for the fabricated waveguide. (b) Dispersion curves for the effective refractive indices of three guided modes; a modal phase matching (MPM) is reached between TM0 and TM2 modes at 1260nm, and between TM0 and TM1 modes at 1900nm. (c) TM2 second harmonic wavelength as a function of GaN guiding layer thickness for the different AlGaN substrates. (d) TM1 second harmonic wavelength as a function of GaN guiding layer thickness for different AlGaN substrates; the dashed segments of the curves on in Figs. 1(c) and 1(d) indicate a multi-mode nature of waveguides at the wavelength of the pump. The two star symbols in (c) and (d) show how our waveguide fits into this general framework.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PO-GaN waveguide allows a power conversion between fundamental modes due to the quasi-phasematching (QPM). In (b) and (c) we show a standard modal phase matching (MPM) technique with an additional improvement of modal overlaps due to the planar polarity inversion (PPI). The plot (d) presents the conversion efficiencies as a function of the harmonic wavelength for the cases of MPM, MPM with an improved overlap and QPM. Efficiencies are given in %·W−1cm−2 · μm units and all the calculations are done within the assumption of nondepletion of the pump. In the plot (d) solid black curve represents a reference solution for the case of QPM between TM0-modes in PO-GaN; the green curves corresponds to MPM between TM0 and TM1 modes, while the blue curves corresponds to MPM between TM0 and TM2 modes. In the plot (d) both the blue and green dashed lines give the conversion efficiencies with improved overlaps due to the planar polarity inversion (PPI), while the solid blue and green lines represent a standard MPM with poor modal overlaps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A cross-sectional SEM image of the fabricated waveguide together with the electric field distributions for the TM0 mode at 1264nm and TM2 mode at 632nm wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) An AFM image of 10μm by 10μm surface area of the sample grown by MBE technique. (b) A similar AFM scan, that was done after the MBE surface was covered by a thin 60nm MOVPE layer. This regrowth made a positive impact both on the amplitude σ and the characteristic spatial scale Λ of the surface roughness. σ and Λ are determined from the exponential fit σ2 exp(−r/Λ) of the autocorrelation function for the surfaces. The table attached to this figure summarizes the characteristics of the roughness and the values of the corresponding propagation losses at 633nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A general scheme of our SHG experiment. (b) The average harmonic power measured as a function of the pump wavelength using a silicon photo-diode; the red curve represents the experimental data fit with the square of the sinc function. (c) SH pulse energies as a function of the pump pulse energies; the black curve represents the quadratic fit of the experimental data. Results in the (c) were obtained by a synchronized pulse-by-pulse detection of the SH and the pump with pyro-electric detectors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of best reported efficiencies of second harmonic generation for different AlGaN based guiding structures.

Equations (1)

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overlap = ( + χ z z z ( z ) P 2 ( z ) SH ( z ) d z ) 2 ,

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