Abstract

The RAN architecture towards mobile 5G and beyond is undergoing a fundamental evolution, which brings optics into the radio world. Fronthaul is a new segment that leverages on the advantages of optical communication for RAN transport. However, the current fronthaul architecture shows a fixed connection between an RRH and a BBU, which leads to inefficient resource utilization. In this paper, we focus on the fronthaul flexibility that allows “any-RRH to any-BBU” connection. In particular, we consider a CoMP service and discuss how flexible optical fronthaul helps to improve its performance. To achieve this goal, we propose an SDN-enabled orchestration for coordinating radio and optical access networks. Under this unified control manner, the agile RRH-BBU mapping can be reached through lightpath reconfiguration. To further verify the benefits of flexibility, we experiment the CoMP service in the cloud radio over flexible optical fronthaul (CRoFlex) testbed. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed SDN-enabled flexible optical fronthaul can improve the CoMP performance by optimizing the RRH-BBU mapping.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Reconfigurable Optical Mobile Fronthaul Networks for Coordinated Multipoint Transmission and Reception in 5G

Jiawei Zhang, Yuefeng Ji, Songhao Jia, Hui Li, Xiaosong Yu, and Xinbo Wang
J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6) 489-497 (2017)

Energy Efficient Baseband Unit Aggregation in Cloud Radio and Optical Access Networks

Jiawei Zhang, Yuefeng Ji, Xiangzi Xu, Hui Li, Yongli Zhao, and Jie Zhang
J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11) 893-901 (2016)

Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks

Hui Yang, Yongqi He, Jie Zhang, Yuefeng Ji, Wei Bai, and Young Lee
Opt. Express 24(8) 8666-8678 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. 5G PPP AWG, “View on 5G Architecture,” v. 1.0, Jul. 2016. https://5g-ppp.eu/ .
  2. N. Marchetti, “Towards 5th generation wireless communication systems,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 11–19 (2015).
  3. A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Pizzinat, P. Chanclou, F. Saliou, and T. Diallo, “Things you should know about fronthaul,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1077–1083 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Iida, S. Kuwano, J. Kani, and J. Terada, “Dynamic TWDM-PON for mobile radio access networks,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26209–26218 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. Pfeiffer, “Next generation mobile fronthaul and midhaul architecture [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(11), B38–B45 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Skubic, G. Bottari, A. Rostami, F. Cavaliere, and P. Öhlén, “Rethinking optical transport to pave the way for 5G and the networked society,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1084–1091 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Liu and F. Effenberger, “Emerging optical access network technologies for 5G wireless,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(12), B70–B79 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. I. Kani, S. Kuwano, and J. Terada, “Options for future mobile backhaul and fronthaul,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 42–49 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Shibata, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, and H. Kimura, “Dynamic IQ data compression using wireless resource allocation for mobile front-haul with TDM-PON [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(3), A372–A378 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Shibata, T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, N. Yuki, Y. Fukada, J. Terada, and A. Otaka, “Performance evaluation of mobile front-haul employing Ethernet-based TDM-PON with IQ data compression [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(11), B16–B22 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Morant and R. Llorente, “Experimental Demonstration of LTE-A M×4×4 MIMO Radio-over-Multicore Fiber Fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Morant, A. Macho, and R. Llorente, “On the suitability of multicore fiber for LTE–advanced MIMO optical fronthaul systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 676–682 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, A. Walid, and T. Pfeiffer, “Mobile fronthaul over latency-optimized time division multiplexed passive optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Workshop on Backhaul Networks (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Chitimalla, K. Kondepu, L. Valcarenghi, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “5G Fronthaul–Latency and Jitter Studies of CPRI Over Ethernet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(2), 172–182 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. K. Al-Hares, P. Assimakopoulos, S. Hill, and N. J. Gomes, “The effect of different queuing regimes on a switched Ethernet fronthaul,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Hatta, N. Tanaka, and T. Sakamoto, “Feasibility demonstration of low latency DBA method with high bandwidth-efficiency for TDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. M. R. Institute, “White Paper of Next Generation Fronthaul Interface,” v.1.0, Oct. 2015. http://labs.chinamobile.com/cran/ .
  21. C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, “Mobile-PON: a high-efficiency low-latency mobile fronthaul based on functional split and TDM-PON with a unified scheduler,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, K. Kanonakis, and T. Wang, “SDN-controlled topology-reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul architecture for bidirectional CoMP and low latency inter-cell D2D in the 5G mobile era,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20809–20815 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Zhang, Y. Ji, X. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Energy efficient baseband unit aggregation in cloud radio and optical access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11), 893–901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Zhang, Y. Ji, S. Jia, H. Li, X. Yu, and X. Wang, “Reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul networks for coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in 5G,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6), 489–497 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).
  27. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. Müller and P. Frank, “Cooperative interference prediction for enhanced link adaptation in the 3GPP LTE uplink,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC, 2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. Brueck, L. Zhao, J. Giese, and M. A. Amin, “Centralized scheduling for joint transmission coordinated multi-point in LTE-advanced,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas(2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance, “CoMP Evaluation and Enhancement,” [Online] Available: https://www.ngmn.org/uploads/media/NGMN_RANEV_D3_CoMP_Evaluation_and_Enhancement_v2.0.pdf .
  33. J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Zhang, H. Yu, Y. Ji, H. Li, X. Yu, Y. Zhao, and H. Li, “Demonstration of radio and optical orchestration for improved coordinated multi-point (CoMP) service over flexible optical fronthaul transport networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC2017).
    [Crossref]
  35. SIEMENS white paper, “Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network,” [Online] Available: https://cache.industry.siemens.com/dl/files/587/94772587/att_113195/v1/94772587_ruggedcom_latency_switched_network_en.pdf .

2017 (2)

2016 (4)

2015 (11)

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. I. Kani, S. Kuwano, and J. Terada, “Options for future mobile backhaul and fronthaul,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 42–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Shibata, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, and H. Kimura, “Dynamic IQ data compression using wireless resource allocation for mobile front-haul with TDM-PON [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(3), A372–A378 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Shibata, T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, N. Yuki, Y. Fukada, J. Terada, and A. Otaka, “Performance evaluation of mobile front-haul employing Ethernet-based TDM-PON with IQ data compression [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(11), B16–B22 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Marchetti, “Towards 5th generation wireless communication systems,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 11–19 (2015).

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pizzinat, P. Chanclou, F. Saliou, and T. Diallo, “Things you should know about fronthaul,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1077–1083 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, “Next generation mobile fronthaul and midhaul architecture [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(11), B38–B45 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Skubic, G. Bottari, A. Rostami, F. Cavaliere, and P. Öhlén, “Rethinking optical transport to pave the way for 5G and the networked society,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1084–1091 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Iida, S. Kuwano, J. Kani, and J. Terada, “Dynamic TWDM-PON for mobile radio access networks,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26209–26218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Al-Hares, M. K.

M. K. Al-Hares, P. Assimakopoulos, S. Hill, and N. J. Gomes, “The effect of different queuing regimes on a switched Ethernet fronthaul,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2016).
[Crossref]

Amin, M. A.

S. Brueck, L. Zhao, J. Giese, and M. A. Amin, “Centralized scheduling for joint transmission coordinated multi-point in LTE-advanced,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas(2010).
[Crossref]

Anthapadmanabhan, N. P.

N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, A. Walid, and T. Pfeiffer, “Mobile fronthaul over latency-optimized time division multiplexed passive optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Workshop on Backhaul Networks (2015).
[Crossref]

Assimakopoulos, P.

M. K. Al-Hares, P. Assimakopoulos, S. Hill, and N. J. Gomes, “The effect of different queuing regimes on a switched Ethernet fronthaul,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2016).
[Crossref]

Berger, M. S.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bottari, G.

Brueck, S.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Brueck, L. Zhao, J. Giese, and M. A. Amin, “Centralized scheduling for joint transmission coordinated multi-point in LTE-advanced,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas(2010).
[Crossref]

Cavaliere, F.

Chanclou, P.

Chao, J.

S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, “Mobile-PON: a high-efficiency low-latency mobile fronthaul based on functional split and TDM-PON with a unified scheduler,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Checko, A.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chitimalla, D.

Christiansen, H. L.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, C.

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, N.

Diallo, T.

Dittmann, L.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Doll, M.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dötsch, U.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

Droste, H.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duan, R.

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

X. Liu and F. Effenberger, “Emerging optical access network technologies for 5G wireless,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(12), B70–B79 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, “Mobile-PON: a high-efficiency low-latency mobile fronthaul based on functional split and TDM-PON with a unified scheduler,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Fettweis, G.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frank, P.

A. Müller and P. Frank, “Cooperative interference prediction for enhanced link adaptation in the 3GPP LTE uplink,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC, 2010).
[Crossref]

Fukada, Y.

Giese, J.

S. Brueck, L. Zhao, J. Giese, and M. A. Amin, “Centralized scheduling for joint transmission coordinated multi-point in LTE-advanced,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas(2010).
[Crossref]

Gomes, N. J.

M. K. Al-Hares, P. Assimakopoulos, S. Hill, and N. J. Gomes, “The effect of different queuing regimes on a switched Ethernet fronthaul,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2016).
[Crossref]

Grieger, M.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, R.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).

Hatta, S.

S. Hatta, N. Tanaka, and T. Sakamoto, “Feasibility demonstration of low latency DBA method with high bandwidth-efficiency for TDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Hill, S.

M. K. Al-Hares, P. Assimakopoulos, S. Hill, and N. J. Gomes, “The effect of different queuing regimes on a switched Ethernet fronthaul,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

i, C.

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iida, D.

Irmer, R.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, S. Jia, H. Li, X. Yu, and X. Wang, “Reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul networks for coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in 5G,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6), 489–497 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, X. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Energy efficient baseband unit aggregation in cloud radio and optical access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11), 893–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jia, S.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jungnickel, V.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kani, J.

Kani, J. I.

J. I. Kani, S. Kuwano, and J. Terada, “Options for future mobile backhaul and fronthaul,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 42–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kanonakis, K.

Kardaras, G.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, T.

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
[Crossref]

Kimura, H.

Kondepu, K.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuwano, S.

Li, H.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, S. Jia, H. Li, X. Yu, and X. Wang, “Reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul networks for coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in 5G,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6), 489–497 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, X. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Energy efficient baseband unit aggregation in cloud radio and optical access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11), 893–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).

Liu, S.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and F. Effenberger, “Emerging optical access network technologies for 5G wireless,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(12), B70–B79 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, “Mobile-PON: a high-efficiency low-latency mobile fronthaul based on functional split and TDM-PON with a unified scheduler,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Llorente, R.

M. Morant, A. Macho, and R. Llorente, “On the suitability of multicore fiber for LTE–advanced MIMO optical fronthaul systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 676–682 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Morant and R. Llorente, “Experimental Demonstration of LTE-A M×4×4 MIMO Radio-over-Multicore Fiber Fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Macho, A.

Marchetti, N.

N. Marchetti, “Towards 5th generation wireless communication systems,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 11–19 (2015).

Marsch, P.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mayer, H. P.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morant, M.

M. Morant, A. Macho, and R. Llorente, “On the suitability of multicore fiber for LTE–advanced MIMO optical fronthaul systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 676–682 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Morant and R. Llorente, “Experimental Demonstration of LTE-A M×4×4 MIMO Radio-over-Multicore Fiber Fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, B.

Müller, A.

A. Müller and P. Frank, “Cooperative interference prediction for enhanced link adaptation in the 3GPP LTE uplink,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC, 2010).
[Crossref]

Öhlén, P.

Otaka, A.

Pfeiffer, T.

T. Pfeiffer, “Next generation mobile fronthaul and midhaul architecture [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(11), B38–B45 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, A. Walid, and T. Pfeiffer, “Mobile fronthaul over latency-optimized time division multiplexed passive optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Workshop on Backhaul Networks (2015).
[Crossref]

Pizzinat, A.

Rostami, A.

Sakamoto, T.

S. Hatta, N. Tanaka, and T. Sakamoto, “Feasibility demonstration of low latency DBA method with high bandwidth-efficiency for TDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Saliou, F.

Schaich, F.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scolari, L.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Segel, J.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sehier, P.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

Shigematsu, S.

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
[Crossref]

Skubic, B.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, M.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, A.

Tanaka, N.

S. Hatta, N. Tanaka, and T. Sakamoto, “Feasibility demonstration of low latency DBA method with high bandwidth-efficiency for TDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
[Crossref]

Tashiro, T.

N. Shibata, T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, N. Yuki, Y. Fukada, J. Terada, and A. Otaka, “Performance evaluation of mobile front-haul employing Ethernet-based TDM-PON with IQ data compression [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(11), B16–B22 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
[Crossref]

Terada, J.

Thiele, L.

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tornatore, M.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Valcarenghi, L.

Walid, A.

N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, A. Walid, and T. Pfeiffer, “Mobile fronthaul over latency-optimized time division multiplexed passive optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Workshop on Backhaul Networks (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, S. Jia, H. Li, X. Yu, and X. Wang, “Reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul networks for coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in 5G,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6), 489–497 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, C. L. I. Z.

S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).

Xu, K.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Yan, Y.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshimoto, N.

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, S. Jia, H. Li, X. Yu, and X. Wang, “Reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul networks for coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in 5G,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6), 489–497 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuki, N.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, S. Jia, H. Li, X. Yu, and X. Wang, “Reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul networks for coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in 5G,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(6), 489–497 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, X. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Energy efficient baseband unit aggregation in cloud radio and optical access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11), 893–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, X. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Energy efficient baseband unit aggregation in cloud radio and optical access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11), 893–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

S. Brueck, L. Zhao, J. Giese, and M. A. Amin, “Centralized scheduling for joint transmission coordinated multi-point in LTE-advanced,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas(2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, X. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Energy efficient baseband unit aggregation in cloud radio and optical access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(11), 893–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, “Mobile-PON: a high-efficiency low-latency mobile fronthaul based on functional split and TDM-PON with a unified scheduler,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H. P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(1), 105–128 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (1)

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(1), 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

C. i, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink Fronthaul for Soft RAN,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 82–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Irmer, H. Droste, P. Marsch, M. Grieger, G. Fettweis, S. Brueck, H. P. Mayer, L. Thiele, and V. Jungnickel, “Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), 102–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (7)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. I. Kani, S. Kuwano, and J. Terada, “Options for future mobile backhaul and fronthaul,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 42–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. China Inf. Sci. (1)

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Prospects and research issues in multi-dimensional all optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59(10), 101301 (2016).
[Crossref]

ZTE Communications (2)

S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, Q. Sun, and H. Li, “Energy-efficient large-scale antenna systems with hybrid digital-analog beamforming structure,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 28–34 (2015).

N. Marchetti, “Towards 5th generation wireless communication systems,” ZTE Communications 13(1), 11–19 (2015).

Other (13)

5G PPP AWG, “View on 5G Architecture,” v. 1.0, Jul. 2016. https://5g-ppp.eu/ .

M. Morant and R. Llorente, “Experimental Demonstration of LTE-A M×4×4 MIMO Radio-over-Multicore Fiber Fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

M. K. Al-Hares, P. Assimakopoulos, S. Hill, and N. J. Gomes, “The effect of different queuing regimes on a switched Ethernet fronthaul,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2016).
[Crossref]

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, “A novel DBA scheme for TDM-PON based mobile fronthaul,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hatta, N. Tanaka, and T. Sakamoto, “Feasibility demonstration of low latency DBA method with high bandwidth-efficiency for TDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. R. Institute, “White Paper of Next Generation Fronthaul Interface,” v.1.0, Oct. 2015. http://labs.chinamobile.com/cran/ .

N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, A. Walid, and T. Pfeiffer, “Mobile fronthaul over latency-optimized time division multiplexed passive optical networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Workshop on Backhaul Networks (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, “Mobile-PON: a high-efficiency low-latency mobile fronthaul based on functional split and TDM-PON with a unified scheduler,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC, 2017).
[Crossref]

A. Müller and P. Frank, “Cooperative interference prediction for enhanced link adaptation in the 3GPP LTE uplink,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC, 2010).
[Crossref]

S. Brueck, L. Zhao, J. Giese, and M. A. Amin, “Centralized scheduling for joint transmission coordinated multi-point in LTE-advanced,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas(2010).
[Crossref]

Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance, “CoMP Evaluation and Enhancement,” [Online] Available: https://www.ngmn.org/uploads/media/NGMN_RANEV_D3_CoMP_Evaluation_and_Enhancement_v2.0.pdf .

J. Zhang, H. Yu, Y. Ji, H. Li, X. Yu, Y. Zhao, and H. Li, “Demonstration of radio and optical orchestration for improved coordinated multi-point (CoMP) service over flexible optical fronthaul transport networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC2017).
[Crossref]

SIEMENS white paper, “Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network,” [Online] Available: https://cache.industry.siemens.com/dl/files/587/94772587/att_113195/v1/94772587_ruggedcom_latency_switched_network_en.pdf .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison of fixed and flexible optical fronthaul. (a) Fixed fronthaul: one-to-one connection with constant data rate; (b) flexible fronthaul: any-to-any connection with variable data rate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 CoMP in the flexible optical fronthaul networks. (a) CoMP before lightpath reconfiguration; (b) CoMP after lightpath reconfiguration.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The framework of SDN-enabled radio and optical orchestration; (b) the functional modules and their interactions of orchestrator plugin.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cooperation procedures of orchestrator for eCoMP service.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental topology; (b) experimental environment of CRoFlex testbed; (c) structure of a 4-port flexible grid enabled optical switching node; (d) switching structure of a BBU pool.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured RSRP of coordinated RRHs; (b) optical filter output; (c) measured download rate of the cell-edge user during the experimental time; (d) BBU resource usage before and after lightpath reconfiguration (LR).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)-(b) Wireshark captures of extended OFP; (c) overall latency for lightpath reconfiguration.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulation results. (a) Inter-BBU CoMP ratio and cell-inner traffic load migration ratio versus the number of cell-edge users; (b) latency reduction for eCoMP versus the number of cell-edge users.

Metrics