Abstract

The effects of fiber orientation on vis/NIR light propagation were studied in three bovine muscles: biceps brachii, brachialis and soleus. Broadband light was focused onto the sample and the diffuse reflectance spot was captured using a hyperspectral camera (470-1620 nm), after which rhombuses were fitted to equi-intensity points. In samples with fibers running parallel to the measurement surface, the rhombus’ major axis was oriented perpendicular to the fiber direction close to the point of illumination. However, at larger distances from the illumination spot, the major axis orientation aligned with the fiber direction. This phenomenon was found to be muscle dependent. Furthermore, the rhombus orientation was highly dependent on the sample positioning underneath the camera, especially when the muscle fibers ran parallel to the measurement surface. The bias parameter, indicating the deviation from a circular shape, was higher for samples with the fibers running parallel to the measurement surface. Moreover, clear effects of wavelength and distance from the illumination point on this parameter were observed. These results show the importance of fiber orientation when considering optical techniques for measurements on anisotropic, fibrous tissues. Moreover, the prediction of muscle fiber orientation seemed feasible, which can be of interest to the meat industry.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (3)

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. H. A. Abildgaard, F. Kamran, A. B. Dahl, J. L. Skytte, F. D. Nielsen, C. L. Thomsen, P. E. Andersen, R. Larsen, and J. R. Frisvad, “Non-invasive assessment of dairy products using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 69(9), 1096–1105 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xiong, D.-W. Sun, X.-A. Zeng, and A. Xie, “Recent developments of hyperspectal imaging systems and their applications in detecting quality attributes of red meats: A review,” J. Food Eng. 132, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Reis and K. Rosenvold, “Early on-line classification of beef carcasses based on ultimate pH by near infrared spectroscopy,” Meat Sci. 96(22 Pt A), 862–869 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Damez and S. Clerjon, “Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: An overview,” Meat Sci. 95(4), 879–896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. Foschum, and A. Hohmann, “Light propagation in structural anisotropic media in the steady-state and time domains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(17), 6205–6223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Distribution of optical scattering properties in four beef muscles,” Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. 2(2), 75–81 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3998–4007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, “Anisotropic light diffusion: An oxymoron?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

M. S. Rhee, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie, “Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles,” J. Anim. Sci. 82(2), 534–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cozzolino and I. Murray, “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (Campinas) 37, 447–452 (2004).

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2617–2619 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prevolnik, M. Candek-Potokar, and D. Skorjanc, “Ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict meat chemical composition and quality – a review,” Czech J. Animal 2004, 500–510 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. Alomar, C. Gallo, M. Castañeda, and R. Fuchslocher, “Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS),” Meat Sci. 63(4), 441–450 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structured tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(10), 1361–1370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

B. J. Reuter, D. M. Wulf, and R. J. Maddock, “Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(10), 2594–2599 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kirchofer, C. B. Calkins, and B. L. Gwartney, “Fiber-type composition of muscles of the beef chuck and round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(11), 2872–2878 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. J. Millar, B. W. Moss, and M. H. Stevenson, “Some observations on the absorption spectra of various myoglobin derivatives found in meat,” Meat Sci. 42(3), 277–288 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

H. J. Swatland, “Physical measurements of meat quality: optical measurements, pros and cons,” Meat Sci. 36(1-2), 251–259 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

R. J. Elliott, “Effect of optical systems and sample preparation on the visible reflection spectra of pork muscle,” J. Sci. Food Agric. 18(8), 332–338 (1967).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

W. J. Bowen, “The absorption spectra and extinction coefficients of myoglobin,” J. Biol. Chem. 179(1), 235–245 (1949).
[PubMed]

Abildgaard, O. H. A.

Aernouts, B.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alomar, D.

D. Alomar, C. Gallo, M. Castañeda, and R. Fuchslocher, “Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS),” Meat Sci. 63(4), 441–450 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, P. E.

Andrés, S.

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballesteros, F.

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

Barlocco, N.

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

Bassi, A.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batten, G.

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belk, K. E.

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltrán, J. A.

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beullens, K.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Binzoni, T.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobelyn, E.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bowen, W. J.

W. J. Bowen, “The absorption spectra and extinction coefficients of myoglobin,” J. Biol. Chem. 179(1), 235–245 (1949).
[PubMed]

Bowling, M. B.

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brickler, J. E.

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burks, T. F.

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calkins, C. B.

K. S. Kirchofer, C. B. Calkins, and B. L. Gwartney, “Fiber-type composition of muscles of the beef chuck and round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(11), 2872–2878 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calkins, C. R.

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Candek-Potokar, M.

M. Prevolnik, M. Candek-Potokar, and D. Skorjanc, “Ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict meat chemical composition and quality – a review,” Czech J. Animal 2004, 500–510 (2004).

Castañeda, M.

D. Alomar, C. Gallo, M. Castañeda, and R. Fuchslocher, “Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS),” Meat Sci. 63(4), 441–450 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, K.

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clerjon, S.

J.-L. Damez and S. Clerjon, “Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: An overview,” Meat Sci. 95(4), 879–896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, C.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cozzolino, D.

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

D. Cozzolino and I. Murray, “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (Campinas) 37, 447–452 (2004).

Cubeddu, R.

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dagdug, L.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structured tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(10), 1361–1370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahl, A. B.

Damez, J.-L.

J.-L. Damez and S. Clerjon, “Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: An overview,” Meat Sci. 95(4), 879–896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Ketelaere, B.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Defraeye, T.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desmet, M.

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
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Elliott, R. J.

R. J. Elliott, “Effect of optical systems and sample preparation on the visible reflection spectra of pork muscle,” J. Sci. Food Agric. 18(8), 332–338 (1967).
[Crossref]

Erkinbaev, C.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Essenpreis, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

Foschum, F.

A. Kienle, F. Foschum, and A. Hohmann, “Light propagation in structural anisotropic media in the steady-state and time domains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(17), 6205–6223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frisvad, J. R.

Fuchslocher, R.

D. Alomar, C. Gallo, M. Castañeda, and R. Fuchslocher, “Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS),” Meat Sci. 63(4), 441–450 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galietta, G.

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

Gallo, C.

D. Alomar, C. Gallo, M. Castañeda, and R. Fuchslocher, “Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS),” Meat Sci. 63(4), 441–450 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structured tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(10), 1361–1370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerrard, D. E.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Distribution of optical scattering properties in four beef muscles,” Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. 2(2), 75–81 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gharbi, T.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giménez, B.

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giust, R.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gwartney, B. L.

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kirchofer, C. B. Calkins, and B. L. Gwartney, “Fiber-type composition of muscles of the beef chuck and round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(11), 2872–2878 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herremans, E.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertog, M. L.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Hohmann, A.

A. Kienle, F. Foschum, and A. Hohmann, “Light propagation in structural anisotropic media in the steady-state and time domains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(17), 6205–6223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, F.

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huybrechts, T.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. D.

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, W. M.

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamran, F.

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle, F. Foschum, and A. Hohmann, “Light propagation in structural anisotropic media in the steady-state and time domains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(17), 6205–6223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, “Anisotropic light diffusion: An oxymoron?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2617–2619 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirchofer, K. S.

K. S. Kirchofer, C. B. Calkins, and B. L. Gwartney, “Fiber-type composition of muscles of the beef chuck and round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(11), 2872–2878 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolb, C. A.

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koohmaraie, M.

M. S. Rhee, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie, “Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles,” J. Anim. Sci. 82(2), 534–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krämer, U.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lammertyn, J.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Larsen, R.

Lavín, P.

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

León Gutiérrez, L.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leung, T. S.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maddock, R. J.

B. J. Reuter, D. M. Wulf, and R. J. Maddock, “Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(10), 2594–2599 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meister, A.

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millar, S. J.

S. J. Millar, B. W. Moss, and M. H. Stevenson, “Some observations on the absorption spectra of various myoglobin derivatives found in meat,” Meat Sci. 42(3), 277–288 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, B. W.

S. J. Millar, B. W. Moss, and M. H. Stevenson, “Some observations on the absorption spectra of various myoglobin derivatives found in meat,” Meat Sci. 42(3), 277–288 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, I.

D. Cozzolino and I. Murray, “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (Campinas) 37, 447–452 (2004).

Nath, T. M.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nickell, S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicolaï, B.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nicolaï, B. M.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, F. D.

Patterson, M. S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peirs, A.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfündel, E. E.

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prevolnik, M.

M. Prevolnik, M. Candek-Potokar, and D. Skorjanc, “Ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict meat chemical composition and quality – a review,” Czech J. Animal 2004, 500–510 (2004).

Prieto, N.

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ranasinghesagara, J.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3998–4007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reis, M. M.

M. M. Reis and K. Rosenvold, “Early on-line classification of beef carcasses based on ultimate pH by near infrared spectroscopy,” Meat Sci. 96(22 Pt A), 862–869 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reuter, B. J.

B. J. Reuter, D. M. Wulf, and R. J. Maddock, “Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(10), 2594–2599 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, M. S.

M. S. Rhee, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie, “Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles,” J. Anim. Sci. 82(2), 534–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riederer, M.

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roehe, R.

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roncalés, P.

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenvold, K.

M. M. Reis and K. Rosenvold, “Early on-line classification of beef carcasses based on ultimate pH by near infrared spectroscopy,” Meat Sci. 96(22 Pt A), 862–869 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roux, J.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutten, K.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saevels, S.

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saeys, W.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Escalante, A.

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scanga, J. A.

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schenk, A.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seggern, D. D.

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shackelford, S. D.

M. S. Rhee, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie, “Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles,” J. Anim. Sci. 82(2), 534–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skorjanc, D.

M. Prevolnik, M. Candek-Potokar, and D. Skorjanc, “Ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict meat chemical composition and quality – a review,” Czech J. Animal 2004, 500–510 (2004).

Skytte, J. L.

Smith, G. C.

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevenson, M. H.

S. J. Millar, B. W. Moss, and M. H. Stevenson, “Some observations on the absorption spectra of various myoglobin derivatives found in meat,” Meat Sci. 42(3), 277–288 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, D.-W.

Z. Xiong, D.-W. Sun, X.-A. Zeng, and A. Xie, “Recent developments of hyperspectal imaging systems and their applications in detecting quality attributes of red meats: A review,” J. Food Eng. 132, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Swatland, H. J.

H. J. Swatland, “Physical measurements of meat quality: optical measurements, pros and cons,” Meat Sci. 36(1-2), 251–259 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Swatland, “Optical Properties of Meat,” in 65th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference (2012), pp. 1–7.

Taroni, P.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatum, J. D.

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theron, K.

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Theron, K. I.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, C. L.

Torrescano, G.

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tribillon, G.

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vadell, A.

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

Van Beers, R.

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandendriessche, T.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verboven, P.

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verlinden, B. E.

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vote, D. J.

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watté, R.

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, A.

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Distribution of optical scattering properties in four beef muscles,” Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. 2(2), 75–81 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, A. D.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, G. H.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structured tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(10), 1361–1370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, S. J.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wetzel, C.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, T. L.

M. S. Rhee, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie, “Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles,” J. Anim. Sci. 82(2), 534–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, E.

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulf, D. M.

B. J. Reuter, D. M. Wulf, and R. J. Maddock, “Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(10), 2594–2599 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, J.

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Distribution of optical scattering properties in four beef muscles,” Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. 2(2), 75–81 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, A.

Z. Xiong, D.-W. Sun, X.-A. Zeng, and A. Xie, “Recent developments of hyperspectal imaging systems and their applications in detecting quality attributes of red meats: A review,” J. Food Eng. 132, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Z.

Z. Xiong, D.-W. Sun, X.-A. Zeng, and A. Xie, “Recent developments of hyperspectal imaging systems and their applications in detecting quality attributes of red meats: A review,” J. Food Eng. 132, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, G.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Distribution of optical scattering properties in four beef muscles,” Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. 2(2), 75–81 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3998–4007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.-A.

Z. Xiong, D.-W. Sun, X.-A. Zeng, and A. Xie, “Recent developments of hyperspectal imaging systems and their applications in detecting quality attributes of red meats: A review,” J. Food Eng. 132, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anim. Sci. (1)

N. Barlocco, A. Vadell, F. Ballesteros, G. Galietta, and D. Cozzolino, “Predicting intramuscular fat, moisture and Warner-Bratzler shear force in pork muscle using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” Anim. Sci. 82, 111–116 (2007).

Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (1)

B. M. Nicolaï, T. Defraeye, B. De Ketelaere, E. Herremans, M. L. Hertog, W. Saeys, A. Torricelli, T. Vandendriessche, and P. Verboven, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality,” Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5(1), 285–312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Czech J. Animal (1)

M. Prevolnik, M. Candek-Potokar, and D. Skorjanc, “Ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict meat chemical composition and quality – a review,” Czech J. Animal 2004, 500–510 (2004).

Food Bioproc. Techol. (1)

R. Van Beers, B. Aernouts, L. León Gutiérrez, C. Erkinbaev, K. Rutten, A. Schenk, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, “Optimal Illumination-Detection Distance and Detector Size for Predicting Braeburn Apple Maturity from Vis/NIR Laser Reflectance Measurements,” Food Bioproc. Techol. 8(10), 2123–2136 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Agric. Food Chem. (1)

C. A. Kolb, E. Wirth, W. M. Kaiser, A. Meister, M. Riederer, and E. E. Pfündel, “Noninvasive evaluation of the degree of ripeness in grape berries (vitis vinifera L. Cv. Bacchus and silvaner) by chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(2), 299–305 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anim. Sci. (3)

B. J. Reuter, D. M. Wulf, and R. J. Maddock, “Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(10), 2594–2599 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rhee, T. L. Wheeler, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie, “Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles,” J. Anim. Sci. 82(2), 534–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kirchofer, C. B. Calkins, and B. L. Gwartney, “Fiber-type composition of muscles of the beef chuck and round,” J. Anim. Sci. 80(11), 2872–2878 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

W. J. Bowen, “The absorption spectra and extinction coefficients of myoglobin,” J. Biol. Chem. 179(1), 235–245 (1949).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model.,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dairy Sci. (1)

B. Aernouts, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, T. Huybrechts, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk,” J. Dairy Sci. 98(10), 6727–6738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Food Eng. (2)

J. Qin, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, R. Lu, and T. F. Burks, “Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality,” J. Food Eng. 118(2), 157–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiong, D.-W. Sun, X.-A. Zeng, and A. Xie, “Recent developments of hyperspectal imaging systems and their applications in detecting quality attributes of red meats: A review,” J. Food Eng. 132, 1–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Food Sci. (1)

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sci. Food Agric. (1)

R. J. Elliott, “Effect of optical systems and sample preparation on the visible reflection spectra of pork muscle,” J. Sci. Food Agric. 18(8), 332–338 (1967).
[Crossref]

LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (Campinas) (1)

D. Cozzolino and I. Murray, “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (Campinas) 37, 447–452 (2004).

Meat Sci. (10)

S. J. Millar, B. W. Moss, and M. H. Stevenson, “Some observations on the absorption spectra of various myoglobin derivatives found in meat,” Meat Sci. 42(3), 277–288 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Alomar, C. Gallo, M. Castañeda, and R. Fuchslocher, “Chemical and discriminant analysis of bovine meat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS),” Meat Sci. 63(4), 441–450 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-L. Damez and S. Clerjon, “Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: An overview,” Meat Sci. 95(4), 879–896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Reis and K. Rosenvold, “Early on-line classification of beef carcasses based on ultimate pH by near infrared spectroscopy,” Meat Sci. 96(22 Pt A), 862–869 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Bowling, D. J. Vote, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith, “Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness,” Meat Sci. 82(1), 1–5 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Prieto, R. Roehe, P. Lavín, G. Batten, and S. Andrés, “Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review,” Meat Sci. 83(2), 175–186 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Swatland, “Physical measurements of meat quality: optical measurements, pros and cons,” Meat Sci. 36(1-2), 251–259 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Torrescano, A. Sánchez-Escalante, B. Giménez, P. Roncalés, and J. A. Beltrán, “Shear values of raw samples of 14 bovine muscles and their relation to muscle collagen characteristics,” Meat Sci. 64(1), 85–91 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Seggern, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, J. E. Brickler, and B. L. Gwartney, “Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round,” Meat Sci. 71(1), 39–51 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, C. Courvoisier, R. Giust, G. Tribillon, T. Gharbi, J. C. Hebden, T. S. Leung, J. Roux, and D. T. Delpy, “Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(5), N79–N90 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structured tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(10), 1361–1370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. Foschum, and A. Hohmann, “Light propagation in structural anisotropic media in the steady-state and time domains,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(17), 6205–6223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Kienle, “Anisotropic light diffusion: An oxymoron?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Postharvest Biol. Technol. (2)

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. M. Nicolaï, B. E. Verlinden, M. Desmet, S. Saevels, W. Saeys, K. Theron, R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, and A. Torricelli, “Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 47(1), 68–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. (1)

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Distribution of optical scattering properties in four beef muscles,” Sens. Instrum. Food Qual. Saf. 2(2), 75–81 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

H. J. Swatland, “Optical Properties of Meat,” in 65th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference (2012), pp. 1–7.

A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, M. Vanoli, M. Leitner, A. Nemeth, N. Nguyen Do Trong, B. Nicolaï, and W. Saeys, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Space-Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy (SRS) and Time-Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy (TRS): Principles and Applications to Food Microstructures (Elsevier, 2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the different muscle slicing directions: (a) transversal, (b) perpendicular and (c) parallel to the fiber orientation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the used setup. A sample with the fibers running parallel to the measurement surface (along the y-axis) is shown. The yaw angle is the rotation angle in the xy-plane with respect to the x-axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectroscopic profiles from the three different muscles (a-c) and the different slicing directions. The inset figure shows a close-up of the reflectance spectra for the BR muscle. The vertical dotted lines indicate the absorption wavelengths of water at 970 nm, 1200 nm, 1450 nm and 1940 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of raw images at 849 nm from the biceps brachii muscle cut with the fibers running parallel to the measurement surface: fibers from a) top to bottom and c) diagonally from upper left corner to lower right corner. b) + d) The red dots indicate the actual data points of the 50% equi-intensity level, while the solid black lines represent the fitted rhombuses with major axis. b) q = 1.42, B = 1.15; d) q = 1.48, B = 1.15.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Rhombus fitted at six different equi-intensity levels (75%, 40%, 25%, 15%, 8% and 5%) for the BB muscle with the fibers running parallel to the measurement surface (along the Y spatial dimension). White lines indicate the rhombuses with their major axis perpendicular to the fiber direction, while the red lines indicate rhombuses with their major axis parallel with the fiber direction. b) Major axis orientation of fitted rhombuses (equi-intensity level 65% of maximum intensity) relative to the X spatial direction of the SOL muscle sample with the fibers running parallel to the measurement surface, at different initial yaw angles (in legend) and at different wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of rhombuses fitted on the images acquired under different yaw angles for the SOL muscle cut with the fibers running parallel to the measurement surface. Three different wavelengths are shown: (a) 612 nm; (b) 760 nm; (c) 1006 nm. Every colored line indicates a fitted rhombus with major axis, with a different initial yaw angle. At yaw angle 0°, the muscle fibers are running parallel to the X spatial dimension.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimated bias parameter values at a yaw angle of 90° for the different muscle types and slicing directions as a function of the wavelength and the distance from the point of illumination.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear regression results for the relation between applied yaw angle and the predicted rhombus orientation angle. R2 = coefficient of determination; RMSEP = root mean square error of prediction [°].

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( | x | a ) 2 p+1 + ( | y | b ) 2 p+1 =1
q= 2 p+1
B= ( b a ) 2

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