Abstract

Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Nakata, A. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, K. I. Yoshino, A. Tajima, A. Okamoto, and K. Ogawa, “Intensity fluctuation of a gain-switched semiconductor laser for quantum key distribution systems,” Opt. Express 25, 622–634 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (John Wiley and Sons, 2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Dusek, M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Hayashi and R. Nakayama, “Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths,” New J. Phys. 16, 063009 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Hayashi and R. Nakayama, “Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths,” New J. Phys. 16, 063009 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. Dusek, M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, 175–179 (1984).

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, 175–179 (1984).

Chen, K.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. A.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (John Wiley and Sons, 2012).
[Crossref]

Corrielli, G.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (John Wiley and Sons, 2012).
[Crossref]

Curty, M.

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dusek, M.

M. Dusek, M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
[Crossref]

Elser, D.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frick, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, L.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

Furst, M.

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, W. B.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayashi, M.

M. Hayashi and R. Nakayama, “Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths,” New J. Phys. 16, 063009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. F.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. H.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. M.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hwang, W. Y.

W. Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imoto, N.

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jahma, M.

M. Dusek, M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jia, J. J.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ko, H.

H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, S. K.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. C. W.

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, K.

H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. Y.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, H. K.

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutkenhaus, N.

M. Dusek, M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lydersen, L.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, H. X.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makarov, V.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mashanovitch, M. L.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (John Wiley and Sons, 2012).
[Crossref]

Mizutani, A.

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moll, F.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakata, K.

Nakayama, R.

M. Hayashi and R. Nakayama, “Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths,” New J. Phys. 16, 063009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nauerth, S.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, K.

Oh, J.

H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, A.

Pan, G. S.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. W.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C. Z.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rau, M.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, J. G.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rhee, J. K. K.

H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sanders, B. C.

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skaar, J.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tajima, A.

Tamaki, K.

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y. L.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tomita, A.

Vest, G.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vogl, T.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. B.

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weier, H.

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiechers, C.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, C.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. C.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. J.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, K. I.

Zeng, H. P.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, B.

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (3)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photon. 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Wang, B. Yang, S. K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. F. Hu, J. C. Wu, S. J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Huang, B. Qi, J. G. Ren, G. S. Pan, J. Yin, J. J. Jia, Y. A. Chen, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (3)

S. Nauerth, M. Furst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Hayashi and R. Nakayama, “Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths,” New J. Phys. 16, 063009 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Mizutani, M. Curty, C. C. W. Lim, N. Imoto, and K. Tamaki, “Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources,” New J. Phys. 17, 093011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

X. B. Wang, C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J. W. Pan, “General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Dusek, M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G. Brassard, N. Lutkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quant. Inf. Proc. (1)

H. Ko, K. Lim, J. Oh, and J. K. K. Rhee, “Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system,” Quant. Inf. Proc. 15, 4265–4282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, 175–179 (1984).

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (John Wiley and Sons, 2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simplified schematic diagram of a free-space BB84 QKD system. LD; laser diode, PBS; polarization beam splitter, BS; beam splitter, HWP; half wave plate, Attn.; attenuator, SPD; single photon detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example of L-I curve of a semiconductor laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photon outputs by periodic (left) and aperiodic (right) electrical pulse injection under clock rate of 200MHz with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 500ps. Yellow signals in the bottom represents injected electrical pulses and the purple in the upper side represents generated output photon pulses measured with high speed photo-detector with negative polarity.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation result of carrier density (red solid line) and photon density (green dashed line) according to pulse current IAC with DC bias current IDC (blue dotted line). Nth is threshold carrier density and NDC is carrier density of DC bias current IDC. Common parameters for vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) are used [10].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup for measuring side channel effects. AC current pulse and DC bias current are injected to a VCSEL laser diode to generate photon pulses which measured at photo-detector and oscilloscope (OSC). Polarization beam splitter (PBS) and beam splitter (BS) are added to make the system similar to a transmitter unit in QKD system. LD; laser diode.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Profiles of the second pulses for different time intervals. Output pulses are redrawn with respect to current pulse injection to clearly investigate time delay between current injection and output pulses. (a), (b), and (c) are experimental results for DC = 0, DC = 0.6Ith, and DC = 0.9Ith, respectively. Photo-detector generates output pulses with negative polarity. Statistical average of 1024 waveforms is depicted.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized power of the second pulses for different time intervals at different levels of DC bias current.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Proof of concept experiment for estimating effects of DC current biased laser diode on the performance of QKD system. LD; laser diode, PBS; polarization beam splitter, BS; beam splitter, HWP; half wave plate, ND; neutral density, SPD; single photon detector.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Single photon counting results of QKD system and DC bias level.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N d t = η i I q V ( R sp + R nr ) v g g N p ,
d N p d t = ( Γ v g g 1 τ p ) N p + Γ R sp ,

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