Abstract

This study presents the low cost fabrication of flexible white-light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs) with nano-honeycomb-structured phosphor films. Extending the dimensions of the nano-honeycomb structures improved the color uniformity of the flexible samples, and the 950-nm pattern sample demonstrated optimal color uniformity because this nano-pattern exhibited an excellent diffusion ability owing to its pitch size. In addition to color uniformity, the use of this nano-pattern improved the luminous efficiency. The 750-nm pattern exhibited the highest luminous efficiency (235.8 lm/W), which was approximately 7% higher than that exhibited by a non-patterned phosphor film sample. Thus, flexible w-LEDs with nano-honeycomb structure optimization have great potential to be used as next-generation lighting sources.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, Z. Y. Tu, P. T. Lee, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Effective optimization and analysis of white LED properties by using nano-honeycomb patterned phosphor film,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19032–19039 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

T. i. Kim, S. Hyun Lee, Y. Li, Y. Shi, G. Shin, S. Dan Lee, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, and J. Su Yu, “Temperature-and size-dependent characteristics in ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes assembled by transfer printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051901 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In situ fabrication of bendable microscale hexagonal pyramids array vertical light emitting diodes with graphene as stretchable electrical interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Liu, K. J. Chen, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4516–4522 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

B. Y. Joo and J. H. Ko, “Analysis of color uniformity of white LED lens packages for direct-lit LCD backlight applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17(6), 506–512 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

R. H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. I. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Huang, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of silicon solar cells using a nano-scale honeycomb broadband anti-reflection structure,” Opt. Express 20(1), A85–A93 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chen, W. L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14411–14419 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. H. Huang, T. C. Huang, Y. T. Sun, and S. Y. Yang, “Large-area and thin light guide plates fabricated using UV-based imprinting,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15033–15038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakayama, K. Hiyama, K. Furukawa, and H. Ohtani, “Development of phosphorescent white OLED with high power efficiency and long lifetime,” Konica Minolta Technology Report 5, 115 (2008).

2007 (3)

Y. Sun and J. A. Rogers, “Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1897–1916 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. F. Krauss, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(9), 2666–2670 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

L. A. Connal and G. G. Qiao, “Preparation of Porous Poly (dimethylsiloxane)‐Based Honeycomb Materials with Hierarchal Surface Features and Their Use as Soft‐Lithography Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(22), 3024–3028 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. N. Shepard, “Attention and the metric structure of the stimulus space,” J. Math. Psychol. 1(1), 54–87 (1964).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Hasani, R.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Braun, P. V.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruchas, M. R.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Y. Liu, K. J. Chen, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4516–4522 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. L.

Charlton, M. D.

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, H.-M.

Chen, J. Y.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, T. P.

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-M.

Cheng, H.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, G. C.

Chiang, T. Y.

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chien, S. H.

Chiu, H. T.

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meitl, M. A.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Minato, S.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, T.

T. Nakayama, K. Hiyama, K. Furukawa, and H. Ohtani, “Development of phosphorescent white OLED with high power efficiency and long lifetime,” Konica Minolta Technology Report 5, 115 (2008).

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtani, H.

T. Nakayama, K. Hiyama, K. Furukawa, and H. Ohtani, “Development of phosphorescent white OLED with high power efficiency and long lifetime,” Konica Minolta Technology Report 5, 115 (2008).

Omenetto, F. G.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, S. L.

Paik, U.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Petrov, I.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, G. G.

L. A. Connal and G. G. Qiao, “Preparation of Porous Poly (dimethylsiloxane)‐Based Honeycomb Materials with Hierarchal Surface Features and Their Use as Soft‐Lithography Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(22), 3024–3028 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rawiso, M.

G. Widawski, M. Rawiso, and B. François, “Self-organized honeycomb morphology of star-polymer polystyrene films,” (1994).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

T. i. Kim, S. Hyun Lee, Y. Li, Y. Shi, G. Shin, S. Dan Lee, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, and J. Su Yu, “Temperature-and size-dependent characteristics in ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes assembled by transfer printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. I. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and J. A. Rogers, “Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1897–1916 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
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E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shen, T. L.

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepard, R. N.

R. N. Shepard, “Attention and the metric structure of the stimulus space,” J. Math. Psychol. 1(1), 54–87 (1964).
[Crossref]

Sher, C. W.

Shi, Y.

T. i. Kim, S. Hyun Lee, Y. Li, Y. Shi, G. Shin, S. Dan Lee, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, and J. Su Yu, “Temperature-and size-dependent characteristics in ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes assembled by transfer printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shigeta, K.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, M. H.

Shin, G.

T. i. Kim, S. Hyun Lee, Y. Li, Y. Shi, G. Shin, S. Dan Lee, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, and J. Su Yu, “Temperature-and size-dependent characteristics in ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes assembled by transfer printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, T.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. M.

R. H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. I. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Su, J.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su Yu, J.

T. i. Kim, S. Hyun Lee, Y. Li, Y. Shi, G. Shin, S. Dan Lee, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, and J. Su Yu, “Temperature-and size-dependent characteristics in ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes assembled by transfer printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, K. W.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and J. A. Rogers, “Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1897–1916 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. T.

Tsai, Y. L.

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, H. H.

Tu, Z. Y.

Wang, A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In situ fabrication of bendable microscale hexagonal pyramids array vertical light emitting diodes with graphene as stretchable electrical interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. Y.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In situ fabrication of bendable microscale hexagonal pyramids array vertical light emitting diodes with graphene as stretchable electrical interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. W.

Widawski, G.

G. Widawski, M. Rawiso, and B. François, “Self-organized honeycomb morphology of star-polymer polystyrene films,” (1994).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
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Yan, Y.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
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Yang, S. Y.

Yang, X.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
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Yi, X.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In situ fabrication of bendable microscale hexagonal pyramids array vertical light emitting diodes with graphene as stretchable electrical interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
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Yu, C.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
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Yu, P.

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
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H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. Yu, T.-M. Chen, H.-M. Chen, K.-M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32504–32515 (2015).
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S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
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S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In situ fabrication of bendable microscale hexagonal pyramids array vertical light emitting diodes with graphene as stretchable electrical interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. T.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
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ACS Photonics (1)

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In situ fabrication of bendable microscale hexagonal pyramids array vertical light emitting diodes with graphene as stretchable electrical interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Sun and J. A. Rogers, “Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1897–1916 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Connal and G. G. Qiao, “Preparation of Porous Poly (dimethylsiloxane)‐Based Honeycomb Materials with Hierarchal Surface Features and Their Use as Soft‐Lithography Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(22), 3024–3028 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. i. Kim, S. Hyun Lee, Y. Li, Y. Shi, G. Shin, S. Dan Lee, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, and J. Su Yu, “Temperature-and size-dependent characteristics in ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes assembled by transfer printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
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J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (2)

H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
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H. T. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Chiang, and M. T. Guo, “Preparation and characterization of UV‐curable organic/inorganic hybrid composites for NIR cutoff and antistatic coatings,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(1), 202–211 (2011).
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J. Math. Psychol. (1)

R. N. Shepard, “Attention and the metric structure of the stimulus space,” J. Math. Psychol. 1(1), 54–87 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. F. Krauss, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(9), 2666–2670 (2007).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[Crossref]

Konica Minolta Technology Report (1)

T. Nakayama, K. Hiyama, K. Furukawa, and H. Ohtani, “Development of phosphorescent white OLED with high power efficiency and long lifetime,” Konica Minolta Technology Report 5, 115 (2008).

Nanoscale (1)

Y. L. Tsai, C. Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D. W. Lin, Y. C. Chu, T. P. Chen, T. L. Shen, T. S. Kao, M. D. Charlton, P. Yu, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and J. H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Cho, J. Lee, X. Huang, L. Jia, J. A. Fan, Y. Su, J. Su, H. Zhang, H. Cheng, B. Lu, C. Yu, C. Chuang, T. I. Kim, T. Song, K. Shigeta, S. Kang, C. Dagdeviren, I. Petrov, P. V. Braun, Y. Huang, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable batteries with self-similar serpentine interconnects and integrated wireless recharging systems,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

P. H. Huang, T. C. Huang, Y. T. Sun, and S. Y. Yang, “Large-area and thin light guide plates fabricated using UV-based imprinting,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15033–15038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Chen, W. L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14411–14419 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Huang, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of silicon solar cells using a nano-scale honeycomb broadband anti-reflection structure,” Opt. Express 20(1), A85–A93 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Liu, K. J. Chen, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4516–4522 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Sher, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, K. Honjo, H.-Y. Jiang, S. L. Ou, R. H. Horng, X. Li, C. C. Fu, and H. C. Kuo, “Large-area, uniform white light LED source on a flexible substrate,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1167–A1178 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. Yu, T.-M. Chen, H.-M. Chen, K.-M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32504–32515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, Z. Y. Tu, P. T. Lee, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Effective optimization and analysis of white LED properties by using nano-honeycomb patterned phosphor film,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19032–19039 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

R. H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. I. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. Widawski, M. Rawiso, and B. François, “Self-organized honeycomb morphology of star-polymer polystyrene films,” (1994).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno and L. M. Molinar, “Color uniformity of the light distribution from several cluster configurations of multicolor LEDs,” in Optics & Photonics 2005(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2005), pp. 59411S–59411S–59417.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experiment flowchart. (a, b) Fabrication of the blue flip-chip-based flexible substrate by using an anisotropic conductive adhesive, and (d, e) honeycomb structure phosphor film fabrication. Flexible white-LEDs covered with (c) patterned-up and (f) patterned-down nano-honeycomb structure phosphor film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)(b) The SEM top view images of the PS nano-sphere coated glass without the SDS treated and (c)(d) after the SDS treatment.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of the honeycomb-patterned PDMS films with a dimension of (a) 350 nm, (b) 450 nm, (c) 750 nm, and (d) 950 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measurement of the (a) total transparence (total direct light transmission) and (b) diffusion transparence (excluding the normal direct light transmission) of the phosphor films. (c) The haze spectrum depends on the wavelength of the nano-honeycomb structured PDMS films with dimensions of 350, 450, 750, and 950 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Chromaticity uniformity measurement system to investigate the uniformity of flexible samples by using an SR-UL1R spectro-radiometer. (b)–(f) Spots in the areas of the flexible LEDs depicting maximum and minimum correlated color temperature (CCT) and the correlated chromaticity coordinates have been analyzed to verify the color uniformity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation of flexible w-LEDs to verify the influence of (a) flat phosphor film and the difference dimensions of (b) 350nm, (c) 450 nm, (d) 750 nm, (e) 950 nm, and (f) 1150 nm nano-honeycomb structure on color uniformity.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulation emission spectra of the nano-honeycomb (a) patterned-up and (b) patterned-down phosphor films with dimensions of 350, 450, 750, 950, and 1150 nm for flexible LEDs. (c) Emission spectra of the flexible w-LEDs at a current of 120 mA and (d) luminous flux for the 360, 450, 750, and 950-nm nano-honeycomb patterned films covered with patterned top or bottom for the flexible w-LEDs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Angular dependence reflection measurement system for the patterned phosphor film. (b)–(i) Mapping images of normalized reflection as a function of wavelength with the incident angle for different dimensions of nano-honeycomb phosphor films.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The ray tracing simulation of the effect of the nano-honeycomb patterned for the flexible LEDs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The bending diameter defined of bending test for flexible LEDs was illustrated in the picture. (b)-(f) The luminous flux and voltage of the flexible white LED of the non-patterned and difference size of honeycomb pattern flexible LEDs with the diameter of 10 mm bending test.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) The image of the bending test measurement system for the difference size of patterned structure flexible LEDs. The bending test of (b) non-patterned and (c) 750 nm patterned samples are with more times of bending circle.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Simulation efficiency of flexible w-leds with various dimension patterns.

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Table 2 experimental efficiency of flexible w-LEDs with various dimension patterns.

Equations (2)

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Haze( % )= T diffuse T total 100%.
Δ u ' v ' ( x, y )= [ u 1 ' ( x,y ) u 2 ' (x,y)] 2 + [ v 1 ' ( x,y ) v 2 ' (x,y)] 2 .

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