Abstract

Based on electrospinning technology, in this study, we fabricated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber films with high reflectivity and scattering properties. Various films with different thicknesses and fiber diameters were fabricated by changing the electrospinning time and solution concentration, respectively. Detailed optical measurements demonstrate that the film reflectance and scattering ability increase with the thickness, whereas fiber diameter contributes little to both properties. With optimized film thickness and fiber diameter, nanofiber films feature whiteness with a reflectance of 98.8% compared to the BaSO4 white plate. Furthermore, when deposited on the reflector surface of a remote phosphor-converted light-emitting diode lamp, nanofiber films witness a correlated color temperature deviation decrease from 8880 K to 1407 K and a luminous efficiency improvement of 11.66% at 350 mA. Therefore, the nanofiber films can be applied in lighting systems as a highly reflective coating to improve their light efficacy and quality.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. A. G. Prof and J. H. Wendorff, “Cover picture: electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers,” Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit.  46, 5670 (2007).
  3. N. Bhardwaj and S. C. Kundu, “Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique,” Biotechnol. Adv. 28(3), 325–347 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Zhu, and B. S. Hsiao, “Dual-biomimetic superhydrophobic electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2423–2430 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. X. Cai, T. Lei, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “A critical analysis of the α, β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) using FTIR,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 25, 15382–15389 (2017).
  6. W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Guoqing Zhuang, and B. Li, “Influence of Intermolecular Entanglements on the Glass Transition and Structural Relaxation Behaviors of Macromolecules. 2. Polystyrene and Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone),” Macromolecules 33(2), 461–464 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Gopal, S. Kaur, Z. Ma, C. Chan, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Matsuura, “Electrospun nanofibrous filtration membrane. J Membr Sci,” J. Membr. Sci. 281(1-2), 581–586 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Wang, C. Drew, S.-H. Lee, K. J. Senecal, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Highly Sensitive Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1273–1275 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Ding, J. Kim, Y. Miyazaki, and S. Shiratori, “Electrospun nanofibrous membranes coated quartz crystal microbalance as gas sensor for NH 3 detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 373–380 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Dersch, M. Steinhart, U. Boudriot, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanoprocessing of polymers: applications in medicine, sensors, catalysis, photonics,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 16(2-3), 276–282 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Mie, “Beitrage Zur Optik Truber Medien, Speziell Kolloidaler Metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
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    [Crossref]
  17. C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR-solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res 4(4), 140 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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  23. X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Li, Z. Li, G. Liang, S. Yu, Y. Tang, and X. Ding, “Color uniformity enhancement for COB WLEDs using a remote phosphor film with two freeform surfaces,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23685–23696 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Sun, Y. Peng, H. Zheng, X. Guo, Z. Gan, and S. Liu, “Enhancing ACU of White LEDs by Phosphor Coating Based on Electrohydrodynamics,” IEEE Photonics Tech L, 1 (2017).
  26. H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Peng, X. Guo, R. Li, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Thermally stable WLEDs with excellent luminous properties by screen-printing a patterned phosphor glass layer on a microstructured glass plate,” Appl. Opt. 56(12), 3270–3276 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. K. C. Huang, T. H. Lai, and C. Y. Chen, “Improved CCT uniformity of white LED using remote phosphor with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Opt. 52(30), 7376–7381 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Peng, R. Li, X. Guo, H. Zheng, and M. Chen, “Optical performance improvement of phosphor-in-glass based white light-emitting diodes through optimized packaging structure,” Appl. Opt. 55(29), 8189–8195 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. Xi, T. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Lai, and Z. Tang, “Highly visible-light reflective SiOxNy nanowires for bright-white reflector applications,” Thin Solid Films 529, 115–118 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. C.-C. Kuo, L.-C. Liu, W.-C. Liang, H.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Chen, “Preparation of polylactic acid (PLA) foams with supercritical carbon dioxide and their applications for reflectors of white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps,” Mater. Res. Bull. 67, 170–175 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. Fong, I. Chun, and D. H. Reneker, “Beaded nanofibers formed during electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(16), 4585–4592 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  34. R. Casasola, N. L. Thomas, A. Trybala, and S. Georgiadou, “Electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA) fibres: effect of different solvent systems on fibre morphology and diameter,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(18), 4728–4737 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. M. Deitzel, J. Kleinmeyer, D. Harris, and N. C. B. Tan, “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(1), 261–272 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  36. C. Pan, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Nagai, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, T. Birou, and T. Norimatsu, “SnO2 target with controllable microstructure and thickness for generating extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 016104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. M. Munir, F. Iskandar, K. M. Yun, K. Okuyama, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 19(14), 145603 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. K. Mochizuki, K. Oosumi, F. Koizumi, Y. Shinohara, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer,” Opt. Rev. 22(3), 422–426 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  40. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  41. Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  42. K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  43. S. Wang, X. Chen, M. Chen, H. Zheng, H. Yang, and S. Liu, “Improvement in angular color uniformity of white light-emitting diodes using screen-printed multilayer phosphor-in-glass,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8492–8498 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. C. Kuo-Ju, C. Hsin-Chu, S. Min-Hsiung, W. Chao-Hsun, T. Hsin-Han, C. Shih-Hsuan, L. Chien Chung, and K. Hao-Chung, “Enhanced luminous efficiency of WLEDs using a dual-layer structure of the remote phosphor package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1941–1945 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  45. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  46. F. Zhang, J. Liu, G. You, C. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, Y. Wang, D. D. Koleske, and J. Xu, “Nonradiative energy transfer between colloidal quantum dot-phosphors and nanopillar nitride LEDs,” Opt. Express 20(S2), A333–A339 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

X. Cai, T. Lei, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “A critical analysis of the α, β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) using FTIR,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 25, 15382–15389 (2017).

J. Sun, Y. Peng, H. Zheng, X. Guo, Z. Gan, and S. Liu, “Enhancing ACU of White LEDs by Phosphor Coating Based on Electrohydrodynamics,” IEEE Photonics Tech L, 1 (2017).

Y. Peng, X. Guo, R. Li, H. Cheng, and M. Chen, “Thermally stable WLEDs with excellent luminous properties by screen-printing a patterned phosphor glass layer on a microstructured glass plate,” Appl. Opt. 56(12), 3270–3276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

Y. Peng, R. Li, X. Guo, H. Zheng, and M. Chen, “Optical performance improvement of phosphor-in-glass based white light-emitting diodes through optimized packaging structure,” Appl. Opt. 55(29), 8189–8195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Li, G. Liang, S. Yu, Y. Tang, and X. Ding, “Color uniformity enhancement for COB WLEDs using a remote phosphor film with two freeform surfaces,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23685–23696 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mochizuki, K. Oosumi, F. Koizumi, Y. Shinohara, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer,” Opt. Rev. 22(3), 422–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Kuo, L.-C. Liu, W.-C. Liang, H.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Chen, “Preparation of polylactic acid (PLA) foams with supercritical carbon dioxide and their applications for reflectors of white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps,” Mater. Res. Bull. 67, 170–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. Casasola, N. L. Thomas, A. Trybala, and S. Georgiadou, “Electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA) fibres: effect of different solvent systems on fibre morphology and diameter,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(18), 4728–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Zhu, and B. S. Hsiao, “Dual-biomimetic superhydrophobic electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2423–2430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, X. Chen, M. Chen, H. Zheng, H. Yang, and S. Liu, “Improvement in angular color uniformity of white light-emitting diodes using screen-printed multilayer phosphor-in-glass,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8492–8498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Kuo-Ju, C. Hsin-Chu, S. Min-Hsiung, W. Chao-Hsun, T. Hsin-Han, C. Shih-Hsuan, L. Chien Chung, and K. Hao-Chung, “Enhanced luminous efficiency of WLEDs using a dual-layer structure of the remote phosphor package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1941–1945 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Xi, T. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Lai, and Z. Tang, “Highly visible-light reflective SiOxNy nanowires for bright-white reflector applications,” Thin Solid Films 529, 115–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. C. Huang, T. H. Lai, and C. Y. Chen, “Improved CCT uniformity of white LED using remote phosphor with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Opt. 52(30), 7376–7381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, J. Liu, G. You, C. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, Y. Wang, D. D. Koleske, and J. Xu, “Nonradiative energy transfer between colloidal quantum dot-phosphors and nanopillar nitride LEDs,” Opt. Express 20(S2), A333–A339 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tsuboi, H. Matsumoto, M. Minagawa, and A. Tanioka, “Light scattering assisted surface plasmon resonance at electrospun nanofiber-coated gold surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241109 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2008 (3)

M. M. Munir, F. Iskandar, K. M. Yun, K. Okuyama, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 19(14), 145603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR-solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. G. Prof and J. H. Wendorff, “Cover picture: electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers,” Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit.  46, 5670 (2007).

2006 (2)

R. Gopal, S. Kaur, Z. Ma, C. Chan, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Matsuura, “Electrospun nanofibrous filtration membrane. J Membr Sci,” J. Membr. Sci. 281(1-2), 581–586 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Pan, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Nagai, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, T. Birou, and T. Norimatsu, “SnO2 target with controllable microstructure and thickness for generating extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 016104 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

R. Dersch, M. Steinhart, U. Boudriot, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanoprocessing of polymers: applications in medicine, sensors, catalysis, photonics,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 16(2-3), 276–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. Ding, J. Kim, Y. Miyazaki, and S. Shiratori, “Electrospun nanofibrous membranes coated quartz crystal microbalance as gas sensor for NH 3 detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 373–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

X. Wang, C. Drew, S.-H. Lee, K. J. Senecal, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Highly Sensitive Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1273–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Deitzel, J. Kleinmeyer, D. Harris, and N. C. B. Tan, “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(1), 261–272 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Guoqing Zhuang, and B. Li, “Influence of Intermolecular Entanglements on the Glass Transition and Structural Relaxation Behaviors of Macromolecules. 2. Polystyrene and Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone),” Macromolecules 33(2), 461–464 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Fong, I. Chun, and D. H. Reneker, “Beaded nanofibers formed during electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(16), 4585–4592 (1999).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage Zur Optik Truber Medien, Speziell Kolloidaler Metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Abdullah, M.

M. M. Munir, F. Iskandar, K. M. Yun, K. Okuyama, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 19(14), 145603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR-solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

An, S.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, N.

N. Bhardwaj and S. C. Kundu, “Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique,” Biotechnol. Adv. 28(3), 325–347 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birou, T.

C. Pan, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Nagai, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, T. Birou, and T. Norimatsu, “SnO2 target with controllable microstructure and thickness for generating extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 016104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bognitzki, M.

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boudriot, U.

R. Dersch, M. Steinhart, U. Boudriot, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanoprocessing of polymers: applications in medicine, sensors, catalysis, photonics,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 16(2-3), 276–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, T. Lei, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “A critical analysis of the α, β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) using FTIR,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 25, 15382–15389 (2017).

Casasola, R.

R. Casasola, N. L. Thomas, A. Trybala, and S. Georgiadou, “Electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA) fibres: effect of different solvent systems on fibre morphology and diameter,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(18), 4728–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, C.

R. Gopal, S. Kaur, Z. Ma, C. Chan, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Matsuura, “Electrospun nanofibrous filtration membrane. J Membr Sci,” J. Membr. Sci. 281(1-2), 581–586 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

Chang, Y. H.

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chao-Hsun, W.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, C.-M.

C.-C. Kuo, L.-C. Liu, W.-C. Liang, H.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Chen, “Preparation of polylactic acid (PLA) foams with supercritical carbon dioxide and their applications for reflectors of white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps,” Mater. Res. Bull. 67, 170–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

K. Wang, W. Dan, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Freeform lens for white LEDs with high angular color uniformity,” in proceeding of IEEE Conference on Electronic System-Integration Technology (IEEE, 2010), 1–5.
[Crossref]

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, I.

Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chen, Q.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, Q.

C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chien Chung, L.

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chun, I.

H. Fong, I. Chun, and D. H. Reneker, “Beaded nanofibers formed during electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(16), 4585–4592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Czado, W.

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dan, W.

K. Wang, W. Dan, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Freeform lens for white LEDs with high angular color uniformity,” in proceeding of IEEE Conference on Electronic System-Integration Technology (IEEE, 2010), 1–5.
[Crossref]

Deitzel, J. M.

J. M. Deitzel, J. Kleinmeyer, D. Harris, and N. C. B. Tan, “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(1), 261–272 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dersch, R.

R. Dersch, M. Steinhart, U. Boudriot, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanoprocessing of polymers: applications in medicine, sensors, catalysis, photonics,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 16(2-3), 276–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, B.

B. Ding, J. Kim, Y. Miyazaki, and S. Shiratori, “Electrospun nanofibrous membranes coated quartz crystal microbalance as gas sensor for NH 3 detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 373–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Drew, C.

X. Wang, C. Drew, S.-H. Lee, K. J. Senecal, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Highly Sensitive Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1273–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fong, H.

H. Fong, I. Chun, and D. H. Reneker, “Beaded nanofibers formed during electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(16), 4585–4592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Frese, T.

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gan, Z.

J. Sun, Y. Peng, H. Zheng, X. Guo, Z. Gan, and S. Liu, “Enhancing ACU of White LEDs by Phosphor Coating Based on Electrohydrodynamics,” IEEE Photonics Tech L, 1 (2017).

Georgiadou, S.

R. Casasola, N. L. Thomas, A. Trybala, and S. Georgiadou, “Electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA) fibres: effect of different solvent systems on fibre morphology and diameter,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(18), 4728–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gopal, R.

R. Gopal, S. Kaur, Z. Ma, C. Chan, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Matsuura, “Electrospun nanofibrous filtration membrane. J Membr Sci,” J. Membr. Sci. 281(1-2), 581–586 (2006).
[Crossref]

Greiner, A.

R. Dersch, M. Steinhart, U. Boudriot, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanoprocessing of polymers: applications in medicine, sensors, catalysis, photonics,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 16(2-3), 276–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.-Z.

C. Pan, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Nagai, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, T. Birou, and T. Norimatsu, “SnO2 target with controllable microstructure and thickness for generating extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 016104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Guoqing Zhuang, A.

D. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Guoqing Zhuang, and B. Li, “Influence of Intermolecular Entanglements on the Glass Transition and Structural Relaxation Behaviors of Macromolecules. 2. Polystyrene and Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone),” Macromolecules 33(2), 461–464 (2000).
[Crossref]

Han, H. V.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hao-Chung, K.

Harris, D.

J. M. Deitzel, J. Kleinmeyer, D. Harris, and N. C. B. Tan, “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(1), 261–272 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, K.

C. Pan, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Nagai, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, T. Birou, and T. Norimatsu, “SnO2 target with controllable microstructure and thickness for generating extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 016104 (2006).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hellwig, M.

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, B. S.

X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Zhu, and B. S. Hsiao, “Dual-biomimetic superhydrophobic electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2423–2430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsin-Chu, C.

Hsin-Han, T.

Hu, J.

C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. M.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Guoqing Zhuang, and B. Li, “Influence of Intermolecular Entanglements on the Glass Transition and Structural Relaxation Behaviors of Macromolecules. 2. Polystyrene and Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone),” Macromolecules 33(2), 461–464 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.-L.

Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. C.

Huang, S.

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. H.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iskandar, F.

M. M. Munir, F. Iskandar, K. M. Yun, K. Okuyama, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 19(14), 145603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, K.

W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jo, H. S.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, B. K.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, S. G.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaur, S.

R. Gopal, S. Kaur, Z. Ma, C. Chan, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Matsuura, “Electrospun nanofibrous filtration membrane. J Membr Sci,” J. Membr. Sci. 281(1-2), 581–586 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

B. Ding, J. Kim, Y. Miyazaki, and S. Shiratori, “Electrospun nanofibrous membranes coated quartz crystal microbalance as gas sensor for NH 3 detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 373–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. N.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleinmeyer, J.

J. M. Deitzel, J. Kleinmeyer, D. Harris, and N. C. B. Tan, “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(1), 261–272 (2001).
[Crossref]

Koike, Y.

K. Mochizuki, K. Oosumi, F. Koizumi, Y. Shinohara, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer,” Opt. Rev. 22(3), 422–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koizumi, F.

K. Mochizuki, K. Oosumi, F. Koizumi, Y. Shinohara, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer,” Opt. Rev. 22(3), 422–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

Kumar, J.

X. Wang, C. Drew, S.-H. Lee, K. J. Senecal, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Highly Sensitive Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1273–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kundu, S. C.

N. Bhardwaj and S. C. Kundu, “Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique,” Biotechnol. Adv. 28(3), 325–347 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.

Y.-L. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, J.-L. Huang, I. Chen, and C. Kuo, “Light scattering and enhanced photoactivities of electrospun titania nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(5), 3857–3865 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chang, C. M. Huang, Y. H. Chang, and C. Kuo, “Enhancement of light scattering and photoluminescence in electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A174–A184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-C.

C.-C. Kuo, L.-C. Liu, W.-C. Liang, H.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Chen, “Preparation of polylactic acid (PLA) foams with supercritical carbon dioxide and their applications for reflectors of white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps,” Mater. Res. Bull. 67, 170–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Kuo, H.-C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo-Ju, C.

Kwak, J. S.

Lai, T. H.

Lai, W.

S. Xi, T. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Lai, and Z. Tang, “Highly visible-light reflective SiOxNy nanowires for bright-white reflector applications,” Thin Solid Films 529, 115–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P. T.

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

X. Wang, C. Drew, S.-H. Lee, K. J. Senecal, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Highly Sensitive Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1273–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lei, T.

X. Cai, T. Lei, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “A critical analysis of the α, β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) using FTIR,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 25, 15382–15389 (2017).

Li, B.

D. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Guoqing Zhuang, and B. Li, “Influence of Intermolecular Entanglements on the Glass Transition and Structural Relaxation Behaviors of Macromolecules. 2. Polystyrene and Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone),” Macromolecules 33(2), 461–464 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, J. R.

Li, M.

C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Li, X.

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Zhu, and B. S. Hsiao, “Dual-biomimetic superhydrophobic electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2423–2430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Liang, G.

J. Li, Z. Li, G. Liang, S. Yu, Y. Tang, and X. Ding, “Color uniformity enhancement for COB WLEDs using a remote phosphor film with two freeform surfaces,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23685–23696 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.-C.

C.-C. Kuo, L.-C. Liu, W.-C. Liang, H.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Chen, “Preparation of polylactic acid (PLA) foams with supercritical carbon dioxide and their applications for reflectors of white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps,” Mater. Res. Bull. 67, 170–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, H.

H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, B. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

Lin, C.-C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

Lin, L.

X. Cai, T. Lei, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “A critical analysis of the α, β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) using FTIR,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 25, 15382–15389 (2017).

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

S. Xi, T. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Lai, and Z. Tang, “Highly visible-light reflective SiOxNy nanowires for bright-white reflector applications,” Thin Solid Films 529, 115–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.-C.

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J. Sun, Y. Peng, H. Zheng, X. Guo, Z. Gan, and S. Liu, “Enhancing ACU of White LEDs by Phosphor Coating Based on Electrohydrodynamics,” IEEE Photonics Tech L, 1 (2017).

S. Wang, X. Chen, M. Chen, H. Zheng, H. Yang, and S. Liu, “Improvement in angular color uniformity of white light-emitting diodes using screen-printed multilayer phosphor-in-glass,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8492–8498 (2014).
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K. Wang, W. Dan, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Freeform lens for white LEDs with high angular color uniformity,” in proceeding of IEEE Conference on Electronic System-Integration Technology (IEEE, 2010), 1–5.
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W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
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Park, Y.

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A. G. Prof and J. H. Wendorff, “Cover picture: electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers,” Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit.  46, 5670 (2007).

Qiu, X.

W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
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R. Gopal, S. Kaur, Z. Ma, C. Chan, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Matsuura, “Electrospun nanofibrous filtration membrane. J Membr Sci,” J. Membr. Sci. 281(1-2), 581–586 (2006).
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H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
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Shimada, Y.

C. Pan, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Nagai, Y. Shimada, K. Hashimoto, T. Birou, and T. Norimatsu, “SnO2 target with controllable microstructure and thickness for generating extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 016104 (2006).
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K. Mochizuki, K. Oosumi, F. Koizumi, Y. Shinohara, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer,” Opt. Rev. 22(3), 422–426 (2015).
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B. Ding, J. Kim, Y. Miyazaki, and S. Shiratori, “Electrospun nanofibrous membranes coated quartz crystal microbalance as gas sensor for NH 3 detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 373–380 (2004).
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J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
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C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
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D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
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J. Sun, Y. Peng, H. Zheng, X. Guo, Z. Gan, and S. Liu, “Enhancing ACU of White LEDs by Phosphor Coating Based on Electrohydrodynamics,” IEEE Photonics Tech L, 1 (2017).

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K. Mochizuki, K. Oosumi, F. Koizumi, Y. Shinohara, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer,” Opt. Rev. 22(3), 422–426 (2015).
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K. Tsuboi, H. Matsumoto, M. Minagawa, and A. Tanioka, “Light scattering assisted surface plasmon resonance at electrospun nanofiber-coated gold surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241109 (2011).
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Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
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K. Tsuboi, H. Matsumoto, M. Minagawa, and A. Tanioka, “Light scattering assisted surface plasmon resonance at electrospun nanofiber-coated gold surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241109 (2011).
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D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
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Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, W. Dan, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Freeform lens for white LEDs with high angular color uniformity,” in proceeding of IEEE Conference on Electronic System-Integration Technology (IEEE, 2010), 1–5.
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K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
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Wang, S. W.

Wang, X.

X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Zhu, and B. S. Hsiao, “Dual-biomimetic superhydrophobic electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2423–2430 (2014).
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A. G. Prof and J. H. Wendorff, “Cover picture: electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers,” Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit.  46, 5670 (2007).

R. Dersch, M. Steinhart, U. Boudriot, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanoprocessing of polymers: applications in medicine, sensors, catalysis, photonics,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 16(2-3), 276–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, A. Schaper, M. Hellwig, M. Steinhart, A. Greiner, and J. H. Wendorff, “Nanostructured Fibers via Electrospinning,” Adv. Mater. 13(1), 70–72 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
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H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
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S. Xi, T. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Lai, and Z. Tang, “Highly visible-light reflective SiOxNy nanowires for bright-white reflector applications,” Thin Solid Films 529, 115–118 (2013).
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Xu, J.

Yang, H.

Yang, Y.

X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Zhu, and B. S. Hsiao, “Dual-biomimetic superhydrophobic electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2423–2430 (2014).
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C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
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Yoon, S. S.

H. J. Lee, S. An, J. H. Hwang, S. G. Jung, H. S. Jo, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Shim, C. H. Park, S. S. Yoon, Y. W. Park, and B. K. Ju, “Novel composite layer based on electrospun polymer nanofibers for efficient light scattering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(1), 68–74 (2015).
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You, G.

Yu, B.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res 4(4), 140 (2016).
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K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
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J. Li, Z. Li, G. Liang, S. Yu, Y. Tang, and X. Ding, “Color uniformity enhancement for COB WLEDs using a remote phosphor film with two freeform surfaces,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23685–23696 (2016).
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S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res 4(4), 140 (2016).
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Yun, K. M.

M. M. Munir, F. Iskandar, K. M. Yun, K. Okuyama, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 19(14), 145603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, X.

H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Z.

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Zhang, F.

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S. Xi, T. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Lai, and Z. Tang, “Highly visible-light reflective SiOxNy nanowires for bright-white reflector applications,” Thin Solid Films 529, 115–118 (2013).
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Zhao, J.

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
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W. Zhao, J. Li, K. Jin, W. Liu, X. Qiu, and C. Li, “Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 59, 1181–1194 (2016).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

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H. Liao, Y. Wu, M. Wu, X. Zhan, and H. Liu, “Aligned electrospun cellulose fibers reinforced epoxy resin composite films with high visible light transmittance,” Cellulose 19(1), 111–119 (2012).
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Electrochim. Acta (1)

D. Wu, C. Shi, S. Huang, X. Qiu, H. Wang, Z. Zhan, P. Zhang, J. Zhao, D. Sun, and L. Lin, “Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function,” Electrochim. Acta 176, 727–734 (2015).
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C. Ye, M. Li, J. Hu, Q. Cheng, L. Jiang, and Y. Song, “Highly reflective superhydrophobic white coating inspired by poplar leaf hairs toward an effective ‘cool roof’,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3364 (2011).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the far field electrospinning system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 System for the measurement of the BRDF for PLGA films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of PLGA nanofibers fabricated with different PLGA solution concentrations of (a, e) 25 wt%, (b, f) 30 wt%, (c, g) 40 wt%, and (d, h) 50 wt%.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Image of the PLGA NF films, (b) patterns of green laser light scattering, and (c)the relationship between the thickness and deposition time. The peel-off-test image of the PLGA coating is inset.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical properties of PLGA films with different thickness:(a) BRDF, (b) mirror energy change, and (c) diffuse reflectance. The inset is the average diffuse reflectivity of films with different thickness.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical properties of PLGA films with different diameters: (a) the BRDF, and (b) the diffuse reflectance. The inset is the average diffuse reflectivity of films with different diameter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic diagram of the light transmission. (b) Photograph of the lamp with/without the PLGA film. (c) Correlating blue illumination patterns.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) CCT distribution. (b) Emission spectra at the zeniths of 0°, −30°, −75°. (c) Current-dependent CCT. (d) Chromaticity coordinates of the LED lamps with/without PLGA films in CIE 1931.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Luminous flux and luminous efficiency. (b) Emission spectrum of white LEDs with and without PLGA films. (c) Current-dependent color conversion efficiency and light efficacy of radiation for LED lamps with/without PLGA films. (d) Radiant flux of blue and yellow light (350 mA).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Diameter of PLGA NFs with the PLGA concentration

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Table 2 Change in total CCT and CCT deviation and luminous flux improvement of the system without and with electrospun film configuration for different mass ratio of YAG and PDMS

Equations (3)

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BRDF( θ i , φ i , θ r , φ r ,λ)= d L r ( θ i , φ i , θ r , φ r ) d E i ( θ i , φ i ) ,
CCE= P Yem P Bex = λ 3 λ 4 I Yem (λ)dλ λ 1 λ 2 I Bex ( λ ' )d λ ' ,
LER=683(lm/W) R(λ)S(λ)dλ S(λ)dλ ,

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