Abstract

High-efficiency microfocusing of multi-keV X-rays at synchrotron sources is highly profitable for spatially resolved structural analysis of many kinds. Because radiation from synchrotron sources is typically elongated along the horizontal dimension, generating a microbeam that is isotropic in size requires a carefully designed optics system. Here we report on using a combination of a horizontally tunable slit downstream of the undulator source with elliptical diffractive Fresnel zone plates. We demonstrate the arrangement in context of small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, obtaining a microbeam of 2.2 μm × 1.8 μm (X × Y) with a flux of 1.2 × 1010 photons/s at an energy of 11.2 keV at the sample position.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Bernhardt, J. D. Nicolas, M. Eckermann, B. Eltzner, F. Rehfeldt, and T. Salditt, “Anisotropic x-ray scattering and orientation fields in cardiac tissue cells,” New J. Phys. 19(1), 013012 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

M. Liebi, M. Georgiadis, A. Menzel, P. Schneider, J. Kohlbrecher, O. Bunk, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography,” Nature 527(7578), 349–352 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Zwahlen, A. J. Trüssel, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “3D scanning SAXS: a novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation,” Bone 71, 42–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. M. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High-efficiency zone-plate optics for multi-keV X-ray focusing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 497–501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. Pabisch, W. Wagermaier, T. Zander, C. Li, and P. Fratzl, “Imaging the Nanostructure of Bone and Dentin Through Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering,” Methods Enzymol. 532, 391–413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

V. A. Guzenko, J. Romijn, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, and C. David, “Efficient E-Beam Lithography Exposure Strategies for Diffractive X-ray Optics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 92 (2012).

J. L. Smith, R. F. Fischetti, and M. Yamamoto, “Micro-crystallography comes of age,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22(5), 602–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

A. Alatas, B. M. Leu, J. Zhao, H. Yavas, T. S. Toellner, and E. E. Alp, “Improved focusing capability for inelastic X-ray spectrometer at 3-ID of the APS: A combination of toroidal and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 649(1), 166–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 2), 125–133 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 3), 442–446 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. D. de Jonge and S. Vogt, “Hard X-ray fluorescence tomography - an emerging tool for structural visualization,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 20(5), 606–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Stangl, C. Mocuta, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “X-ray diffraction as a local probe tool,” ChemPhysChem 10(17), 2923–2930 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 090801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, G. Rostaing, P. Bernard, and C. Morawe, “Efficient sub 100 nm focusing of hard x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(6), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Riekel, M. Burghammer, and G. Schertler, “Protein crystallography microdiffraction,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 15(5), 556–562 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Fratzl, “Small-angle scattering in materials science-a short review of applications in alloys, ceramics and composite materials,” J. Appl. Cryst. 36(3), 397–404 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, H. F. Jakob, A. Nader, K. Klaushofer, and P. Fratzl, “Scanning small angle X-ray scattering analysis of human bone sections,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 64(5), 422–429 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Warwick, K. Frank, J. B. Kortright, G. Meigs, M. Moronne, S. Myneni, E. Rotenberg, S. Seal, and W. F. Steele, “A scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(8), 2964–2973 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Fratzl, H. F. Jakob, S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, and K. Klaushofer, “Position-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering of complex biological materials,” J. Appl. Cryst. 30(5), 765–769 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

H. Ade, C. H. Ko, and E. Anderson, “Astigmatism correction in x-ray scanning photoemission microscope with use of elliptical zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(9), 1040–1042 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ade, H.

H. Ade, C. H. Ko, and E. Anderson, “Astigmatism correction in x-ray scanning photoemission microscope with use of elliptical zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(9), 1040–1042 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aeppli, G.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alatas, A.

A. Alatas, B. M. Leu, J. Zhao, H. Yavas, T. S. Toellner, and E. E. Alp, “Improved focusing capability for inelastic X-ray spectrometer at 3-ID of the APS: A combination of toroidal and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 649(1), 166–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Allen, A. J.

F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alp, E. E.

A. Alatas, B. M. Leu, J. Zhao, H. Yavas, T. S. Toellner, and E. E. Alp, “Improved focusing capability for inelastic X-ray spectrometer at 3-ID of the APS: A combination of toroidal and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 649(1), 166–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altamura, D.

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E.

H. Ade, C. H. Ko, and E. Anderson, “Astigmatism correction in x-ray scanning photoemission microscope with use of elliptical zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(9), 1040–1042 (1992).
[Crossref]

Barrett, R.

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 3), 442–446 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baruffaldi, F.

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bauer, G.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stangl, C. Mocuta, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “X-ray diffraction as a local probe tool,” ChemPhysChem 10(17), 2923–2930 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beraudi, A.

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, A.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernard, P.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, G. Rostaing, P. Bernard, and C. Morawe, “Efficient sub 100 nm focusing of hard x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(6), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, M.

M. Bernhardt, J. D. Nicolas, M. Eckermann, B. Eltzner, F. Rehfeldt, and T. Salditt, “Anisotropic x-ray scattering and orientation fields in cardiac tissue cells,” New J. Phys. 19(1), 013012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Binderup, T.

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boesenberg, U.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 090801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Broennimann, Ch.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liebi, M. Georgiadis, A. Menzel, P. Schneider, J. Kohlbrecher, O. Bunk, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography,” Nature 527(7578), 349–352 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Zwahlen, A. J. Trüssel, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “3D scanning SAXS: a novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation,” Bone 71, 42–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Burghammer, M.

C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 090801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Riekel, M. Burghammer, and G. Schertler, “Protein crystallography microdiffraction,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 15(5), 556–562 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bytchkov, A.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 2), 125–133 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabana, J.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carbone, D.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celestre, R.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chao, W.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chrastina, D.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y. S.

Cloetens, P.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, G. Rostaing, P. Bernard, and C. Morawe, “Efficient sub 100 nm focusing of hard x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(6), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

David, C.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. M. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High-efficiency zone-plate optics for multi-keV X-ray focusing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 497–501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Guzenko, J. Romijn, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, and C. David, “Efficient E-Beam Lithography Exposure Strategies for Diffractive X-ray Optics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 92 (2012).

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 3), 442–446 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[Crossref]

De Caro, L.

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Jonge, M. D.

M. D. de Jonge and S. Vogt, “Hard X-ray fluorescence tomography - an emerging tool for structural visualization,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 20(5), 606–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, J.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stangl, C. Mocuta, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “X-ray diffraction as a local probe tool,” ChemPhysChem 10(17), 2923–2930 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinapoli, R.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckermann, M.

M. Bernhardt, J. D. Nicolas, M. Eckermann, B. Eltzner, F. Rehfeldt, and T. Salditt, “Anisotropic x-ray scattering and orientation fields in cardiac tissue cells,” New J. Phys. 19(1), 013012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eikenberry, E. F.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eltzner, B.

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F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
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M. Liebi, M. Georgiadis, A. Menzel, P. Schneider, J. Kohlbrecher, O. Bunk, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography,” Nature 527(7578), 349–352 (2015).
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M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Zwahlen, A. J. Trüssel, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “3D scanning SAXS: a novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation,” Bone 71, 42–52 (2015).
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F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
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G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 2), 125–133 (2011).
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Gorelick, S.

V. A. Guzenko, J. Romijn, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, and C. David, “Efficient E-Beam Lithography Exposure Strategies for Diffractive X-ray Optics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 92 (2012).

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 3), 442–446 (2011).
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S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
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Graceffa, R.

C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
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Gschwend, O.

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
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Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liebi, M. Georgiadis, A. Menzel, P. Schneider, J. Kohlbrecher, O. Bunk, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography,” Nature 527(7578), 349–352 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Zwahlen, A. J. Trüssel, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “3D scanning SAXS: a novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation,” Bone 71, 42–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
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J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
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J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulden, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

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I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. M. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High-efficiency zone-plate optics for multi-keV X-ray focusing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 497–501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Guzenko, J. Romijn, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, and C. David, “Efficient E-Beam Lithography Exposure Strategies for Diffractive X-ray Optics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 92 (2012).

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 3), 442–446 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hangartner, P.

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harder, R.

Härkönen, E.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
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C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
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P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
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M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Hwu, Y.

Ilavsky, J.

F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
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Isella, G.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ja Lee, H.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
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J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
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T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
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Jakob, H. F.

S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, H. F. Jakob, A. Nader, K. Klaushofer, and P. Fratzl, “Scanning small angle X-ray scattering analysis of human bone sections,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 64(5), 422–429 (1999).
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P. Fratzl, H. F. Jakob, S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, and K. Klaushofer, “Position-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering of complex biological materials,” J. Appl. Cryst. 30(5), 765–769 (1997).
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K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
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F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
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Jensen, T. H.

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
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J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
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Johnson, I.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
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Karvinen, P.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. M. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High-efficiency zone-plate optics for multi-keV X-ray focusing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 497–501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14859–14870 (2014).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
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Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

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Klaushofer, K.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
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J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
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F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Raabe, J.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Bernhardt, J. D. Nicolas, M. Eckermann, B. Eltzner, F. Rehfeldt, and T. Salditt, “Anisotropic x-ray scattering and orientation fields in cardiac tissue cells,” New J. Phys. 19(1), 013012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reinhardt, J.

C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 090801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
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S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, H. F. Jakob, A. Nader, K. Klaushofer, and P. Fratzl, “Scanning small angle X-ray scattering analysis of human bone sections,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 64(5), 422–429 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Fratzl, H. F. Jakob, S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, and K. Klaushofer, “Position-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering of complex biological materials,” J. Appl. Cryst. 30(5), 765–769 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ritala, M.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Vine, D. J.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. de Jonge and S. Vogt, “Hard X-ray fluorescence tomography - an emerging tool for structural visualization,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 20(5), 606–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, U.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagermaier, W.

S. Pabisch, W. Wagermaier, T. Zander, C. Li, and P. Fratzl, “Imaging the Nanostructure of Bone and Dentin Through Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering,” Methods Enzymol. 532, 391–413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, U.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warwick, T.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Warwick, K. Frank, J. B. Kortright, G. Meigs, M. Moronne, S. Myneni, E. Rotenberg, S. Seal, and W. F. Steele, “A scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(8), 2964–2973 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weinhausen, B.

C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Willmott, P. R.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittwer, F.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, J. P.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 2), 125–133 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wünsche, M.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, M.

J. L. Smith, R. F. Fischetti, and M. Yamamoto, “Micro-crystallography comes of age,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22(5), 602–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Yang, L. L.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yavas, H.

A. Alatas, B. M. Leu, J. Zhao, H. Yavas, T. S. Toellner, and E. E. Alp, “Improved focusing capability for inelastic X-ray spectrometer at 3-ID of the APS: A combination of toroidal and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 649(1), 166–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.-S.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zander, T.

S. Pabisch, W. Wagermaier, T. Zander, C. Li, and P. Fratzl, “Imaging the Nanostructure of Bone and Dentin Through Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering,” Methods Enzymol. 532, 391–413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

A. Alatas, B. M. Leu, J. Zhao, H. Yavas, T. S. Toellner, and E. E. Alp, “Improved focusing capability for inelastic X-ray spectrometer at 3-ID of the APS: A combination of toroidal and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 649(1), 166–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zwahlen, A.

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Zwahlen, A. J. Trüssel, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “3D scanning SAXS: a novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation,” Bone 71, 42–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

C. Y. J. Hémonnot, J. Reinhardt, O. Saldanha, J. Patommel, R. Graceffa, B. Weinhausen, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, and S. Köster, “X-rays reveal the internal structure of keratin bundles in whole cells,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3553–3561 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

V. A. Guzenko, J. Romijn, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, and C. David, “Efficient E-Beam Lithography Exposure Strategies for Diffractive X-ray Optics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 92 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
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H. Ade, C. H. Ko, and E. Anderson, “Astigmatism correction in x-ray scanning photoemission microscope with use of elliptical zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(9), 1040–1042 (1992).
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C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bone (1)

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Zwahlen, A. J. Trüssel, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “3D scanning SAXS: a novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation,” Bone 71, 42–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calcif. Tissue Int. (1)

S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, H. F. Jakob, A. Nader, K. Klaushofer, and P. Fratzl, “Scanning small angle X-ray scattering analysis of human bone sections,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 64(5), 422–429 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem (1)

J. Stangl, C. Mocuta, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “X-ray diffraction as a local probe tool,” ChemPhysChem 10(17), 2923–2930 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (3)

C. Riekel, M. Burghammer, and G. Schertler, “Protein crystallography microdiffraction,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 15(5), 556–562 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Smith, R. F. Fischetti, and M. Yamamoto, “Micro-crystallography comes of age,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22(5), 602–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. de Jonge and S. Vogt, “Hard X-ray fluorescence tomography - an emerging tool for structural visualization,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 20(5), 606–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Cryst. (3)

P. Fratzl, “Small-angle scattering in materials science-a short review of applications in alloys, ceramics and composite materials,” J. Appl. Cryst. 36(3), 397–404 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Fratzl, H. F. Jakob, S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger, and K. Klaushofer, “Position-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering of complex biological materials,” J. Appl. Cryst. 30(5), 765–769 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Giannini, D. Siliqi, M. Ladisa, D. Altamura, A. Diaz, A. Beraudi, T. Sibillano, L. De Caro, S. Stea, F. Baruffaldi, and O. Bunk, “Scanning SAXS–WAXS microscopy on osteoarthritis-affected bone–an age-related study,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(1), 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (6)

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 2), 125–133 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 3), 442–446 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. M. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High-efficiency zone-plate optics for multi-keV X-ray focusing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 497–501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, Ch. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Zhang, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. P. Quintana, A. J. Allen, and P. R. Jemian, “Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering,” Metall. Trans., A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 41(5), 1151–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

S. Pabisch, W. Wagermaier, T. Zander, C. Li, and P. Fratzl, “Imaging the Nanostructure of Bone and Dentin Through Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering,” Methods Enzymol. 532, 391–413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. Liebi, M. Georgiadis, A. Menzel, P. Schneider, J. Kohlbrecher, O. Bunk, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography,” Nature 527(7578), 349–352 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

M. Bernhardt, J. D. Nicolas, M. Eckermann, B. Eltzner, F. Rehfeldt, and T. Salditt, “Anisotropic x-ray scattering and orientation fields in cardiac tissue cells,” New J. Phys. 19(1), 013012 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Bunk, M. Bech, T. H. Jensen, R. Feidenhans’l, T. Binderup, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 123016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment (1)

A. Alatas, B. M. Leu, J. Zhao, H. Yavas, T. S. Toellner, and E. E. Alp, “Improved focusing capability for inelastic X-ray spectrometer at 3-ID of the APS: A combination of toroidal and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 649(1), 166–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, M. Burghammer, S. Schöder, and C. Riekel, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging with nanofocused illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 090801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

M. Georgiadis, M. Guizar-Sicairos, O. Gschwend, P. Hangartner, O. Bunk, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture,” PLoS One 11(8), e0159838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, G. Rostaing, P. Bernard, and C. Morawe, “Efficient sub 100 nm focusing of hard x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(6), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Warwick, K. Frank, J. B. Kortright, G. Meigs, M. Moronne, S. Myneni, E. Rotenberg, S. Seal, and W. F. Steele, “A scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(8), 2964–2973 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical layouts. (a) Imaging with a circular FZP, which produces an elongated focus at Z = Zf. (b) Imaging with a secondary source in X and a circular FZP. The beam presents on-axis astigmatism and the circle of least confusion reached at Z>Zf is most favorable for isotropic resolution. (c) Imaging with a specially designed elliptical FZP to cancel out the on-axis astigmatism and obtain a round focus at Z = Zf. The sketches close to each focal plane schematize the different spot shapes along the Z axis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscope micrographs of X-ray optics components. (a) Overview of the circular FZP designed for 11.2-keV radiation with an aperture of 794.1 μm. Outermost zones with linewidth of 250 nm and height of 2.25 μm are shown in (b) top view and (c) 45° tilted view. (d) 70° tilted view of a Au80Sn20 central stop, with diameter in the range of 100 μm, and (e) close-up view.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Knife-edge measurements. (a-c) Using the circular FZP and no secondary source. (d-f) Using the elliptical FZP and a secondary source of 20 μm. (a-b) and (d-e) Intensity profiles along both axes for knife-edge scans (dots) and absolute derivatives (solid colored line). Black solid lines are Gaussian fits, the FWHM of which are given. (c) and (f) show the beam FWHM versus defocus.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Resolution measurements. (a) Example of a transmission scan of an X-ray beam across gold chirped gratings (see inset above). This leads to the modulation transfer functions in case of (b) the circular FZP with no secondary source, (c) the circular FZP used with a secondary source of 20 μm at same focal plane and (d) at the circle of least confusion, and (e) the elliptical FZP used with same secondary source. The visibility V is normalized to V 0 (see text). Visibilities V below 3% are discarded due to experimental uncertainties. Correspondingly, STXM scans of Siemens stars are shown on the right, with a scanning electron microscope micrograph (bottom right) indicating the local linewidth in the Siemens star. The scale bar indicates 5 μm in all images.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Beam characterization by X-ray ptychography, with horizontal secondary source of 5 μm. (a) Intensity of reconstructed focused beam at the focal plane. (b) Line profiles across the focus intensity in (a) along the vertical (red) and horizontal (blue) directions. The (c) reconstructed beam propagated to the detector plane can be compared to a (d) diffraction pattern of a single measurement. (e) Phase of the reconstructed object transmissivity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scanning SAXS measurements at 11.2 keV on thin slice of human trabecular bone. (a) and (b) were acquired using the circular FZP producing a beam with size of 12.1 μm × 2.0 μm (X × Y), whereas (c) and (d) were acquired using the elliptical FZP and a secondary source of 20 μm, producing a beam of 2.2 μm × 1.8 μm (X × Y). (a) and (c) are intensity absorption images (see color bar in fixed arbitrary units); (b) and (d) are orientation images obtained after azimuthal integration in the range 109.57 nm to 164.36 nm in the real space, and post-treatment of the far-field signal [45]. The isotropic scattering intensity is represented by image intensity, the degree of orientation by the color saturation and the main scattering orientation by the hue as shown in the color wheel. Panel (e) shows single scattering patterns as observed on the detector at 3 different points as numbered on panel (d), to emphasize the local structure orientation. Below each scattering pattern we show the signal integrated over 8 angular sectors that are sketched in the scattering pattern numbered 1, versus the scattering vector q.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Circular FZPs parameters. The focal length for all energies is f 0 = 1793 mm.

Metrics