Abstract

In nuclear medicine, obtaining information on the exact location, size, and dose of radiopharmaceuticals distributed on lesions is critically important. Therefore, we have fabricated a novel fiber-optic gamma endoscope (FOGE) to measure the shape and size of the radioisotope as well as the gamma-ray distribution simultaneously. To evaluate the performance of the novel FOGE, we obtained optical images and gamma images by using a USAF 1951 target and radioisotope sources, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the FOGE could be utilized to obtain both the location and the distribution of the radioactive isotope that emitted gamma-rays. Based on the results of this study, use of a flexible and thin FOGE would be valuable in nuclear medicine and nuclear safety technologies given the advantages of accurate dose-monitoring. Especially, improvements could be achieved in surgery technologies because the FOGE could be used in minimally invasive radioguided surgery owing to its thin form and flexibility.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
  25. Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

2013 (2)

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, T. Yagi, C. H. Pyeon, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, T. Misawa, and B. Lee, “Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14573–14582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Sarikaya, A. Sarikaya, and R. C. Reba, “Gamma probes and their use in tumor detection in colorectal cancer,” Int. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 5(5), 25 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sens. Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. L. Moffat., “Targeting gold at the end of the rainbow: surgical gamma probes in the 21st century,” J. Surg. Oncol. 96(4), 286–289 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Casara, D. Rubello, M. R. Pelizzo, and B. Shapiro, “Clinical role of 99mTcO4/MIBI scan, ultrasound and intra-operative gamma probe in the performance of unilateral and minimally invasive surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 28(9), 1351–1359 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Norman, H. Chheda, and C. Farrell, “Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: decreasing operative time and potential complications while improving cosmetic results,” Am. Surg. 64(5), 391–395 (1998).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bueker and F. W. Haesing, “Fiber optic radiation sensors,” Opt. Fibre Sens. and Syst. in Nucl. Environments 2425(106), 106 (1994).

1992 (1)

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Shamma’a, A. I.

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sens. Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amato, B.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amato, M.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonucci, F.

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benassai, G.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianco, T.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brichard, B.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. S.

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bueker, H.

H. Bueker and F. W. Haesing, “Fiber optic radiation sensors,” Opt. Fibre Sens. and Syst. in Nucl. Environments 2425(106), 106 (1994).

Casara, D.

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Casara, D. Rubello, M. R. Pelizzo, and B. Shapiro, “Clinical role of 99mTcO4/MIBI scan, ultrasound and intra-operative gamma probe in the performance of unilateral and minimally invasive surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 28(9), 1351–1359 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chheda, H.

J. Norman, H. Chheda, and C. Farrell, “Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: decreasing operative time and potential complications while improving cosmetic results,” Am. Surg. 64(5), 391–395 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cho, D. H.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. S.

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.-H.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, S. C.

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chung, S.-C.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clinthorne, N.

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coakley, A. J.

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, R. E.

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, R. E. C.

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

De Carlo, E.

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

Desiato, V.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dusseau, L.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

El-Rabii, H.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eom, G. M.

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ethier, S. P.

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

Farrell, C.

J. Norman, H. Chheda, and C. Farrell, “Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: decreasing operative time and potential complications while improving cosmetic results,” Am. Surg. 64(5), 391–395 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fernandez, A. F.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fisher, S. J.

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, C.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sens. Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Parra, R.

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gasparini, D.

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geatti, O.

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giannini, S.

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

Glaser, M.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guerra, U. P.

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haesing, F. W.

H. Bueker and F. W. Haesing, “Fiber optic radiation sensors,” Opt. Fibre Sens. and Syst. in Nucl. Environments 2425(106), 106 (1994).

Hall, N. C.

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K. T.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heo, J. Y.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, G. C.

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

Hong, S.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. J.

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

Hwang, Y. M.

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jackson, D. A.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jang, K. W.

K. W. Jang, T. Yagi, C. H. Pyeon, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, T. Misawa, and B. Lee, “Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14573–14582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeon, D.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.-G.

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

Kettle, A. G.

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. M.

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

Kim, S.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Knopp, M. V.

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, T. Yagi, C. H. Pyeon, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, T. Misawa, and B. Lee, “Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14573–14582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. S.

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

Lee, H.-Y.

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

Lewis, E.

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sens. Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin, E. W.

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melis, M.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misawa, T.

Moffat, F. L.

F. L. Moffat., “Targeting gold at the end of the rainbow: surgical gamma probes in the 21st century,” J. Surg. Oncol. 96(4), 286–289 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J. H.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.-H.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murrey, D. A.

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muzzio, P. C.

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

Norman, J.

J. Norman, H. Chheda, and C. Farrell, “Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: decreasing operative time and potential complications while improving cosmetic results,” Am. Surg. 64(5), 391–395 (1998).
[PubMed]

O’Doherty, M. J.

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Keeffe, S.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sens. Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[Crossref]

Orsolon, P. G.

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. G.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, B.-G.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-Y.

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pelizzo, M. R.

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Casara, D. Rubello, M. R. Pelizzo, and B. Shapiro, “Clinical role of 99mTcO4/MIBI scan, ultrasound and intra-operative gamma probe in the performance of unilateral and minimally invasive surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 28(9), 1351–1359 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Picchio, M.

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piert, M.

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piotto, A.

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povoski, S. P.

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proto, G.

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pyeon, C. H.

Quarto, G.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravotti, F.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Raylman, R. R.

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

Reba, R. C.

I. Sarikaya, A. Sarikaya, and R. C. Reba, “Gamma probes and their use in tumor detection in colorectal cancer,” Int. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 5(5), 25 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocca, A.

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubello, D.

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Casara, D. Rubello, M. R. Pelizzo, and B. Shapiro, “Clinical role of 99mTcO4/MIBI scan, ultrasound and intra-operative gamma probe in the performance of unilateral and minimally invasive surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 28(9), 1351–1359 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarikaya, A.

I. Sarikaya, A. Sarikaya, and R. C. Reba, “Gamma probes and their use in tumor detection in colorectal cancer,” Int. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 5(5), 25 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarikaya, I.

I. Sarikaya, A. Sarikaya, and R. C. Reba, “Gamma probes and their use in tumor detection in colorectal cancer,” Int. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 5(5), 25 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J. K.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, B.

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Casara, D. Rubello, M. R. Pelizzo, and B. Shapiro, “Clinical role of 99mTcO4/MIBI scan, ultrasound and intra-operative gamma probe in the performance of unilateral and minimally invasive surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 28(9), 1351–1359 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, S. H.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, T. Yagi, C. H. Pyeon, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, T. Misawa, and B. Lee, “Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14573–14582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, S.-H.

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tack, G. R.

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tack, G.-R.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vaille, J.-R.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wahl, R. L.

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, C. P.

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, P.

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

Yagi, T.

Yoo, W. J.

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, T. Yagi, C. H. Pyeon, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, T. Misawa, and B. Lee, “Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14573–14582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Am. Surg. (1)

J. Norman, H. Chheda, and C. Farrell, “Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: decreasing operative time and potential complications while improving cosmetic results,” Am. Surg. 64(5), 391–395 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ann. Nucl. Med. (1)

R. Garcia-Parra, N. Clinthorne, L. Wang, M. Picchio, and M. Piert, “Performance of beta- and high-energy gamma probes for the detection of cancer tissue in experimental surgical resection beds,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 25(7), 486–493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1)

D. Rubello, A. Piotto, D. Casara, P. C. Muzzio, B. Shapiro, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Role of gamma probes in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: optimization of preoperative and intraoperative procedures,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(1), 7–15 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Nucl. Med. (2)

D. Casara, D. Rubello, M. R. Pelizzo, and B. Shapiro, “Clinical role of 99mTcO4/MIBI scan, ultrasound and intra-operative gamma probe in the performance of unilateral and minimally invasive surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 28(9), 1351–1359 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Geatti, B. Shapiro, P. G. Orsolon, G. Proto, U. P. Guerra, F. Antonucci, and D. Gasparini, “Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with 99mtechnetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 21(1), 17–22 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

N. C. Hall, S. P. Povoski, D. A. Murrey, M. V. Knopp, and E. W. Martin., “Bringing advanced medical imaging into the operative arena could revolutionize the surgical care of cancer patients,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 5(6), 663–667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fusion Eng. Des. (1)

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Surg. (1)

V. Desiato, M. Melis, B. Amato, T. Bianco, A. Rocca, M. Amato, G. Quarto, and G. Benassai, “Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroid surgery: A literature review,” Int. J. Surg. 28, S84–S93 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. Semin. Surg. Oncol. (1)

I. Sarikaya, A. Sarikaya, and R. C. Reba, “Gamma probes and their use in tumor detection in colorectal cancer,” Int. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 5(5), 25 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med. (3)

R. R. Raylman, S. J. Fisher, R. S. Brown, S. P. Ethier, and R. L. Wahl, “Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: validation in preclinical studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 36(10), 1869–1874 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. J. O’Doherty, A. G. Kettle, P. Wells, R. E. C. Collins, and A. J. Coakley, “Parathyroid imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi: preoperative localization and tissue uptake studies,” J. Nucl. Med. 33(3), 313–318 (1992).
[PubMed]

H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, G. C. Hong, H. S. Lee, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of simultaneous endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for intraoperative surgery,” J. Nucl. Med. 56, 606 (2015).

J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, S. C. Chung, G. R. Tack, G. M. Eom, B. Lee, H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Performance Evaluation of One-dimensional Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Measuring High Energy Electron Beam Using a Charge-coupled Device,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45(sup5), 477–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sens. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. M. Hwang, D. H. Cho, B. Lee, H. S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of plastic fiber-optic radiation sensor tips using inorganic scintillator material,” J. Sens. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 244–249 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

F. L. Moffat., “Targeting gold at the end of the rainbow: surgical gamma probes in the 21st century,” J. Surg. Oncol. 96(4), 286–289 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korean J. Opt. Photon. (1)

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, B. Lee, J.-H. Moon, B.-G. Park, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Korean J. Opt. Photon. 20(4), 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

H.-G. Kang, H.-Y. Lee, K. M. Kim, S.-H. Song, G. C. Hong, and S. J. Hong, “A feasibility study of an integrated NIR/gamma/visible imaging system for endoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping,” Med. Phys. 44(1), 227–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, J. Y. Heo, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, “Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 928–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Med. Commun. (1)

A. J. Coakley, A. G. Kettle, C. P. Wells, M. J. O’Doherty, and R. E. Collins, “99m- Tsestamibi: a new agent for parathyroid imaging,” Nucl. Med. Commun. 10(11), 791–794 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fibre Sens. and Syst. in Nucl. Environments (1)

H. Bueker and F. W. Haesing, “Fiber optic radiation sensors,” Opt. Fibre Sens. and Syst. in Nucl. Environments 2425(106), 106 (1994).

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. T. Han, W. J. Yoo, J. K. Seo, S. H. Shin, D. Jeon, S. Hong, S. Cho, J. H. Moon, and B. Lee, “Optical fiber-based gamma-ray spectroscopy with cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Nucl. Med. (1)

D. Rubello, D. Casara, S. Giannini, A. Piotto, E. De Carlo, P. C. Muzzio, and M. R. Pelizzo, “Importance of radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using hand-held gamma probe and low (99m)Tc-MIBI dose. Technical considerations and long-term clinical results,” Q. J. Nucl. Med. 47(2), 129–138 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sens. Rev. (1)

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sens. Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

Product information, “BGO, LYSO and GSO crystal scintillators,” (Omega Piezo), http://www.omegapiezo.com/crystal_scintillators.html

Blog, Minimally invasive heart surgery, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Minimally Invasive Surgery,” (Minimally Invasive and Bloodless Heart Surgery Center 2016), http://heartsurgeryinfo.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-minimally-invasive-surgery/

Product information, “Gamma Probes,” (IMI Intramedical Imaging), http://www.gammaprobe.com/products/gamma-probes/

Criteria for gamma probe systems, “Crystal Probe,” (Crystal Photonics), http://crystal-photonics.com/enu/solutions/criteria-enu.htm

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of the FOGE and (b) inner structure of the distal-end of the FOGE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical images from the USAF 1951 target according to the optical system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTF curves when only one types of GRIN lens or imaging lens is used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MTF curves according to the optical system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The intensities of the scintillating light and (b) SNR as a function of the control voltage of the image intensifier.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gamma images according to the location of the radioisotope.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Gamma images, (b) intensity of the scintillating light, and (c) dose equivalent according to the radioactivity of the radioisotope.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Gamma images and (b) intensity of the scintillating light and MCNPX results as a function of the distance between the radioisotope and the FOGE.

Equations (1)

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D( μSν h )= 10.71I9870.23 16637 +0.476

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