Abstract

The first generation of monocentric multiscale gigapixel cameras used Keplerian designs to enable full field coverage. This paper considers alternative designs that remove the requirement that adjacent subimages overlap. Removing this constraint enables Galilean designs that reduce system volume and improve relative illumination and image quality. The entrance aperture can also be moved to more closely approximate telecentricity and gaps in the field of view can be filled using multiple co-boresighted MMS cameras. Even with multiple cameras, Galilean systems can still reduce the total volume by 10 times relative to previous Keplerian designs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. W. Lohmann, ”Scaling laws for lens systems,” Appl. Opt. 28(23), 4996–4998 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  3. D. J. Brady and N. Hagen, ”Multiscale lens design,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10659–10674 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).
  5. N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. C. King, The History of the Telescope, (Dover, 1935), 34–44.
  7. E. J. Tremblay, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. E. Ford, ”Design and scaling of monocentric multiscale imagers,” Appl. Opt. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, ”Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt.Eng. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).
  9. H. S. Son, A. Johnson, R. A. Stack, J. M. Shaw, P. McLaughlin, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. Kim, ”Optomechanical design of multiscale gigapixel digital camera,” Appl. Opt. 52(8), 1541–1549 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

E. J. Tremblay, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. E. Ford, ”Design and scaling of monocentric multiscale imagers,” Appl. Opt. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, ”Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt.Eng. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

1989 (1)

Abel, B.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Acosta, E.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Agurok, I. P.

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Allsman, R.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

AlSayyad, Y.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Anderson, S.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Andrew, J.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Angel, R.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Angeli, G.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Antoniades, J.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Arianpour, A.

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Aussela, H.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boesgaarda, H.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brady, D. J.

Braun, M.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Brewer, P.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Burkeb, B.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chambersa, K.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chester, D.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Chunc, M.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Edwards, J.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Feller, S. D.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, J. E.

E. J. Tremblay, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. E. Ford, ”Design and scaling of monocentric multiscale imagers,” Appl. Opt. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Gehm, M. E.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershfield, C.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Golish, D. R.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haas, D.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Hagen, N.

Ivezic, Z.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Johnson, A.

H. S. Son, A. Johnson, R. A. Stack, J. M. Shaw, P. McLaughlin, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. Kim, ”Optomechanical design of multiscale gigapixel digital camera,” Appl. Opt. 52(8), 1541–1549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

King, H. C.

H. C. King, The History of the Telescope, (Dover, 1935), 34–44.

Kittle, D. S.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leininger, B.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, E.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Lohmann, A. W.

Madden, D. G.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Marks, D. L.

H. S. Son, A. Johnson, R. A. Stack, J. M. Shaw, P. McLaughlin, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. Kim, ”Optomechanical design of multiscale gigapixel digital camera,” Appl. Opt. 52(8), 1541–1549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Tremblay, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. E. Ford, ”Design and scaling of monocentric multiscale imagers,” Appl. Opt. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, ”Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt.Eng. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).

McLaughlin, P.

Morrison, R.

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Olivas, S. J.

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Shafique, K. H.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. M.

Son, H. S.

Stack, R.

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Stack, R. A.

H. S. Son, A. Johnson, R. A. Stack, J. M. Shaw, P. McLaughlin, D. L. Marks, D. J. Brady, and J. Kim, ”Optomechanical design of multiscale gigapixel digital camera,” Appl. Opt. 52(8), 1541–1549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stamenov, I.

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Stevens, M.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Targove, J. D.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Tremblay, E. J.

Tyson, J.

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

Vera, E. M.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wein, S.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Wick, J.

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Nature (1)

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, ”Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

D. J. Brady and N. Hagen, ”Multiscale lens design,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10659–10674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Stamenov, A. Arianpour, S. J. Olivas, I. P. Agurok, A. Johnson, R. Stack, R. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, ”Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes,” Opt. Express 22(26), 10659–269 (1999).

Opt.Eng. (1)

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, ”Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt.Eng. 51(20), 4691–4702 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, ”Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Z. Ivezic, J. Tyson, B. Abel, E. Acosta, R. Allsman, Y. AlSayyad, S. Anderson, J. Andrew, R. Angel, and G. Angeli, ”LSST: from science drivers to reference design and anticipated data products,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 0805.2366 (2008).

N. Kaiser, H. Aussela, B. Burkeb, H. Boesgaarda, K. Chambersa, M. Chunc, and J. Wick, ”Pan-STARRS large synoptic survey telescope array,” in Survey and Other Telecsope Technologies and Discoveries, J. A. Tyson and S. Wolf, eds., Proc. SPIE4836, 154–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. C. King, The History of the Telescope, (Dover, 1935), 34–44.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 First order MMS lens of Galilean style with one channel
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The required aperture size of the stop increases as the stop moves towards the center of the objective. (a) The stop is too close to the objective; the size of the stop exceeds the cone angle θ. (b) The stop is just touching the cone angle boundary. (c) The stop is inside the cone angle.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The required aperture diameter of the objective increasing as the stop moves away from the center of the objective. (a) Minimum diameter when the stop is at the center of the objective. (b) The diameter increases as the stop moves away from the center. (c) The stop position when the vignetting occurs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic illustration of Co-boresignted system with 3 MMS paralleled together, MFOV patches from different cameras.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 First order parameters of the design example.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Cross-section of AWARE-2 design (top) and one of three lenses from co-boresighted Galilean MMS design (bottom), each with three channels.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 According to MTFs, the new design maintains high imaging performance.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The spot diagrams of four fields shows near diffraction-limited performance, since the ray flall within the Airy disc radius.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System comparison between parallel MMS and AWARE-2 glass version

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D ε = ( f o d o s ) f f o ( F / # )
D o = 2 ( l ε α + D ε / 2 ) = 2 f o d o s α f o d o s + f F / #
D e = 2 ( f o α l i p / f e + D i p / 2 ) = 2 ( 1 f e f o d o s ) f 0 α + f f e f o ( F / # )
f ac = f f e / f
d os < f o ( R 1 D ε ) 2 f o α + R 1 D ε
max ( D ε f o 2 f o θ + D ε , R 1 ) < d o s < f o ( R 1 D ε ) 2 f o + R 1 D ε
1 f o = 1 R 1 ( 2 2 n 1 ) 1 R 2 ( 2 n 2 2 n 1 )
max ( 21.89 mm , 20 mm ) < d os < 28.47 mm

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