Abstract

Mode-division multiplexing passive optical network (MDM-PON) is a promising scheme for next-generation access networks to further increase the transmission capacity and number of end-customers. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the implementation of MDM-PON architecture with the carrier-less amplitude/phase (CAP) modulation signals and two effectively separated spatial modes multiplexing transmission in an elliptical-core few-mode fiber (EC-FMF). The trench-assisted EC-FMF features favorable anti-bending performance with negligible power variations and stable mode intensity profiles under extreme bending conditions. Two spatial modes carrying CAP-16 signals for four users with net data rate of 5 Gb/s per user in the downstream transmission over 1.1-km EC-FMF is demonstrated. The measured mode crosstalk including mode (de)multiplexing and 1.1-km EC-FMF transmission is less than −18 dB and multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technique is not used in the experiment for simplicity. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for the downstream transmission without or with crosstalk at a bit-error rate (BER) of 3.8x10−3 (7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold) are less than 1.8 dB and 3.1 dB, respectively. Larger transmission capacity and more users are expected when further employing higher dimension CAP signals and EC-FMF supporting more separable spatial modes.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (3)

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

G. Milione, E. Ip, M. J. Li, J. Stone, G. Peng, and T. Wang, “Mode crosstalk matrix measurement of a 1 km elliptical core few-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2755–2758 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

G. Stepniak, “Comparison of efficiency of N-dimensional CAP modulations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(14), 2516–2523 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 414–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Cvijetic, M. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, and T. Wang, “Terabit optical access networks based on WDM-OFDMA-PON,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 493–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 66–73 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. G.

Arkwright, J. W.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), 344–346.

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 414–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

Buhl, L. L.

Chen, S.

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chen, Z.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

Chung, Y. C.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1334–1336.

Clarke, F.

Cvijetic, M.

Cvijetic, N.

Deng, L.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Du, C.

Du, J.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Effenberger, F.

Faruk, M. S.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gui, T.

He, J.

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

He, Y.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, T.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. F.

Huang, Y. K.

Ip, E.

Jansen, S. L.

Jensen, J.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K. T.

Jung, D. K.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1334–1336.

Kanonakis, K.

Kikuchi, K.

Kim, K.

Kramer, G.

Lau, A. P.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, C. H.

S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, and K. H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2582–2590 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1334–1336.

Li, F.

Li, G.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 414–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, M. J.

Li, S.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liñares, J.

Liu, D.

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), 344–346.

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Ma, Y.

Magarini, M.

Man, J.

Milione, G.

Mo, Q.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monroy, I. T.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Morita, I.

Mukherjee, B.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Othman, M. B.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

Park, S. J.

Park, Y.

Peng, G.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 66–73 (2002).
[Crossref]

Prieto, X.

Qian, Y.

Ren, F.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riesen, N.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), 344–346.

Schenk, T. C. W.

Shi, L.

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Shin, S. K.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1334–1336.

Shum, P. P.

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Song, H.

Song, K. H.

Stepniak, G.

Stone, J.

Takeda, N.

Tanaka, H.

Tang, M.

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Tang, R.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

X. Tang, I. L. J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2003), pp. 12–16.

Tao, L.

Thng, I. L. J.

X. Tang, I. L. J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2003), pp. 12–16.

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Wang, A.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Wieckowski, M.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
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Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Xia, C.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 414–487 (2014).
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Yan, X.

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yu, J.

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Yu, F. Li, N. Chi, Z. Dong, and X. Li, “11 × 5 × 9.3Gb/s WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with direct detection,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18842–18848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 414–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, K.

Zhou, X.

Zhu, L.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 414–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 66–73 (2002).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2009–2012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

M. S. Faruk and K. Kikuchi, “Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12789–12798 (2011).
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K. Zhong, X. Zhou, T. Gui, L. Tao, Y. Gao, W. Chen, J. Man, L. Zeng, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Experimental study of PAM-4, CAP-16, and DMT for 100 Gb/s short reach optical transmission systems,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1176–1189 (2015).
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E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6459–6465 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Yu, F. Li, N. Chi, Z. Dong, and X. Li, “11 × 5 × 9.3Gb/s WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with direct detection,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18842–18848 (2013).
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Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Ren, J. Li, R. Tang, T. Hu, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental demonstration of time-and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 36, 92–97 (2017).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (16)

ITU-T Recommendation ITU-T G.984, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON).

IEEE Std 802.3av-2009, “Physical layer specifications and management parameters for 10 Gb/s passive optical networks.

ITU-T Recommendation ITU-T G.987, “10-Gigabit-capable passive optical network (XG-PON).

ITU-T Recommendation ITU-T G.989, “40-Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (NG-PON2).

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper NTh4F.3.
[Crossref]

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “40-Gb/s MIMO-OFDM-PON using polarization multiplexing and direct-detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMV3.
[Crossref]

L. Shi, J. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, S. Fu, D. Liu, and P. P. Shum, “Experimental demonstration of a novel PON system using multi-dimensional CAP-OFDM technique,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015) AM2F.5.
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Experimental demonstration of a 8×10Gb/s 10GHz-spaced UDWDM-PON system based on CAP and direct detection,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013) ASU2A.093.

T. Collins, “Carrierless amplitude phase modulation,” Handbook of Computer Networks: Key Concepts, Data Transmission, and Digital and Optical Networks 1, 426–437 (2008).

J. Ma, D. Wang, and C. Guo, “A modified cascaded multi-modulus algorithm for blind polarization de-multiplexing of high order QAM optical signals,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper AW3F. 5.
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D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1334–1336.

X. Tang, I. L. J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2003), pp. 12–16.

S. Matsuo, M. Ikeda, and K. Himeno, “Low-bending-loss and suppressed-splice-loss optical fibers for FTTH indoor wiring,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper ThI3.

P. Sillard, S. Richard, L.-A. de Montmorillon, and M. Bigot-Astruc, “Micro-bend losses of trench-assisted single-mode fibers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2010), paper We.8.F.3.

K. Chen, L. Chen, C. Lin, W. Huang, C. Wei, and J. Chen, “224-Gbps transmission for next-generation WDM long-reach PON using CAP modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper TU2C.2.
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics Technology (IEEE, 2012), 344–346.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of a MDM-CAP-PON architecture. OLT: optical line terminal; ODN: optical distribution network; ONU: optical network unit; Mux/Demux: multiplexing/demultiplexing; MDM: mode-division multiplexing; CAP: carrier-less amplitude/phase; SMF: signal-mode fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Digital signal processing (DSP) flow chart for CAP-16 signal. (a) The transmitter of the CAP signal. (b) The receiver of the CAP signal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of downstream transmission in a MDM-CAP-PON architecture. OLT: optical line terminal; ODN: optical distribution network; ONU: optical network unit; PC: polarization controller; IM: intensity modulator; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; VOA: variable optical attenuator; OC: optical coupler; SMF: single-mode fiber; Col: collimator; SLM: spatial light modulator; HWP: half-wave plate; PBS: polarization beam splitter; OL: objective lens; EC-FMF: elliptical-core few-mode fiber; PD: photodetector; DSP: digital signal processing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The time domain impulse responses of the shaping filter pairs. (b) The frequency domain impulse responses of the shaping filter pairs. (c) The electric spectrum of the CAP-16 signal at the transmitter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Cross-section view of the trench-assisted EC-FMF. (b) The effective refractive indices of four modes in EC-FMF (LP01x, LP01y, LP11ax, LP11ay). (c) Relative refractive index profile of the EC-FMF along the long axis. (d) Relative refractive index profile of the EC-FMF along the short axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured intensity profiles of the input and output LP modes in EC-FMF. (a) Intensity profiles of input LP modes. (b) Intensity profiles of output LP modes. (c) Intensity profiles of output LP modes after demodulation by the SLMs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured relative power variations under different fiber bending radii (4.5 mm, 6.3 mm, 12.6 mm) and loops (1, 3, 6, 10) for (a) LP01 mode and (b) LP11a mode. Red dashed line: without bending.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Recorded intensity profiles under different fiber bending radii (4.5 mm, 6.3 mm, 12.6 mm) and loops (1, 3, 6, 10) for (a) LP01 mode and (b) LP11a mode.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured BER and constellation performance for MDM-CAP-PON. (a) BER performance for downstream transmission link with the only LP01 mode and the only LP11a mode; (b) BER performance for the CAP-16 signals with mode crosstalk.

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