Abstract

Two-dimensional spectroscopy is performed on a terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) with two broadband THz pulses. Gain switching is used to amplify the first THz pulse and the second THz pulse is used to probe the system. Fourier transforms are taken with respect to the delay time between the two THz pulses and the sampling time of the THz probe pulse. The two-dimensional spectrum consists of three peaks at (ωτ = 0, ωt = ω0), (ωτ = ω0, ωt = ω0), and (ωτ = 2ω0, ωt = ω0) where ω0 denotes the lasing frequency. The peak at ωτ = 0 represents the response of the probe to the zero-frequency (rectified) component of the instantaneous intensity and can be used to measure the gain recovery.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  35. The THz pulses are modulated by placing an optical chopper in one arm of the Michelson interferometer.
  36. J. Kim, V. M. Huxter, C. Curutchet, and G. D. Scholes, “Measurement of electron-electron interactions and correlations using two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(44), 12122–12133 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. Kim, S. Mukamel, and G. D. Scholes, “Two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1375–1384 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. D. B. Turner and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells,” Nature 466(7310), 1089–1092 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16662 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

J. Lu, X. Li, H. Y. Hwang, B. K. Ofori-Okai, T. Kurihara, T. Suemoto, and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(20), 207204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, M. J. Süess, M. Beck, K. Unterrainer, J. Darmo, J. Faist, and G. Scalari, “Short pulse generation and mode control of broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 3(10), 1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, R. A. Mohandas, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and P. Dean, “Gain recovery time in a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Markmann, H. Nong, S. Pal, N. Hekmat, S. Scholz, N. Kukharchyk, A. Ludwig, S. Dhillon, J. Tignon, X. Marcadet, C. Bock, U. Kunze, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111103 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3117–3125 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade Lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Maag, A. Bayer, S. Baierl, M. Hohenleutner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, D. Schuh, D. Bougeard, C. Lange, R. Huber, M. Mootz, J. E. Sipe, S. W. Koch, and M. Kira, “Coherent cyclotron motion beyond Kohn’s theorem,” Nat. Phys. 12(2), 119–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. M. Brańczyk, D. B. Turner, and G. D. Scholes, “Crossing disciplines - A view on two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Ann. Phys. 526(1-2), 31–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Nong, S. Pal, S. Markmann, N. Hekmat, R. A. Mohandas, P. Dean, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, E. Lalanne, P. Q. Liu, X. Wang, C. F. Gmachl, and A. M. Johnson, “Femtosecond Carrier Dynamics and Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(1), 92–104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16662 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and U. Schade, “Strong correlation of electronic and lattice excitations in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells revealed by two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 067401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. B. Turner and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells,” Nature 466(7310), 1089–1092 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, V. M. Huxter, C. Curutchet, and G. D. Scholes, “Measurement of electron-electron interactions and correlations using two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(44), 12122–12133 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S. Mukamel, and G. D. Scholes, “Two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1375–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324(5931), 1169–1173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain Recovery Dynamics and Photon-Driven Transport in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

G. C. Loata, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Radiation field screening in photoconductive antennae studied via pulsed terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 232506 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 75–83 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Li, T. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Worrall, J. Alton, M. Houghton, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Continuous wave operation of a superlattice quantum cascade laser emitting at 2 THz,” Opt. Express 14(1), 171–181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time,” Science 309(5739), 1338–1343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. M. Jonas, “Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 425–463 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Worrall, J. Alton, M. Houghton, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Continuous wave operation of a superlattice quantum cascade laser emitting at 2 THz,” Opt. Express 14(1), 171–181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arthaber, H.

Asbury, J.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time,” Science 309(5739), 1338–1343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austerer, M.

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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
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S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
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C. Worrall, J. Alton, M. Houghton, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Continuous wave operation of a superlattice quantum cascade laser emitting at 2 THz,” Opt. Express 14(1), 171–181 (2006).
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Beere, H. E.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
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R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075303 (2009).
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S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
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C. Worrall, J. Alton, M. Houghton, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Continuous wave operation of a superlattice quantum cascade laser emitting at 2 THz,” Opt. Express 14(1), 171–181 (2006).
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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Bock, C.

S. Markmann, H. Nong, S. Pal, N. Hekmat, S. Scholz, N. Kukharchyk, A. Ludwig, S. Dhillon, J. Tignon, X. Marcadet, C. Bock, U. Kunze, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111103 (2015).
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X. Li, T. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057406 (2006).
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T. Maag, A. Bayer, S. Baierl, M. Hohenleutner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, D. Schuh, D. Bougeard, C. Lange, R. Huber, M. Mootz, J. E. Sipe, S. W. Koch, and M. Kira, “Coherent cyclotron motion beyond Kohn’s theorem,” Nat. Phys. 12(2), 119–123 (2015).
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A. M. Brańczyk, D. B. Turner, and G. D. Scholes, “Crossing disciplines - A view on two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Ann. Phys. 526(1-2), 31–49 (2014).
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F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
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S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
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Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
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J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
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Capasso, F.

Cavalié, P.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
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J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16662 (2012).
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J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time,” Science 309(5739), 1338–1343 (2005).
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H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain Recovery Dynamics and Photon-Driven Transport in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
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W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade Lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
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K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324(5931), 1169–1173 (2009).
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X. Li, T. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057406 (2006).
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J. Kim, V. M. Huxter, C. Curutchet, and G. D. Scholes, “Measurement of electron-electron interactions and correlations using two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(44), 12122–12133 (2009).
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D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, M. J. Süess, M. Beck, K. Unterrainer, J. Darmo, J. Faist, and G. Scalari, “Short pulse generation and mode control of broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 3(10), 1087 (2016).
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D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3117–3125 (2015).
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J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
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Davies, A. G.

D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, R. A. Mohandas, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and P. Dean, “Gain recovery time in a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081104 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade Lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
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H. Nong, S. Pal, S. Markmann, N. Hekmat, R. A. Mohandas, P. Dean, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111113 (2014).
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J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16662 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Dean, P.

D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, R. A. Mohandas, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and P. Dean, “Gain recovery time in a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Nong, S. Pal, S. Markmann, N. Hekmat, R. A. Mohandas, P. Dean, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16662 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
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Dhillon, S.

S. Markmann, H. Nong, S. Pal, N. Hekmat, S. Scholz, N. Kukharchyk, A. Ludwig, S. Dhillon, J. Tignon, X. Marcadet, C. Bock, U. Kunze, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111103 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade Lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
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J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16662 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

Eickemeyer, F.

F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
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Elsaesser, T.

W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and U. Schade, “Strong correlation of electronic and lattice excitations in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells revealed by two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 067401 (2011).
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W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
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Faist, J.

Fayer, M. D.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 75–83 (2007).
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J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time,” Science 309(5739), 1338–1343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filloux, P.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J. R.

D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, R. A. Mohandas, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and P. Dean, “Gain recovery time in a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081104 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade Lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
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Gaal, P.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
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Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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Giovannini, M.

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain Recovery Dynamics and Photon-Driven Transport in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
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[Crossref]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
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J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
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J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075303 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, D. B.

A. M. Brańczyk, D. B. Turner, and G. D. Scholes, “Crossing disciplines - A view on two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Ann. Phys. 526(1-2), 31–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. B. Turner and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells,” Nature 466(7310), 1089–1092 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324(5931), 1169–1173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, M. J. Süess, M. Beck, K. Unterrainer, J. Darmo, J. Faist, and G. Scalari, “Short pulse generation and mode control of broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 3(10), 1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Bachmann, N. Leder, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, H. Arthaber, J. Faist, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3117–3125 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vasanelli, A.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vinh, N. Q.

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

Wang, F.

Wang, X.

S. Liu, E. Lalanne, P. Q. Liu, X. Wang, C. F. Gmachl, and A. M. Johnson, “Femtosecond Carrier Dynamics and Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(1), 92–104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Wenckebach, W. Th.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wieck, A. D.

S. Markmann, H. Nong, S. Pal, N. Hekmat, S. Scholz, N. Kukharchyk, A. Ludwig, S. Dhillon, J. Tignon, X. Marcadet, C. Bock, U. Kunze, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111103 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nong, S. Pal, S. Markmann, N. Hekmat, R. A. Mohandas, P. Dean, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wilson, L. R.

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woerner, M.

W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and U. Schade, “Strong correlation of electronic and lattice excitations in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells revealed by two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 067401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Worrall, C.

Wu, Z.-K.

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain Recovery Dynamics and Photon-Driven Transport in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

X. Li, T. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.-Y.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 75–83 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time,” Science 309(5739), 1338–1343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (2)

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 75–83 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S. Mukamel, and G. D. Scholes, “Two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1375–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

A. M. Brańczyk, D. B. Turner, and G. D. Scholes, “Crossing disciplines - A view on two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Ann. Phys. 526(1-2), 31–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. M. Jonas, “Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 425–463 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Markmann, H. Nong, S. Pal, N. Hekmat, S. Scholz, N. Kukharchyk, A. Ludwig, S. Dhillon, J. Tignon, X. Marcadet, C. Bock, U. Kunze, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111103 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. C. Loata, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Radiation field screening in photoconductive antennae studied via pulsed terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 232506 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Nong, S. Pal, S. Markmann, N. Hekmat, R. A. Mohandas, P. Dean, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, A. D. Wieck, and N. Jukam, “Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalié, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181115 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, R. A. Mohandas, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and P. Dean, “Gain recovery time in a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081104 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

S. Liu, E. Lalanne, P. Q. Liu, X. Wang, C. F. Gmachl, and A. M. Johnson, “Femtosecond Carrier Dynamics and Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(1), 92–104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. Kim, V. M. Huxter, C. Curutchet, and G. D. Scholes, “Measurement of electron-electron interactions and correlations using two-dimensional electronic double-quantum coherence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(44), 12122–12133 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Julien Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade Laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Maag, A. Bayer, S. Baierl, M. Hohenleutner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, D. Schuh, D. Bougeard, C. Lange, R. Huber, M. Mootz, J. E. Sipe, S. W. Koch, and M. Kira, “Coherent cyclotron motion beyond Kohn’s theorem,” Nat. Phys. 12(2), 119–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Turner and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells,” Nature 466(7310), 1089–1092 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

F. Eickemeyer, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, G. Strasser, T. Müller, R. Bratschitsch, and K. Unterrainer, “Ultrafast coherent electron transport in semiconductor quantum cascade structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(4), 047402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain Recovery Dynamics and Photon-Driven Transport in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, X. Li, H. Y. Hwang, B. K. Ofori-Okai, T. Kurihara, T. Suemoto, and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(20), 207204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, T. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and U. Schade, “Strong correlation of electronic and lattice excitations in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells revealed by two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 067401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324(5931), 1169–1173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time,” Science 309(5739), 1338–1343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Hamm and M. Zanni, Concepts and Methods of 2D Infrared Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, 2011).

The THz pulses are modulated by placing an optical chopper in one arm of the Michelson interferometer.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Two THz pulses are injected into the QCL. A RF bias pulse drives the QCL above threshold and amplifies the first THz pulse (the seed). The second THz pulse (the probe) is injected into the QCL at a later time. (b) The RF bias pulse (blue) and the amplified seed (black). Insert: Fourier transform of the amplified seed. (c) Transmitted probe pulse injected at 350 ps. The probe is modulated for lock-in detection to remove the seed (pump) from signal. Red: Portion of the probe field amplified by the QCL. It is longer than the incident pulse on account of the narrower QCL gain bandwidth. Insert: Fourier transform of the transmitted probe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Two-dimensional spectra of the THz probe for delay times τ = 345-365 ps (a) and τ = 385-405 ps (b). The sampling time window is 13 ps. (c) The amplified seed (the pump) versus time. The dashed rectangles correspond to the delay times in (a) and (b). The square of the spectral amplitude is integrated along the sampling frequency for the upper half of the two-dimensional spectra and shown in (d) and (e) for parts (a) and (b), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The black squares show the spectral amplitude of the S(ωτ = 2ω0, ωt = ω0) peak as a function of sampling time t for a series of two-dimensional spectra with a scan duration of approximately 1 ps for both the delay and sampling times. The blue line shows the envelope of the instantaneous intensity as a function of the sampling time.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The black squares show the spectral amplitude of the S(ωτ = 0, ωt = ω0) peak as a function of the sampling time t for a series of two-dimensional spectra with a scan duration of approximately 1 ps for both the delay and sampling times. The blue line shows the envelope of the instantaneous intensity as a function of sampling time.

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