Abstract

Femtosecond-laser surface structuring on metals is investigated in real time by both fundamental and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. The onset of surface modification and its progress can be monitored by both the fundamental and SHG probes. However, the dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (FLIPSSs) formation can only be revealed by SHG but not fundamental because of the higher sensitivity of SHG to structural geometry on metal. Our technique provides a simple and effective way to monitor the surface modification and FLIPSS formation thresholds and allows us to obtain the optimal FLIPSS for SHG enhancement.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation induced by a pre-fabricated surface groove

K. R. P. Kafka, D. R. Austin, H. Li, A. Y. Yi, J. Cheng, and E. A. Chowdhury
Opt. Express 23(15) 19432-19441 (2015)

High spatial frequency periodic structures induced on metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses

Jian-Wu Yao, Cheng-Yun Zhang, Hai-Ying Liu, Qiao-Feng Dai, Li-Jun Wu, Sheng Lan, Achanta Venu Gopal, Vyacheslav A. Trofimov, and Tatiana M. Lysak
Opt. Express 20(2) 905-911 (2012)

Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses

Xian-Feng Li, Cheng-Yun Zhang, Hui Li, Qiao-Feng Dai, Sheng Lan, and Shao-Long Tie
Opt. Express 22(23) 28086-28099 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. W. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).
  4. E. Kannatey-Asibu, Jr., Principles of Laser Materials Processing (John Wiley & Sons, 2009).
  5. R. Fang, A. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Direct visualization of the complete evolution of femtosecond laser-induced surface structural dynamics of metals,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(3), e16256 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26(10), 5366–5381 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. III. Fluence regimes, the role of feedback, and details of the induced topography in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(4), 2001–2015 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Y. Hwang and C. Guo, “Angular effects of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073523 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Metallic light absorbers produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Adv. Mech. Eng. 2, 452749 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. Miyaji, W. Kobayashi, and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formation and surface modification of diamond-like carbon film,” Electrochim. Acta 53(1), 167–170 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 26(2), 482–496 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. A. Farias and A. A. Maradudin, “Second-harmonic generation in reflection from a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3002–3015 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. Nevière, R. Reinisch, and D. Maystre, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a silver grating: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(6), 3634–3641 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Ogata and C. Guo, “Nonlinear optics on nano/micro-hierarchical structures on metals: focus on symmetric and plasmonic effects,” Nano Rev. Experiments 8(1), 1339545 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  36. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

R. Fang, A. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Direct visualization of the complete evolution of femtosecond laser-induced surface structural dynamics of metals,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(3), e16256 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ogata and C. Guo, “Nonlinear optics on nano/micro-hierarchical structures on metals: focus on symmetric and plasmonic effects,” Nano Rev. Experiments 8(1), 1339545 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Hwang and C. Guo, “Angular effects of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073523 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Metallic light absorbers produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Adv. Mech. Eng. 2, 452749 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. Miyaji, W. Kobayashi, and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formation and surface modification of diamond-like carbon film,” Electrochim. Acta 53(1), 167–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nevière, R. Reinisch, and D. Maystre, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a silver grating: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(6), 3634–3641 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

G. A. Farias and A. A. Maradudin, “Second-harmonic generation in reflection from a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3002–3015 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. III. Fluence regimes, the role of feedback, and details of the induced topography in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(4), 2001–2015 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26(10), 5366–5381 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 26(2), 482–496 (1982).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 26(2), 482–496 (1982).
[Crossref]

Akhouayri, H.

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, M.

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carey, J. E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coutaz, J. L.

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dufft, D.

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. Y.

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, R.

R. Fang, A. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Direct visualization of the complete evolution of femtosecond laser-induced surface structural dynamics of metals,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(3), e16256 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Farias, G. A.

G. A. Farias and A. A. Maradudin, “Second-harmonic generation in reflection from a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3002–3015 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fauchet, P. M.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26(10), 5366–5381 (1982).
[Crossref]

Friend, C. M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gandhi, H. H.

K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gatzogiannis, E.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

R. Fang, A. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Direct visualization of the complete evolution of femtosecond laser-induced surface structural dynamics of metals,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(3), e16256 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ogata and C. Guo, “Nonlinear optics on nano/micro-hierarchical structures on metals: focus on symmetric and plasmonic effects,” Nano Rev. Experiments 8(1), 1339545 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Hwang and C. Guo, “Angular effects of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073523 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Metallic light absorbers produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Adv. Mech. Eng. 2, 452749 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guo, X. D.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guosheng, Z.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26(10), 5366–5381 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hang, Y.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höhm, S.

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hwang, T. Y.

T. Y. Hwang and C. Guo, “Angular effects of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jha, S. S.

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 26(2), 482–496 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kautek, W.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirner, S. V.

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, W.

G. Miyaji, W. Kobayashi, and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formation and surface modification of diamond-like carbon film,” Electrochim. Acta 53(1), 167–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, R. X.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, B.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, S. Y.

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, H. L.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

G. A. Farias and A. A. Maradudin, “Second-harmonic generation in reflection from a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3002–3015 (1984).
[Crossref]

Maystre, D.

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Nevière, R. Reinisch, and D. Maystre, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a silver grating: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(6), 3634–3641 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Miyaji, G.

G. Miyaji, W. Kobayashi, and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formation and surface modification of diamond-like carbon film,” Electrochim. Acta 53(1), 167–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji, W. Kobayashi, and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formation and surface modification of diamond-like carbon film,” Electrochim. Acta 53(1), 167–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neviere, M.

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nevière, M.

M. Nevière, R. Reinisch, and D. Maystre, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a silver grating: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(6), 3634–3641 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogata, Y.

Y. Ogata and C. Guo, “Nonlinear optics on nano/micro-hierarchical structures on metals: focus on symmetric and plasmonic effects,” Nano Rev. Experiments 8(1), 1339545 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phillips, K. C.

K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pic, E.

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Quan, M. Y.

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Quidant, R.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinisch, R.

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nevière, R. Reinisch, and D. Maystre, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a silver grating: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(6), 3634–3641 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renger, J.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheehy, M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26(10), 5366–5381 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. III. Fluence regimes, the role of feedback, and details of the induced topography in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(4), 2001–2015 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sundaram, S. K.

K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J. P.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. III. Fluence regimes, the role of feedback, and details of the induced topography in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(4), 2001–2015 (1984).
[Crossref]

van Hulst, N.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vorobyev, A.

R. Fang, A. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Direct visualization of the complete evolution of femtosecond laser-induced surface structural dynamics of metals,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(3), e16256 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Metallic light absorbers produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Adv. Mech. Eng. 2, 452749 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y. X.

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. III. Fluence regimes, the role of feedback, and details of the induced topography in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(4), 2001–2015 (1984).
[Crossref]

Younkin, R.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, B. K.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, F. L.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of Laser-Induced Near-Subwavelength Ripples: Interference between Surface Plasmons and Incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mech. Eng. (1)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Metallic light absorbers produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Adv. Mech. Eng. 2, 452749 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

K. C. Phillips, H. H. Gandhi, E. Mazur, and S. K. Sundaram, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: a review,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(4), 684–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 054102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

G. Miyaji, W. Kobayashi, and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formation and surface modification of diamond-like carbon film,” Electrochim. Acta 53(1), 167–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

J. Bonse, S. Höhm, S. V. Kirner, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures - a scientific evergreen,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(3), 1–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[Crossref]

S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, “Femtosecond-laser-induced quasiperiodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084912 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Hwang and C. Guo, “Angular effects of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073523 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

R. Fang, A. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Direct visualization of the complete evolution of femtosecond laser-induced surface structural dynamics of metals,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(3), e16256 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Rev. Experiments (1)

Y. Ogata and C. Guo, “Nonlinear optics on nano/micro-hierarchical structures on metals: focus on symmetric and plasmonic effects,” Nano Rev. Experiments 8(1), 1339545 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Liu, L. Zhan, Z. Y. Fan, M. Y. Quan, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with phase-matching on periodic sub-wavelength structured metal film,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 8–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Reinisch, M. Neviere, H. Akhouayri, J. L. Coutaz, D. Maystre, and E. Pic, “Grating enhanced second harmonic generation through electromagnetic resonances,” Opt. Eng. 27(11), 271161 (1988).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

G. S. Agarwal and S. S. Jha, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 26(2), 482–496 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. A. Farias and A. A. Maradudin, “Second-harmonic generation in reflection from a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3002–3015 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26(10), 5366–5381 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. III. Fluence regimes, the role of feedback, and details of the induced topography in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(4), 2001–2015 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

J. L. Coutaz, M. Neviere, E. Pic, and R. Reinisch, “Experimental study of surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation on silver gratings,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(4), 2227–2232 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nevière, R. Reinisch, and D. Maystre, “Surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation at a silver grating: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(6), 3634–3641 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, “Surface-enhanced nonlinear four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046803 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. W. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

E. Kannatey-Asibu, Jr., Principles of Laser Materials Processing (John Wiley & Sons, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. The setups in the dashed and dash-dotted boxes are used in the FF and SHG measurement, respectively. LPF: long-pass filter, SPF: short-pass filter, BPF: band-pass filter, NDF: neutral density filter, PMT: photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SHG intensity as a function of the FF fluence lower than the ablation threshold. The solid line is a quadratic relationship line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Real-time measurement of reflected (a, b, c) FF and (d, e, f) SHG signals in the laser ablation process when the irradiated laser fluence is (a, d) 5.5 mJ/cm2, (b, e) 65.9 mJ/cm2 and (c, f) 175.5 mJ/cm2. (g), (h) and (i) are the corresponding surface morphologies after 500 pulses for three fluences. The experiment data are normalized.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface structures after different pulse numbers when the laser fluence is 175.5 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Height profiles of craters after different pulse numbers for 175.5 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Normalized SHG signal as a function of the pulse number for different laser fluences. (b) Peak pulse number as a function of the laser fluence. Surface structures and enlarged views of FLIPSS after (c, d) 700 pulses for 175.5 J/cm2, (e, f) 550 pulses for 197.5 mJ/cm2, (g, h) 500 pulses for 219.5 mJ/cm2 and (i, j) 350 pulses for 241.5 mJ/cm2. Solid rectangles in (c), (e), (g) and (i) indicate the position of the enlarged FLIPSS. Dashed ellipses in (g) and (i) mark out the areas where FLIPSS are disappeared.