Abstract

In recent years several ways to radiometrically calibrate optical fiber-coupled detectors have been developed. However, fiber-coupled calibration methods for single photon detectors have not been compared by national metrology institutes in order to validate their equivalence or traceability to the international systems of units yet.. Here, we present the comparison of radiometric calibration methods traceable to a NIST cryogenic radiometer at the ‘few-photon’ level. The calibration methods are based on metrology grade optical power meters. The expanded (k = 2) relative standard uncertainties of the calibration methods for the detection efficiency are of the order of 0.5%. However, the results changed relatively by 10% with a different set of optical fibers and mating connectors. These results stress the importance of fiber-core dimensions and fiber-connector repeatability.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  4. B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. Mueller, R. Klein, and L. Werner, “Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation,” Metrologia 51S329 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Lunghi, B. Korzh, B. Sanguinetti, and H. Zbinden, “Absolute calibration of fiber-coupled single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18078 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Lopez, H. Hofer, and S. Kueck, “Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(2), S21–S27 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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  13. I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).
  14. O. Bodnar, A Link, and C Elster, “Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model,” Bayesian Analysis 11(1), 25–45, (2016).
    [Crossref]
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  17. M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

2016 (2)

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bodnar, A Link, and C Elster, “Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model,” Bayesian Analysis 11(1), 25–45, (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Lopez, H. Hofer, and S. Kueck, “Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(2), S21–S27 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

I. Mueller, R. Klein, and L. Werner, “Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation,” Metrologia 51S329 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Lunghi, B. Korzh, B. Sanguinetti, and H. Zbinden, “Absolute calibration of fiber-coupled single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mogilevtsev, “Calibration of single-photon detectors using quantum statistics,” Phys. Rev. A 021807(82), 1–4 (2010).

2009 (2)

S. V. Polyakov and A. L. Migdall, “Quantum radiometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(9), 1045–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2000 (1)

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).

Abellan, C.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

abo-Bakr, M.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Allman, M.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amemiya, K.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beyer, J.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bienfang, J.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bierhorst, P.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bodnar, O.

O. Bodnar, A Link, and C Elster, “Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model,” Bayesian Analysis 11(1), 25–45, (2016).
[Crossref]

Braakman, F. R.

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brandt, G.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Buerkmann-Gehrlein, K.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Christensen, B.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chunnilall, C. J.

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

Claudon, J.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coakley, K.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cromer, C. L.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).

Degiovanni, I.

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dhoska, K.

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Divochiy, A.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dood, M. J. A. De

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, S. N.

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

Driessen, E. F. C.

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dyer, S.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elster, C

O. Bodnar, A Link, and C Elster, “Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model,” Bayesian Analysis 11(1), 25–45, (2016).
[Crossref]

Endo, M.

Farr, W.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feikes, J.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Fliegauf, R.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Fukuda, D.

Gambon, A.

Gerrits, T.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giustina, M.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Glancy, S.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Golt’sman, G.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guenther, B.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Haas, P.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Hamel, D.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Handsteiner, J.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartrott, M. V.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Hochrainer, A.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hodge, C.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoehl, A.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Hofer, H.

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lopez, H. Hofer, and S. Kueck, “Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(2), S21–S27 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holldack, K.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Huebers, H. W.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Ilin, K.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Jennewein, T.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaurova, N.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kimura, S.

Klein, R.

I. Mueller, R. Klein, and L. Werner, “Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation,” Metrologia 51S329 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Knill, E.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kofler, J.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Korneev, A.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korzh, B.

Kuebarsepp, T.

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kueck, S.

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lopez, H. Hofer, and S. Kueck, “Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(2), S21–S27 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumor, D.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwiat, P.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lambrocco, C.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Larsson, J. A.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lehman, J. H.

Li, X.

Link, A

O. Bodnar, A Link, and C Elster, “Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model,” Bayesian Analysis 11(1), 25–45, (2016).
[Crossref]

Lita, A.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Livigni, D. J.

Lopez, M.

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lopez, H. Hofer, and S. Kueck, “Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(2), S21–S27 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lunghi, T.

Marsili, F.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meyer-Scott, E.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Migdall, A.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Migdall, A. L.

Minaeva, O.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, M.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mogilevtsev, D.

D. Mogilevtsev, “Calibration of single-photon detectors using quantum statistics,” Phys. Rev. A 021807(82), 1–4 (2010).

Morel, J.

Mueller, I.

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Mueller, R. Klein, and L. Werner, “Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation,” Metrologia 51S329 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mueller, R.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Mukai, S.

Nam, S. W.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phelan, K.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poizat, J.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Polyakov, S. V.

Pomarico, E.

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruneri, V.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rahn, J.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Reiger, E. M.

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sanguinetti, B.

T. Lunghi, B. Korzh, B. Sanguinetti, and H. Zbinden, “Absolute calibration of fiber-coupled single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheidl, T.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scott, T. R.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).

Sekatski, P.

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seleznev, V.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semenov, A.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Shalm, L.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalm, LK

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Siegel, M.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Sinclair, A. G.

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steinlechner, F.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stern, J.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stevens, M.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tarkhov, M.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thornagel, R.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Tortorici, E.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ulm, G.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Ursin, R.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Vayshenker, J. H. Lehman, D. J. Livigni, X. Li, K. Amemiya, D. Fukuda, S. Mukai, S. Kimura, M. Endo, J. Morel, and A. Gambon, “Trilateral optical power meter comparison between NIST, NMIJ/AIST, and METAS,” Appl. Opt. 46, 643–647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).

verma, V.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Versteegh, M.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wayne, M.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wengerowsky, S.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werner, L.

I. Mueller, R. Klein, and L. Werner, “Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation,” Metrologia 51S329 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, B.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wuestefeld, G.

R. Klein, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Hoehl, R. Mueller, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, M. abo-Bakr, K. Buerkmann-Gehrlein, J. Feikes, M. V. Hartrott, K. Holldack, J. Rahn, and G. Wuestefeld, “Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard,” Phys. Rev. STAB 11, 110701 (2008).

Yang, S.

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).

Zbinden, H.

T. Lunghi, B. Korzh, B. Sanguinetti, and H. Zbinden, “Absolute calibration of fiber-coupled single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. Semenov, and G. Golt’sman, “Ultrafast reset time of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 92(24), 241112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bayesian Analysis (1)

O. Bodnar, A Link, and C Elster, “Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model,” Bayesian Analysis 11(1), 25–45, (2016).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. F. C. Driessen, F. R. Braakman, E. M. Reiger, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and M. J. A. De Dood, “Impedance model for the polarization-dependent optical absorption of superconducting single-photon detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4710701 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

S. V. Polyakov and A. L. Migdall, “Quantum radiometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(9), 1045–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Lopez, H. Hofer, and S. Kueck, “Detection efficiency calibration of single-photon silicon avalanche photodiodes traceable using double attenuator technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(2), S21–S27 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Low Temperature Physics (1)

A. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Guenther, H. W. Huebers, K. Ilin, and M. Siegel, “Energy Resolution of a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” Journal of Low Temperature Physics 151, 564–569 (2008).

Metrologia (1)

I. Mueller, R. Klein, and L. Werner, “Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation,” Metrologia 51S329 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

NIST Special Publication (1)

I. Vayshenker, S. Yang, X. Li, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, “Optical fiber power meter nonlinearity calibrations at NIST,” NIST Special Publication 250, 56 (2000).

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. J. Chunnilall, I. Degiovanni, S. Kueck, I. Mueller, and A. G. Sinclair, “Metrology of single-photon sources and detectors: a review,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81910 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Mogilevtsev, “Calibration of single-photon detectors using quantum statistics,” Phys. Rev. A 021807(82), 1–4 (2010).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

LK Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. Wayne, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. Hamel, M. Allman, K. Coakley, S. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. Lita, V. verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. Kumor, W. Farr, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, J. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. Mitchell, P. Kwiat, J. Bienfang, R. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J. A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. Lita, L. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Sanguinetti, E. Pomarico, P. Sekatski, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cloning for absolute radiometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 080503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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SpringerPlus (1)

K. Dhoska, H. Hofer, M. Lopez, T. Kuebarsepp, and S. Kueck, “Improvement of the detection efficiency calibration and homogeneity measurement of Si-SPAD detectors,” SpringerPlus 5, 2065 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the calibrated attenuator setup to determine the detection efficiency of a SNSPD using laser radiation at 1547 nm. The radiation is fed into a polarization controller to maximize the count rate of the SNSPD. Optical attenuators are used to set the photon flux to an appropriate level for the SNSPDs. An optical switch is used to switch betweens the calibrated power meter and the SNSPD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated detector dead time caused blocking loss plotted over the photon rate. The calculation is assuming a detection efficiency of 14 % for NbN-SNSPDs (lower green line) and 80 % for WSi-SNSPD (upper red line) and dead times of 10 ns for the NbN-SNSPD and 40 ns for WSi-SNSPDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the direct substitution setup to determine the detection efficiency of a SNSPD using laser radiation at 1302 nm and 1547 nm. The radiation is fed into a polarization controller to maximize the count rate of the SNSPD. An optical attenuator is used to set a photon flux appropriate for both the reference detector and the SNSPD (see text).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Averaged results of measurement runs at 1547 nm using the calibrated attenuator method on 3 subsequent days. The runs were performed at different photon fluxes ranging from approximately 6 · 105 photons per second up to about 7.4 107 photons per second. The results of the first two days are plotted using circular (darker ·green) and square (green) markers. The results of the third day are plotted using red markers. The uncertainty bars shown are the standard deviation of the measurement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Detection efficiency of the SNSPD measured using the calibrated attenuator method plotted over the bias current. No systematic dependence of the detection efficiency on the photon flux up to resulting count rates of 11 MHz was observed. The scatter of the results is dominated by the change of the fiber connector losses of the calibration setup of the SNSPD. The uncertainty bars shown are the standard deviation of the measurement.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Detection efficiency of the SNSPD at a wavelength of 1302 nm and a bias current of 19.445 µA measured using the direct substitution method. The results plotted with square-shaped (green, before) and circular-shaped (red, after) markers were obtained using a different fiber and mating connector causing different connector losses and, hence, different measured detection efficiencies. The uncertainty bars shown are the standard deviation of the measurement.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Detection efficiency of the SNSPD at a wavelength of 1547 nm and a bias current of 19.445 µA measured using the substitution method. The green (after) and red (before) results were obtained using a different fiber and mating connector causing different connector losses and, hence, different measured detection efficiencies. The uncertainty bars shown are the standard deviation of the measurement.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Distributions of the detection efficiency obtained using the direct substitution method ([ds1547/1, red curve, most left], [ds1547/2, green curve, most right]) and the calibrated attenuator method ([ca, black curve, middle curve]). The distributions ds1547/1 and ds1547/2 were determined by applying the random effects model. Ca was calculated assuming a Gaussian distribution. (See text)
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated coupling efficiency of two optical single-mode fibers plotted over the core diameters of the two optical fibers. The maximum coupling efficiency is achieved when the fiber core diameters are identical.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calculated coupling efficiency of an 8.3 µm optical single-mode fiber into another optical single-mode fiber plotted over the core diameter of the second optical fiber and the lateral displacement of the cores. The thick black line shows the coupling losses into a second fiber with a core diameter of 8.3 µm.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Combined calibration factor for linearity and power reading and relative standard uncertainties u associated with the reference detector at 1547 nm used for the calibrated attenuator measurements. The total combined relative standard uncertainty of a power reading at the nW level is given by the uncertainty of the measurement at 2 mW in combination with the maximal uncertainty in linearity of 0.05 %.

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Table 2 Combined calibration factor for power reading and linearity and relative standard uncertainties u associated with the reference detector used for the direct substitution measurements. The uncertainties stated are only applicable in the pW power range.

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Table 3 Calibration results obtained using the calibrated attenuator method and the direct substitution method. The calibration wavelength λ, the detection efficiency DE, and the expanded relative standard uncertainty (k = 2) excluding connector losses Uex are stated. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uex indicated in the table is obtained by multiplying the standard uncertainty uη by the coverage factor k = 2. The direct substitution results are given for the fiber and mating connector sets 1 and 2.

Equations (3)

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B L = ( 1 1 1 + p r D E τ d ) 100
η = h c ( C R C R d a r k ) T R P o l λ ( P r a d P d a r k ) C .
q i = q + λ i + ϵ i ,

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