Abstract

We present a study on electrical and optical trade-offs of the doping map in a ring modulator. Here, we investigate the effects of the high-doped region distance to edge of the waveguide sidewall. Four groups of ring modulators with different rib-to-contact distances are fabricated and measured where the key parameters such as extinction ratio, insertion loss, transmission penalty, and bandwidth are compared quantitatively. Small-signal responses for the selected ring modulators are simulated where results are in agreement with measurement results. We show that, at 4dB extinction ratio, decreasing the high-doped region distance to rib from 800nm to 350nm will increase the bandwidth by 3.8 ×. However, we observed 8.4dB increase the insertion loss. We also show that the high-doped region location affects the trade-off between bandwidth and frequency response magnitude at low frequencies. At 350nm, this trade off is 2.5 × and 3.8× more efficient compared to 550nm and 800nm, respectively.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

J. Rhim, Y. Ban, B.-M. Yu, J.-M. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Verilog-A behavioral model for resonance-modulated silicon micro-ring modulator,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8762–8772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 7081–7087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

Alic, N.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ayazi, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Azadeh, S. S.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Ban, Y.

Beausoleil, R. G.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

Bois, A.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caverley, M.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chiang, P. Y.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Choi, W.-Y.

Chrostowski, L.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J.E.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Coster, J.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

De Heyn, P.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Dube-Demers, R.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Emerson, N. G.

Eu-Jin Lim, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gajda, A.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

García, S. R.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

Geis, M. W.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Grein, M. E.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Harris, N.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Hauck, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Hu, Y.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jayatilleka, H.

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ji, R.

Jiang, X.

Karimelahi, S.

S. Karimelahi and A. Sheikholeslami, “Ring modulator small-signal response,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016), paper JW2A.133.

Karimelahi, Samira

Kartner, F. X.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A.V.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kroh, M.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuo, B.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laine, J. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

LaRochelle, S.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-M.

Lepage, G.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Li, G.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Li, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Li, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Lu, Y.

Luo, Y.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Masood, A.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

Merget, F.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, R.

Mookherjea, S.

Müller, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myslivets, E.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Palermo, S.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Paloczi, G. T.

Pantouvaki, M.

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

Patil, D.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petousi, D.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Plant, D.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K.

Poon, J. K. S.

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, “Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 90–103 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, N.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Radic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, G.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Rhim, J.

Sacher, W. D.

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher and J. K. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheuer, J.

Schmidt, B.

Shafik, A.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Shakya, J.

Sheikholeslami, A.

S. Karimelahi and A. Sheikholeslami, “Ring modulator small-signal response,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016), paper JW2A.133.

Sheikholeslami, Ali

Shen, B.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. F.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, M.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sorace, C. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

St-Yves, J.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Teo, S. H.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Thacker, H.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Tian, Y.

Tillack, B.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Titriku, A.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Van Campenhout, J.

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

Verheyen, P.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

Voigt, K.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Wang, Y.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winzer, G.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xuan, Z.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Yang, J.

Yang, J.-Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yao, J.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Ying, D.

Yoon, J. U.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.-M.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

Yu, K.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

Yu, M.

Yu, M. B.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 7081–7087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Zheng, X.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Q.

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Zhu, W.

Zimmermann, L.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zlatanovic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (5)

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type si mach–zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. (1)

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

J Lightwave Technol. (3)

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J.E. Cunningham, and A.V. Krishnamoorthy,, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dube-Demers, J. St-Yves, A. Bois, Q. Zhong, M. Caverley, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, S. LaRochelle, D. Plant, and W. Shi, “Analytical modeling of silicon microring and microdisk modulators with electrical and optical dynamics,” J Lightwave Technol. 33, 4240–4252 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, “Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 90–103 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samira Karimelahi and Ali Sheikholeslami, “Ring modulator small-signal response analysis based on pole-zero representation,” Opt. Express 24, 7585–7599 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rhim, Y. Ban, B.-M. Yu, J.-M. Lee, and W.-Y. Choi, “Verilog-A behavioral model for resonance-modulated silicon micro-ring modulator,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8762–8772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 7081–7087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19, 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher and J. K. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, A. Masood, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “8 × 14Gb/s Si ring WDM modulator array with integrated tungsten heaters and Ge monitor photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2014), 1–3.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “22.6 A 25Gb/s 4.4 V-swing AC-coupled Si-photonic microring transmitter with 2-tap asymmetric FFE and dynamic thermal tuning in 65nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC), 2015, 1–3.

http://www.ime.a-star.edu.sg/PPSSite/index.asp .

S. Karimelahi and A. Sheikholeslami, “Ring modulator small-signal response,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016), paper JW2A.133.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

https://www.lumerical.com .

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2013, 1–3.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ring modulator waveguide cross-section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Notch depth versus gap. (b) Color-coded figure showing coupling conditions of the tested ring modulators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured optical power transmission spectra at various bias voltages for (a) Ring A with d++ = 200nm, (b) Ring B with d++ = 350nm, (c) Ring C with d++ = 550nm, (d) Ring D with d++ = 800nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Extracted τl shown with markers for Rings A–D with d++ from 200nm to 800nm together with the fitted curves shown with solid lines. (b) Extracted additional loss as a function of d++. (c) Extracted Δneff versus voltage for Rings A–D with d++ from 200nm to 800nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Extinction ratio (ER), (b) insertion loss (IL), and (c) transmission penalty (TP) for voltage swing from 0 to 3V. The plot for each ring is normalized to resonance wavelength of the corresponding ring.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured maximum ER and (b) corresponding IL versus applied voltage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Small-signal circuit model of a ring modulator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured and simulated electrical S11 (a) magnitude (b) phase of Ring D with d++ = 800nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated (line) and measured (marker) electro/optical response of Ring B with d++ = 350nm at (a) negative and (b) positive detunings, Ring C with d++ = 550nm at (c) negative and (d) positive detunings, and Ring D with d++ = 800nm at (e) negative and (f) positive detunings. Here, fm is modulation frequency.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulated (line) and measured (marker) (a) bandwidth of tested ring modulators (b) DC gain penalty of Ring C with d++ = 550nm versus Δωτ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pole-zero diagrams of Rings B–D.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulated (a) f3dB versus DC gain penalty and (b) GBW versus Δωτ at −1V bias voltage for Ring B, C, and D with d++ = 350nm, d++ = 550nm, and d++ = 800nm, respectively.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Extinction ratio and (b) IL versus f3dB for Ring B, C, and D with d++ = 350nm, d++ = 550nm, and d++ = 800nm, respectively.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Bandwidth and IL versus d++ for (a) ER = 4dB and (b) ER = 5dB at 4V applied voltage.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Extracted optical parameters from the measured transmission spectra.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of bandwidth, GBW, and f3dB-GDC penalty trade-off efficiency.

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Table 3 Comparison between ring modulators in terms of ER, IL, TP, and f3dB at 4V applied voltage.

Equations (2)

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H s ( Δ ω ) = j Δ ω + 1 τ 2 τ e j Δ ω + 1 τ ,
α = 2 v g τ l ,

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