Abstract

Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (S-SNOM) has enormous potential as a spectroscopy tool in the infrared spectral range where it can probe phonon resonances and carrier dynamics at the nanometer lengths scales. However, its applicability is limited by the lack of practical and affordable table-top light sources emitting intense broadband infrared radiation in the 100 cm−1 to 2,500 cm−1 spectral range. This paper introduces a high temperature plasma light source that is both ultra-broadband and has much more radiant power in the infrared spectral range than conventional, table-top thermal light sources such as the globar. We implement this plasma lamp in our near-field optical spectroscopy set up and demonstrate its capability as a broadband infrared nano-spectroscopy light source by obtaining near-field infrared amplitude and phase spectra of the phonon resonances of SiO2 and SrTiO3.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2016 (2)

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. Romanyuk, A. Huber, S. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale IR absorption spectroscopy of individual NPs enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano 5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Becker, C. Streng, Y. Luo, V. Moshnyaga, B. Damaschke, N. Shannon, and K. Samwer, “Intrinsic inhomogeneities in manganite thin films investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 237203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature 418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. L. McIntosh, B. A. Wofford, R. R. Lucchese, and J. W. Bevan, “High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a high temperature argon arc source,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 42(6), 509–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Gunde, ““Vibrational modes in amorphous silicon dioxide,” Phys. B Condens,” Matter 292, 286–295 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Fäth, S. Freisem, A. A. Menovsky, Y. Tomioka, J. Aarts, and J. A. Mydosh, “Spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator transition in doped manganites,” Science 285(5433), 1540–1542 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. M. Bridges and A. L. Migdall, “Characterization of argon arc source in the infrared,” Metrologia 32(6), 625–628 (1995).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

E. E. Bell, “Measurement of the far infrared optical properties of solids with a michelson interferometer used in the asymmetric mode: Part 1, mathematical formulation,” Infrared Phys. 6(2), 57–74 (1966).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

M. F. Kimmitt and G. B. F. Niblett, “Infra-red emission from the theta pinch,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 82(6), 938–946 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, D. A. Kleinman, and L. E. Howarth, “Far infrared dielectric dispersion in BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and TiO2,” Phys. Rev. 126(5), 1710–1721 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aarts, J.

M. Fäth, S. Freisem, A. A. Menovsky, Y. Tomioka, J. Aarts, and J. A. Mydosh, “Spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator transition in doped manganites,” Science 285(5433), 1540–1542 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abate, Y.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. Romanyuk, A. Huber, S. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale IR absorption spectroscopy of individual NPs enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano 5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alden, D.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amarie, S.

C. Westermeier, A. Cernescu, S. Amarie, C. Liewald, F. Keilmann, and B. Nickel, “Sub-micron phase coexistence in small-molecule organic thin films revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amenabar, I.

F. Huth, A. Chuvilin, M. Schnell, I. Amenabar, R. Krutokhvostov, S. Lopatin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resonant antenna probes for tip-enhanced infrared near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1065–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderegg, L.

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andreev, G. O.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babicheva, V.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

H. A. Bechtel, E. A. Muller, R. L. Olmon, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, “Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(20), 7191–7196 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, T.

T. Becker, C. Streng, Y. Luo, V. Moshnyaga, B. Damaschke, N. Shannon, and K. Samwer, “Intrinsic inhomogeneities in manganite thin films investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 237203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckhoff, B.

Bell, E. E.

E. E. Bell, “Measurement of the far infrared optical properties of solids with a michelson interferometer used in the asymmetric mode: Part 1, mathematical formulation,” Infrared Phys. 6(2), 57–74 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bensmann, S.

Bevan, J. W.

A. L. McIntosh, B. A. Wofford, R. R. Lucchese, and J. W. Bevan, “High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a high temperature argon arc source,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 42(6), 509–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brehm, M.

M. Brehm, A. Schliesser, F. Cajko, I. Tsukerman, and F. Keilmann, “Antenna-mediated back-scattering efficiency in infrared near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11203–11215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bridges, J. M.

J. M. Bridges and A. L. Migdall, “Characterization of argon arc source in the infrared,” Metrologia 32(6), 625–628 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cajko, F.

Castro-Neto, A. H.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cernescu, A.

C. Westermeier, A. Cernescu, S. Amarie, C. Liewald, F. Keilmann, and B. Nickel, “Sub-micron phase coexistence in small-molecule organic thin films revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, B.-G.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuvilin, A.

F. Huth, A. Chuvilin, M. Schnell, I. Amenabar, R. Krutokhvostov, S. Lopatin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resonant antenna probes for tip-enhanced infrared near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1065–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collazo, R.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craig, I. M.

Cvitkovic, A.

J. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. Romanyuk, A. Huber, S. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale IR absorption spectroscopy of individual NPs enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano 5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damaschke, B.

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S McLeod, A.

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Schnell, M.

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Stockman, M. I.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streng, C.

T. Becker, C. Streng, Y. Luo, V. Moshnyaga, B. Damaschke, N. Shannon, and K. Samwer, “Intrinsic inhomogeneities in manganite thin films investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 237203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tauber, M. J.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubman, M. S.

Taubner, T.

Thiemens, M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomioka, Y.

M. Fäth, S. Freisem, A. A. Menovsky, Y. Tomioka, J. Aarts, and J. A. Mydosh, “Spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator transition in doped manganites,” Science 285(5433), 1540–1542 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsukerman, I.

Ulm, G.

Ulrich, G.

van Heumen, E.

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

Westermeier, C.

C. Westermeier, A. Cernescu, S. Amarie, C. Liewald, F. Keilmann, and B. Nickel, “Sub-micron phase coexistence in small-molecule organic thin films revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittborn, J.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wofford, B. A.

A. L. McIntosh, B. A. Wofford, R. R. Lucchese, and J. W. Bevan, “High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a high temperature argon arc source,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 42(6), 509–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wüppen, J.

Yakovlev, V. S.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. J.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of phase separation in InxGa1-xN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. Romanyuk, A. Huber, S. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale IR absorption spectroscopy of individual NPs enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano 5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Infrared Phys. (1)

E. E. Bell, “Measurement of the far infrared optical properties of solids with a michelson interferometer used in the asymmetric mode: Part 1, mathematical formulation,” Infrared Phys. 6(2), 57–74 (1966).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

A. L. McIntosh, B. A. Wofford, R. R. Lucchese, and J. W. Bevan, “High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a high temperature argon arc source,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 42(6), 509–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matter (1)

M. K. Gunde, ““Vibrational modes in amorphous silicon dioxide,” Phys. B Condens,” Matter 292, 286–295 (2000).

Metrologia (1)

J. M. Bridges and A. L. Migdall, “Characterization of argon arc source in the infrared,” Metrologia 32(6), 625–628 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

F. Huth, A. Chuvilin, M. Schnell, I. Amenabar, R. Krutokhvostov, S. Lopatin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resonant antenna probes for tip-enhanced infrared near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1065–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Westermeier, A. Cernescu, S. Amarie, C. Liewald, F. Keilmann, and B. Nickel, “Sub-micron phase coexistence in small-molecule organic thin films revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature 418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

I. M. Craig, M. S. Taubman, A. S. Lea, M. C. Phillips, E. E. Josberger, and M. B. Raschke, “Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30401–30414 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, A. Schliesser, F. Cajko, I. Tsukerman, and F. Keilmann, “Antenna-mediated back-scattering efficiency in infrared near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11203–11215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hermann, A. Hoehl, P. Patoka, F. Huth, E. Rühl, and G. Ulm, “Near-field imaging and nano-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy using broadband synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2913–2919 (2013).
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P. Hermann, A. Hoehl, G. Ulrich, C. Fleischmann, A. Hermelink, B. Kästner, P. Patoka, A. Hornemann, B. Beckhoff, E. Rühl, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of semiconductor materials using synchrotron radiation-based near-field infrared microscopy and nano-FTIR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17948–17958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bensmann, F. Gaußmann, M. Lewin, J. Wüppen, S. Nyga, C. Janzen, B. Jungbluth, and T. Taubner, “Near-field imaging and spectroscopy of locally strained GaN using an IR broadband laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22369–22381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. O’Callahan, W. E. Lewis, S. Möbius, J. C. Stanley, E. A. Muller, and M. B. Raschke, “Broadband infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy using thermal blackbody radiation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32063–32074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, D. A. Kleinman, and L. E. Howarth, “Far infrared dielectric dispersion in BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and TiO2,” Phys. Rev. 126(5), 1710–1721 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Becker, C. Streng, Y. Luo, V. Moshnyaga, B. Damaschke, N. Shannon, and K. Samwer, “Intrinsic inhomogeneities in manganite thin films investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 237203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. A. Bechtel, E. A. Muller, R. L. Olmon, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, “Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(20), 7191–7196 (2014).
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Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

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[Crossref]

Science (2)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fäth, S. Freisem, A. A. Menovsky, Y. Tomioka, J. Aarts, and J. A. Mydosh, “Spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator transition in doped manganites,” Science 285(5433), 1540–1542 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic representation of the APLS. A top view cross-section of the APLS is shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Relative radiance of the argon plasma (violet) compared to a 1320 K globar (black). The spectra were obtained with the Bruker Vertex 80v FTIR spectrometer in air. Sharp peaks in the APLS spectrum are mainly due to argon emission lines and the valleys are mainly due to atmospheric absorption. The atmospheric absorption features also appear in the globar spectrum. (b) Comparison of 100% lines taken with the Globar and APLS. (Inset) Zoomed in view of 100% lines demonstrating the relative noise levels of both sources in our spectral range of interest.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the beam path used. (b) Approach curve obtained at the second harmonic with the reference arm set to the white light position (position of the peak in (c)). (c) Near-field interferogram on gold demodulated at the second harmonic obtained with the argon plasma light source and optical setup shown above and (d) the resultant spectrum generated by fast Fourier transformation of the interferogram.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Topography and (b) the second harmonic near-field amplitude at the white light position obtained simultaneously on 100 nm thick SiO2 on silicon. Each pixel represents an area of 15 square nanometers. The total integrated signal over all wavelengths is higher for silicon so it will have a higher amplitude in the near-field scan. (c) represents a line trace (red dashed line) averaged over 4 consecutive horizontal lines on the topography scan while (d) represents the same location for the near-field scan. In (d) we can see that moving off the SiO2 step and onto the Si substrate there is a sharp increase in signal over about 50 nm which is about two orders of magnitude below the diffraction limit of the tip illumination wavelength range. The change in the near-field signal is solely due to the difference in the dielectric function of Si and SiO2 and not due to a change in the height between the two materials.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Near-field amplitude (a) and phase shift ϕ (b) of 100 nm of SiO2 normalized to Si. The location of these point spectra are represented approximately by the red letters in Fig. 3(b). The SiO2 spectra were collected at point A and normalized to a spectrally flat silicon spectrum taken at point B. Comparing the experimental data (black) to the point dipole model (magenta) and finite dipole model (blue) we can see a semi-quantitative agreement.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Phonon polariton resonance of STO normalized to a gold reference (black) compared to the point dipole model (magenta) and finite dipole model (blue). In the inset we show the non-normalized second, third, and fourth harmonic near-field spectra on STO demonstrating that this resonance persists in the higher harmonics. (b) Phase shift of the near-field infrared signal on STO normalized to the gold reference and compared to the point dipole model (magenta) and finite dipole model (blue). The phase shift is constrained to values between π and -π.

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