Abstract

Enhanced direct-gap light emission is reported for Si-capped n+-Ge layers on Si after post-growth rapid cyclic annealing (RCA), and impact of non-radiative recombination (NRR) at the Ge/Si interface is discussed toward Ge/Si double heterostructure (DH) lasers. P-doped n+-Ge layer (1 × 1019 cm−3, 400 nm) is grown on Si by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition, followed by a growth of Si capping layer (5 nm) to form a Si/Ge/Si DH structure. Post-growth RCA to eliminate defects in Ge is performed in N2 at temperatures between 900°C and 780°C, where the annealing time is minimized to be 5 s in each RCA cycle to prevent an out-diffusion of P dopants from the Ge surface. Direct-gap photoluminescence (PL) intensity at 1.6 µm increases with the RCA cycles up to 40, although the threading dislocation density in Ge is not reduced after 3 cycles in the present condition. The PL enhancement is ascribed to the suppression of NRR at the Ge/Si interface, where an intermixed SiGe alloy is formed. For Ge/Si DH lasers, NRR at the Ge/Si interface is found to have a significant impact on the threshold current density Jth. In order to achieve Jth on the order of 1 kA/cm2, similar to III-V lasers, the interface recombination velocity S is required below 103 cm/s in spite of S as large as 105 cm/s at the ordinary defect-rich Ge/Si interface.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Naoki Higashitarumizu and Yasuhiko Ishikawa, "Enhanced direct-gap light emission from Si-capped n+-Ge epitaxial layers on Si after post-growth rapid cyclic annealing: impact of non-radiative interface recombination toward Ge/Si double heterostructure lasers: erratum," Opt. Express 26, 23796-23797 (2018)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-26-18-23796

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References

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2015 (2)

2014 (2)

Y. Ishikawa and S. Saito, “Ge-on-Si photonic devices for photonic-electronic integration on a Si platform,” IEICE Electron. Express 11(24), 1–17 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Chi, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “GeO2 Passivation for Low Surface Recombination Velocity on Ge Surface,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(3), 444–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Pagès, J. Souhabi, V. J. B. Torres, A. V. Postnikov, and K. C. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: Percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011911 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. S. Carroll and R. Koudelka, “Accurate modelling of average phosphorus diffusivities in germanium after long thermal anneals: evidence of implant damage enhanced diffusivities,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S164–S167 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. E. Romanov, W. Pompe, G. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Modeling of Threading Dislocation Density Reduction in Heteroepitaxial Layers I. Geometry and Crystallography,” Phys. Status Solidi 198(2), 599–613 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. E. Ayers, “The measurement of threading dislocation densities in semiconductor crystals by X-ray diffraction,” J. Cryst. Growth 135(1–2), 71–77 (1994).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. Yamaguchi and C. Amano, “Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(9), 3601–3606 (1985).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

C. J. Nuese, “III-V alloys for optoerectronic applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 6(3), 253–293 (1977).
[Crossref]

M. Ettenberg and G. H. Olsen, “The recombination properties of lattice-mismatched InxGa1-xP/GaAs heterojunctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 4275–4280 (1977).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

H. Kressel, “The application of heterojunction structures to optical devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 4(5), 1081–1141 (1975).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. Cardona, K. L. Shaklee, and F. H. Pollak, “Electroreflectance at a semiconductor-electrolyte interface,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 696–720 (1967).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

C. Haas, “Infrared absorption in heavily doped n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. 125(6), 1965–1971 (1962).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, “Optical constants of germanium in the region 1 to 10 eV,” Phys. Rev. 113(4), 1002–1005 (1959).
[Crossref]

Amano, C.

M. Yamaguchi and C. Amano, “Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(9), 3601–3606 (1985).
[Crossref]

Aniel, F.

Arakawa, Y.

K. Oda, T. Okumura, K. Tani, T. Ido, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Improvement of photoluminescence from Ge waveguides fabricated by low temperature selective epitaxial growth and rapid thermal annealing,” in Proceedings IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 97–98.
[Crossref]

Ayers, J. E.

J. E. Ayers, “The measurement of threading dislocation densities in semiconductor crystals by X-ray diffraction,” J. Cryst. Growth 135(1–2), 71–77 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

Bechler, S.

Bellenger, F.

A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beltz, G.

A. E. Romanov, W. Pompe, G. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Modeling of Threading Dislocation Density Reduction in Heteroepitaxial Layers I. Geometry and Crystallography,” Phys. Status Solidi 198(2), 599–613 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bensahel, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

Boucaud, P.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boulmer, J.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cannon, D. D.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, K. L. Shaklee, and F. H. Pollak, “Electroreflectance at a semiconductor-electrolyte interface,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 696–720 (1967).
[Crossref]

Carroll, M. S.

M. S. Carroll and R. Koudelka, “Accurate modelling of average phosphorus diffusivities in germanium after long thermal anneals: evidence of implant damage enhanced diffusivities,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S164–S167 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caymax, M.

A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-C.

Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Chi, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “GeO2 Passivation for Low Surface Recombination Velocity on Ge Surface,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(3), 444–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Chi, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “GeO2 Passivation for Low Surface Recombination Velocity on Ge Surface,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(3), 444–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.-H.

Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Chi, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “GeO2 Passivation for Low Surface Recombination Velocity on Ge Surface,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(3), 444–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Conard, T.

A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Damlencourt, J. F.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Debarre, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Delabie, A.

A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ettenberg, M.

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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
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Y. Ishikawa and S. Saito, “Ge-on-Si photonic devices for photonic-electronic integration on a Si platform,” IEICE Electron. Express 11(24), 1–17 (2014).
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K. Oda, T. Okumura, K. Tani, T. Ido, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Improvement of photoluminescence from Ge waveguides fabricated by low temperature selective epitaxial growth and rapid thermal annealing,” in Proceedings IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 97–98.
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R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge Fabry-Perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14815–14822 (2015).
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M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
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J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
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R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
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[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
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H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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Kociniewski, T.

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[Crossref]

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. W.

Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Chi, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “GeO2 Passivation for Low Surface Recombination Velocity on Ge Surface,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(3), 444–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011911 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Luan, H.-C.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
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H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meuris, M.

A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011911 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
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M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T. P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
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R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge Fabry-Perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14815–14822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
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M. Ettenberg and G. H. Olsen, “The recombination properties of lattice-mismatched InxGa1-xP/GaAs heterojunctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 4275–4280 (1977).
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O. Pagès, J. Souhabi, V. J. B. Torres, A. V. Postnikov, and K. C. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: Percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 045201 (2012).
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Pan, D.

Patel, N.

Perova, T. S.

T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
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H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, “Optical constants of germanium in the region 1 to 10 eV,” Phys. Rev. 113(4), 1002–1005 (1959).
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M. Cardona, K. L. Shaklee, and F. H. Pollak, “Electroreflectance at a semiconductor-electrolyte interface,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 696–720 (1967).
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J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
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A. E. Romanov, W. Pompe, G. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Modeling of Threading Dislocation Density Reduction in Heteroepitaxial Layers I. Geometry and Crystallography,” Phys. Status Solidi 198(2), 599–613 (1996).
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Postnikov, A. V.

O. Pagès, J. Souhabi, V. J. B. Torres, A. V. Postnikov, and K. C. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: Percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 045201 (2012).
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Rode, K.

T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
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Romagnoli, M.

Romanov, A. E.

A. E. Romanov, W. Pompe, G. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Modeling of Threading Dislocation Density Reduction in Heteroepitaxial Layers I. Geometry and Crystallography,” Phys. Status Solidi 198(2), 599–613 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rustagi, K. C.

O. Pagès, J. Souhabi, V. J. B. Torres, A. V. Postnikov, and K. C. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: Percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

Saito, S.

Y. Ishikawa and S. Saito, “Ge-on-Si photonic devices for photonic-electronic integration on a Si platform,” IEICE Electron. Express 11(24), 1–17 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sasada, T.

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Schmid, M.

Schulze, J.

Shaklee, K. L.

M. Cardona, K. L. Shaklee, and F. H. Pollak, “Electroreflectance at a semiconductor-electrolyte interface,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 696–720 (1967).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Souhabi, J.

O. Pagès, J. Souhabi, V. J. B. Torres, A. V. Postnikov, and K. C. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: Percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

A. E. Romanov, W. Pompe, G. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Modeling of Threading Dislocation Density Reduction in Heteroepitaxial Layers I. Geometry and Crystallography,” Phys. Status Solidi 198(2), 599–613 (1996).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Süess, M. J.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011911 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taft, E. A.

H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, “Optical constants of germanium in the region 1 to 10 eV,” Phys. Rev. 113(4), 1002–1005 (1959).
[Crossref]

Takagi, S.

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, M.

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tani, K.

K. Oda, T. Okumura, K. Tani, T. Ido, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Improvement of photoluminescence from Ge waveguides fabricated by low temperature selective epitaxial growth and rapid thermal annealing,” in Proceedings IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 97–98.
[Crossref]

Torres, V. J. B.

O. Pagès, J. Souhabi, V. J. B. Torres, A. V. Postnikov, and K. C. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: Percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

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A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Houssa, T. Conard, S. Van Elshocht, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, and M. Meuris, “Effective electrical passivation of Ge(100) for high-k gate dielectric layers using germanium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Waldron, A.

T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wasyluk, J.

T. S. Perova, J. Wasyluk, K. Lyutovich, E. Kasper, M. Oehme, K. Rode, and A. Waldron, “Composition and strain in thin Si1-xGex virtual substrates measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(3), 033502 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Electron concentration versus growth temperature.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical temperature profile in RCA (10 cycles).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Typical AFM images (2 µm × 2 µm) taken for Si-capped n+-Ge samples after (a) 1 cycle, (b) 5 cycles, and (c) 50 cycles of RCA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Typical PL spectra for undoped and n+-Ge layers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized Ge (004) peaks in XRD ω scan for Si-capped n+-Ge before and after 3 cycles of RCA, (b) TD density estimated from XRD and (c) loss of electrons/P-dopants as a function of RCA cycles. In (b) and (c), the results for Si-capped and uncapped n+-Ge are shown with the fitting curves indicated by the dashed lines.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Typical Raman spectra for Si-capped Ge. Two different thicknesses of Si capping layer, 5 nm and 20 nm, are compared. As a reference, a Raman spectrum for bulk Si is also shown.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Typical Raman spectra for (a) uncapped n+-Ge and (b) Si-capped n+-Ge. The number of RCA cycles was changed up to 50. Raman spectra for bulk Ge and bulk Si are also shown as the references at the bottom of each figure.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Typical PL spectra for (a) uncapped n+-Ge and (b) Si-capped n+-Ge measured with a 785-nm excitation laser. The number of RCA cycles was changed up to 50.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Electron concentration in the Γ valley as a function of Si content in unstrained SiGe. The total electron concentration is assumed to be 1 × 1019 cm−3.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Normalized PL spectra from Si-capped n+-Ge measured with different excitation wavelength: (a) 457 nm and (b) 785 nm, and (c) PL enhancement as a function of the number of RCA cycles. In (a) and (b), the vertical axes are normalized with the peak intensities for 3 cycles of RCA.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Calculated depth profiles of hole concentration for several different S. (a) for 457 nm excitation and (b) for 785 nm excitation. The hole lifetime in Ge is assumed to be 0.1 ns.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Calculated I785/I457 as a function of S for different lifetime in Ge of 0.1 ns, 1 ns, and 10 ns, and (b) measured I785/I457 for Si-capped n+-Ge as a function of the number of RCA cycles.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) Calculated Jth as a function of interface recombination velocity S for several different lifetimes in Ge of 0.1–100 ns, and (b) schematic illustration showing the presence of high density of defects/dislocations at the Ge/Si interface due to the 4% lattice mismatch between Ge and Si.

Equations (6)

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ρ = β 2 / ( 9 b 2 ) ,
d ρ / d N = K ρ 2 , or ρ = ρ 0 / ( 1 + K ρ 0 N ) .
S = v t N S σ ,
N S = C × Δ a / a 0 3 ,
I λ = 0 d G e B Γ [ n Γ ( x ) p ( x ) n i 2 ] exp ( α x ) d x ,
Δ J t h = q d G e ( A / V ) p t h S ,

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