Abstract

We present the results of measurements of resonant spectral bend loss using a novel apparatus in a series of hollow core anti-resonant optical fibers, important for their applications in the delivery of industrial power ultra-short laser pulses. The measured bend losses exhibit clear wavelength-bend diameter resonances. We demonstrate, in good agreement with theoretical analysis, that the sensitivity to bend diameter (in terms of minimum bend radii) is dependent on the ratio between cladding and core structure size. By decreasing the cladding capillary diameter: core diameter ratio from 0.70 to 0.43 the minimum bend diameter is decreased from >160 mm to ~15 mm at a wavelength of 800 nm. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the exact position of the loss bands is highly dependent on the orientation of the fiber structure with the bend plane.

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References

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  1. A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 4400610 (2015).
  3. Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).
  5. B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, G. Humbert, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Benabid, “Millijoule laser pulse delivery for spark ignition through kagome hollow-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1430–1432 (2012).
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  6. P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. Emaury, C. F. Dutin, C. J. Saraceno, M. Trant, O. H. Heckl, Y. Y. Wang, C. Schriber, F. Gerome, T. Südmeyer, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “Beam delivery and pulse compression to sub-50 fs of a modelocked thin-disk laser in a gas-filled Kagome-type HC-PCF fiber,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4986–4994 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25723–25728 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, D. Ghosh, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: Cladding effect on confinement and bend loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28609–28616 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. V. Setti, L. Vincetti, and A. Argyros, “Flexible tube lattice fibers for terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3388–3399 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Poletti, “Nested antiresonant nodeless hollow core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23807–23828 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. K. Alagashev, A. D. Pryamikov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Kolyadin, A. Y. Lukovkin, and A. S. Biriukov, “Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. S.-F. Gao, Y.-Y. Wang, X.-L. Liu, W. Ding, and P. Wang, “Bending loss characterization in nodeless hollow-core anti-resonant fiber,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14801–14811 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Bending-induced mode non-degeneracy and coupling in chalcogenide negative curvature fibers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12228–12239 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Impact of Cladding Tubes in Chalcogenide Negative Curvature Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 2200509 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Michieletto, J. K. Lyngsø, C. Jakobsen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7103–7119 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. X. Huang, S. Yoo, and K. Yong, “Function of second cladding layer in hollow core tube lattice fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1618 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Yoo, and K. Yong, “Function of second cladding layer in hollow core tube lattice fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1618 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

2015 (2)

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 4400610 (2015).

G. K. Alagashev, A. D. Pryamikov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Kolyadin, A. Y. Lukovkin, and A. S. Biriukov, “Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

1975 (1)

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Alagashev, G. K.

G. K. Alagashev, A. D. Pryamikov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Kolyadin, A. Y. Lukovkin, and A. S. Biriukov, “Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alharbi, M.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Argyros, A.

Astapovich, M. S.

Auguste, J.-L.

Bang, O.

Beaudou, B.

Belardi, W.

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Hollow antiresonant fibers with reduced attenuation,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1853–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Effect of core boundary curvature on the confinement losses of hollow antiresonant fibers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21912–21917 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Benabid, F.

Biriukov, A. S.

Blondy, J.-M.

Bradley, T.

Bradley, T. D.

Carter, R. M.

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Churbanov, M. F.

Couny, F.

Debord, B.

Dianov, E. M.

Ding, W.

Dutin, C. F.

Emaury, F.

Fourcade-Dutin, C.

Frosz, M. H.

M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.-F.

Gerome, F.

Gerôme, F.

Gérôme, F.

Ghosh, D.

Günendi, M. C.

M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hand, D. P.

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Harris, J. H.

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[Crossref]

Heckl, O. H.

Heiblum, M.

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Impact of Cladding Tubes in Chalcogenide Negative Curvature Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 2200509 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Bending-induced mode non-degeneracy and coupling in chalcogenide negative curvature fibers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12228–12239 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, S. Yoo, and K. Yong, “Function of second cladding layer in hollow core tube lattice fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1618 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humbert, G.

Jakobsen, C.

Jaworski, P.

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Keller, U.

Knight, J. C.

Kolyadin, A. N.

G. K. Alagashev, A. D. Pryamikov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Kolyadin, A. Y. Lukovkin, and A. S. Biriukov, “Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kosolapov, A. F.

Lægsgaard, J.

Liu, X.-L.

Lukovkin, A. Y.

G. K. Alagashev, A. D. Pryamikov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Kolyadin, A. Y. Lukovkin, and A. S. Biriukov, “Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lyngsø, J. K.

Maier, R. R. J.

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Menyuk, C. R.

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Impact of Cladding Tubes in Chalcogenide Negative Curvature Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 2200509 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Bending-induced mode non-degeneracy and coupling in chalcogenide negative curvature fibers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12228–12239 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michieletto, M.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Poletti, F.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Roberts, P. J.

Roth, P.

M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Saraceno, C. J.

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Schriber, C.

Semjonov, S. L.

Setti, V.

Shephard, J. D.

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Shiryaev, V. S.

Snopatin, G. E.

Südmeyer, T.

Trant, M.

Urich, A.

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Vincetti, L.

Wadsworth, W. J.

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Wang, P.

Wang, Y. Y.

Wang, Y.-Y.

Wei, C.

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Bending-induced mode non-degeneracy and coupling in chalcogenide negative curvature fibers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12228–12239 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Impact of Cladding Tubes in Chalcogenide Negative Curvature Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 2200509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, N. V.

Yong, K.

X. Huang, S. Yoo, and K. Yong, “Function of second cladding layer in hollow core tube lattice fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1618 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.

X. Huang, S. Yoo, and K. Yong, “Function of second cladding layer in hollow core tube lattice fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1618 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 4400610 (2015).

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 4400610 (2015).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Impact of Cladding Tubes in Chalcogenide Negative Curvature Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 2200509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

G. K. Alagashev, A. D. Pryamikov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Kolyadin, A. Y. Lukovkin, and A. S. Biriukov, “Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

S.-F. Gao, Y.-Y. Wang, X.-L. Liu, W. Ding, and P. Wang, “Bending loss characterization in nodeless hollow-core anti-resonant fiber,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14801–14811 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Bending-induced mode non-degeneracy and coupling in chalcogenide negative curvature fibers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12228–12239 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Michieletto, J. K. Lyngsø, C. Jakobsen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7103–7119 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative curvature fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Emaury, C. F. Dutin, C. J. Saraceno, M. Trant, O. H. Heckl, Y. Y. Wang, C. Schriber, F. Gerome, T. Südmeyer, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “Beam delivery and pulse compression to sub-50 fs of a modelocked thin-disk laser in a gas-filled Kagome-type HC-PCF fiber,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4986–4994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Effect of core boundary curvature on the confinement losses of hollow antiresonant fibers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21912–21917 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25723–25728 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, D. Ghosh, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: Cladding effect on confinement and bend loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28609–28616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Setti, L. Vincetti, and A. Argyros, “Flexible tube lattice fibers for terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3388–3399 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, “Nested antiresonant nodeless hollow core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23807–23828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photonics Res. (1)

M. H. Frosz, P. Roth, M. C. Günendi, and P. S. J. Russell, “Analytical formulation for the bend loss in single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Photonics Res. 5(2), 88–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Huang, S. Yoo, and K. Yong, “Function of second cladding layer in hollow core tube lattice fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1618 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Shephard, A. Urich, R. M. Carter, P. Jaworski, R. R. J. Maier, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications,” Front. Phys., 3 (2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scanning Electron Microscope images of the four fibers used in this paper (A, B, C, D), the scale bar in each case is 10 µm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the fiber variable bend diameter apparatus. Light from a tungsten lamp is first coupled into an SMF-28 fiber which is then butt-coupled to the test fiber. The test fiber is looped around spool A, into the test jaws (Fig. 3), then over spools B, C, round spool D and finally into the spectral analyzer. Spool B is attached to the stages controlling the bend diameter in the jaws while spool C is attached to a mass loaded pulley. Thus as the bend diameter increases, and spool B moves to the right, spool C will move upward taking up the increasing fiber slack. An additional length of SMF-28 is wound round spools B, C and D to take the tension from the mass loading of spool C. The purpose of this fiber is purely mechanical, and it plays no optical role.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the variable bend jaws from Fig. 2. The fiber is fixed into two jaws with V grooves with tape at the two fixed fiber points.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration of an 7 cell (C = 7) fiber structure as used for the analytical model. O is the center of fiber core and O’ is the center of the 0th capillary. With a bend direction along the black line the equivalent distance between the centers of a core and cladding, d, may be expressed as OO' ¯ cos(θ).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimentally measured (left) and theoretically calculated (right) resonant loss bands in the anti-resonant fibers. An SEM image of each fiber has been included as an inset for reference. As the cladding mode order increases, the resonance band shifts to lower bend diameters.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Left, experimentally measured loss bands in fiber D at two, unknown, angular orientations, θ, cf. Fig. 4. Right: analytical simulation of the effect of angular orientation, top θ = 0 rad, bottom one quarter shift, (θ = ½ π/7 rad). As the angular orientation becomes non-zero the c = 1 and c = 6 resonances split and move apart while the c = 0 resonances are comparatively stable.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparative Core and Cladding Sizes for the Anti-Resonant Fibers Used in this Paper.

Equations (3)

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A(φ,λ)=10 log 10 [ I (φ,λ) m I (λ) b I (λ) r I (λ) b ],
n l,m ( λ )=1 1 2 ( j l,m λ 2πr ) 2 ,
R j,l,m = d j /( n l,m (λ) core n l,m (λ) clading 1 ),

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