Abstract

We demonstrate a robust high power 930 nm femtosecond Nd:fiber laser system with hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) as the output delivery, which can be easily integrated into compact two-photon microscopy system for bio-imaging. The whole laser system can deliver up to 17.4 nJ, 220-fs pulses at 930 nm with repetition rate of 46 MHz. In this paper, this laser was demonstrated as the light source for volumetric imaging of zebrafish blood vessel.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (2)

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2011 (1)

G. Liu, K. Kieu, F. W. Wise, and Z. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopy system with a compact fiber-based femtosecond-pulse laser and handheld probe,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 34–39 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Nakai, M. Ohkura, and K. Imoto, “A high signal-to-noise Ca(2+) probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(2), 137–141 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

P. D. Dragic and G. C. Papen, “Efficient Amplification Using the 4F3/2 − 4I9/2 Transition in Nd-Doped Silica Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1593–1595 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Arai, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bierfeld, J.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cadier, B.

Chan, M. C.

Chen, B.

Chen, L.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, T. Jiang, W. Zong, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and A. Wang, “910nm femtosecond Nd-doped fiber laser for in vivo two-photon microscopic imaging,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16544–16549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

Chen, Z.

G. Liu, K. Kieu, F. W. Wise, and Z. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopy system with a compact fiber-based femtosecond-pulse laser and handheld probe,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 34–39 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Koninck, Y.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dragic, P. D.

P. D. Dragic and G. C. Papen, “Efficient Amplification Using the 4F3/2 − 4I9/2 Transition in Nd-Doped Silica Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1593–1595 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, D.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

Gilles, H.

Girard, S.

Guol, S. H.

Handa, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, R.

Imoto, K.

J. Nakai, M. Ohkura, and K. Imoto, “A high signal-to-noise Ca(2+) probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(2), 137–141 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, N.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, H.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, T.

Johnson, C. K.

Jung, Y.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kerlin, A.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kieu, K.

G. Liu, K. Kieu, F. W. Wise, and Z. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopy system with a compact fiber-based femtosecond-pulse laser and handheld probe,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 34–39 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Koyama, M.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lablonde, L.

Laroche, M.

Lee, J. W.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, J.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, K. Kieu, F. W. Wise, and Z. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopy system with a compact fiber-based femtosecond-pulse laser and handheld probe,” J. Biophotonics 4(1-2), 34–39 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lu, R.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, N.

Mohar, B.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molla, R. G.

Mourou, G.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nakai, J.

J. Nakai, M. Ohkura, and K. Imoto, “A high signal-to-noise Ca(2+) probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(2), 137–141 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namikawa, H.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ohkura, M.

J. Nakai, M. Ohkura, and K. Imoto, “A high signal-to-noise Ca(2+) probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(2), 137–141 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orger, M. B.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papen, G. C.

P. D. Dragic and G. C. Papen, “Efficient Amplification Using the 4F3/2 − 4I9/2 Transition in Nd-Doped Silica Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1593–1595 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Price, E. S.

Robin, T.

Rong, H.

W. Zong, R. Wu, M. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Rong, H. Wu, Y. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Jia, M. Fan, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhang, A. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Cheng, “Fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for brain imaging in freely behaving mice,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 713–719 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, J. K.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scholl, B.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seelig, J. D.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soh, D. B. S.

S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Stehno-Bittel, L.

Strickland, D.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C. K.

Sun, W.

R. Lu, W. Sun, Y. Liang, A. Kerlin, J. Bierfeld, J. D. Seelig, D. E. Wilson, B. Scholl, B. Mohar, M. Tanimoto, M. Koyama, D. Fitzpatrick, M. B. Orger, and N. Ji, “Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution,” Nat. Neurosci. 20(4), 620–628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tai, S. P.

Tang, S.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanimoto, M.

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S. Yoo, D. B. S. Soh, J. Kim, Y. Jung, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Analysis of W-type waveguide for Nd-doped fiber laser operating near 940 nm,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 153–162 (2005).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser system. a, mode-locked ring Nd:fiber oscillator; b, the filtering effect caused by the single-pass grating configuration; c, double-cladding amplifier. WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; LD, laser diode; PBS, polarization beam splitter; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Measured spectrum after the oscillator and amplifier; b, Emission spectrum of the Nd-doped W-type fiber; c, Slope efficiency of Nd-doped W-type fibers; d, Intensity Pulse delivery and imaging results autocorrelation traces of the compressed pulses. n, refractive index; r, fiber radius.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a. Intensity autocorrelation traces of the pulses; b. Beam profile after the HC-PBGF collimator; c, Unpolarized transmission loss and GVD of the HC-PBGF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the microscope system. DM, Dichroic Mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The blood vessel of an flk: EGFP zebrafish

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