Abstract

High-efficiency tunable asymmetric transmission (AT) based on simple-constructed metasurface is highly desired for next generation optical polarization devices. Here, we numerically investigate high-efficiency and frequency-tunable circular AT effect in mid-infrared region by combining simple-shape silicon array with a graphene sheet. The asymmetric parameter of the dielectric nanostrip structure reaches 0.92 at 12.68 THz and the width of tunable spectra (AT > 0.7) is 1100 nm, which represent a major advance compared with previously reported AT. The AT behavior originates from extrinsic chirality induced by oblique illumination, and the high AT efficiency results from the constructive and deconstructive interferences of selectively excited electric and magnetic resonances. In addition, the working waveband of AT is shifted by dynamically modulating graphene’s Fermi energy, which offers a new degree of freedom to achieve multifunctions without refabricating structures. The proposed array system possessing the merits of high efficiency, simple inclusions and frequency-tunability has significant potentials for practical applications in polarization devices such as polarization sensor, polarizer, etc.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (7)

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Tang, Z. Li, Z. Liu, F. Callewaert, and K. Aydin, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission through tapered metallic gratings at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, W. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “All-dielectric circular polarizer with nearly unit transmission efficiency based on cascaded tensor Huygens surface,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17738–17745 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (13)

T. Cao, C.-W. Wei, L.-B. Mao, and S. Wang, “Tuning of giant 2D-chiroptical response using achiral metasurface integrated with graphene,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18620–18629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, J. Kapraun, J. Ferrara, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Flexible photonic metastructures for tunable coloration,” Optica 2(3), 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, Y. Wang, R. Zheng, D. Liu, and J. Shi, “Broadband high efficiency asymmetric transmission of achiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19535–19541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Graphene: a dynamic platform for electrical control of plasmonic resonance,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 214–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Yang, Y. Cheng, Z. Lu, P. Zhang, M. Zhao, R. Gong, X. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and J. Duan, “Electromagnetic manifestation of chirality in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5239–5246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. G. De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Leung, B. Rahman, and K. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Raman and S. Fan, “Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 205131 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Falkovsky and S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. L. Holloway, M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, “Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles,” IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility 47(4), 853–865 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arigong, B.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

B. Tang, Z. Li, Z. Liu, F. Callewaert, and K. Aydin, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission through tapered metallic gratings at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Blake, P.

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blume, L.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Graphene: a dynamic platform for electrical control of plasmonic resonance,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 214–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

Callewaert, F.

B. Tang, Z. Li, Z. Liu, F. Callewaert, and K. Aydin, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission through tapered metallic gratings at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

Cao, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, M.

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

Chen, S.

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Cheville, R.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahal, K.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

De Abajo, F. J. G.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. G. De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dienstfrey, A.

C. L. Holloway, M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, “Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles,” IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility 47(4), 853–865 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, J.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.-G.

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duan, J.

Economou, E. N.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Emani, N. K.

N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Graphene: a dynamic platform for electrical control of plasmonic resonance,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 214–223 (2015).
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Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falkner, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Falkovsky, L.

L. Falkovsky and S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

A. Raman and S. Fan, “Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 205131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

Fan, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Farsari, M.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V.

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng Ma, H.

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrara, J.

Geim, A.

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gokkavas, M.

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, R.

Grattan, K.

D. Leung, B. Rahman, and K. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A.

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guan, C. Y.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helgert, C.

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Holloway, C. L.

C. L. Holloway, M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, “Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles,” IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility 47(4), 853–865 (2005).
[Crossref]

Horton, M. J.

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, Y.

Jun Cui, T.

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kafesaki, M.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kapraun, J.

Kaschke, J.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kenanakis, G.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Graphene: a dynamic platform for electrical control of plasmonic resonance,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 214–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koppens, F. H.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. G. De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravets, V.

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kruk, S. S.

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuester, E. F.

C. L. Holloway, M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, “Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles,” IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility 47(4), 853–865 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leung, D.

D. Leung, B. Rahman, and K. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. X.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Tang, Z. Li, Z. Liu, F. Callewaert, and K. Aydin, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission through tapered metallic gratings at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. P.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, F.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lin, Y.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Litvinov, D.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Liu, D.

W. Fan, Y. Wang, R. Zheng, D. Liu, and J. Shi, “Broadband high efficiency asymmetric transmission of achiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19535–19541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

B. Tang, Z. Li, Z. Liu, F. Callewaert, and K. Aydin, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission through tapered metallic gratings at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Lv, T.

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lv, T. T.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H. F.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Q.

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mao, L.-B.

Menzel, C.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mladyonov, P. L.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohamed, M. A.

C. L. Holloway, M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, “Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles,” IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility 47(4), 853–865 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nair, R.

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neshev, D. N.

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Niu, C.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Novoselov, K.

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pershoguba, S.

L. Falkovsky and S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pertsch, T.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Poddubny, A. N.

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Powell, D. A.

S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, S.

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, W.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Rahman, B.

D. Leung, B. Rahman, and K. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raman, A.

A. Raman and S. Fan, “Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 205131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ray, V.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rogacheva, A. V.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz, S. A.

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selimis, A.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Graphene: a dynamic platform for electrical control of plasmonic resonance,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 214–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shao, J.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

W. Fan, Y. Wang, R. Zheng, D. Liu, and J. Shi, “Broadband high efficiency asymmetric transmission of achiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19535–19541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, J. H.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Staude, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

Tang, B.

B. Tang, Z. Li, Z. Liu, F. Callewaert, and K. Aydin, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission through tapered metallic gratings at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. G. De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Upham, J.

I. De Leon, M. J. Horton, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, P. Banzer, and R. W. Boyd, “Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vamvakaki, M.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

W. Fan, Y. Wang, R. Zheng, D. Liu, and J. Shi, “Broadband high efficiency asymmetric transmission of achiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19535–19541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. H.

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. M.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wegener, M.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.-W.

Wei, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Yang, Y. Cheng, Z. Lu, P. Zhang, M. Zhao, R. Gong, X. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and J. Duan, “Electromagnetic manifestation of chirality in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5239–5246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

Xiao, Z.

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xomalis, A.

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Yang, Y. Cheng, Z. Lu, P. Zhang, M. Zhao, R. Gong, X. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and J. Duan, “Electromagnetic manifestation of chirality in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5239–5246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Yang, Y. Cheng, Z. Lu, P. Zhang, M. Zhao, R. Gong, X. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and J. Duan, “Electromagnetic manifestation of chirality in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5239–5246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, Y.

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

Zhao, W.

Zhao, Z.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zheludev, N.

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, R.

Zheng, Y.

Zhou, M.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Zhu, Z.

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

G. Kenanakis, A. Xomalis, A. Selimis, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Lin, Z. Zhu, X. Zhou, W. Qiu, C. Niu, J. Hu, K. Dahal, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Ren, D. Litvinov, Z. Liu, Z. M. Wang, and J. Bao, “Orientation control of graphene flakes by magnetic field: broad device applications of macroscopically aligned graphene,” Adv. Mater. 29(1), 1604453 (2017).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (4)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, “A helical metamaterial for broadband circular polarization conversion,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1411–1417 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-efficiency mutual dual-band asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2028–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, Y. Fan, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Broadband polarization transformation via enhanced asymmetric transmission through arrays of twisted complementary split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221907 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, X. Liu, S. Yu, T. Lv, Z. Zhu, H. Feng Ma, and T. Jun Cui, “Dual-band asymmetric transmission of linear polarization in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191905 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

D. Leung, B. Rahman, and K. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility (1)

C. L. Holloway, M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, “Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles,” IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility 47(4), 853–865 (2005).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. H. Wang, J. Shao, J. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z.-G. Dong, and Y. Zhai, “Broadband high-efficiency transmission asymmetry by a chiral bilayer bar metastructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173102 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Plum, V. Fedotov, and N. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Graphene: a dynamic platform for electrical control of plasmonic resonance,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 214–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Liu, Z. Xiao, X. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission of chiral metamaterial slab with double L resonators,” Opt. Commun. 338, 359–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, R. Nair, P. Blake, K. Novoselov, and A. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
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A. Raman and S. Fan, “Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 205131 (2011).
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L. Falkovsky and S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 153410 (2007).
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S. S. Kruk, A. N. Poddubny, D. A. Powell, C. Helgert, M. Decker, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization properties of optical metasurfaces of different symmetries,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195401 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. Azad, R. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. G. De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (3)

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, W. Sun, J. Cai, L. Chang, and X. Xiao, “Frequency-tunable mid-infrared cross polarization converters based on graphene metasurface,” Plasmonics 12(3), 1–7 (2016).

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, J. Shao, M. Zhou, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Mid-infrared tunable dual-frequency cross polarization converters using graphene-based L-shaped nanoslot array,” Plasmonics 10(2), 351–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

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H. Ma and R.-X. Wu, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized wave in all-dielectric chiral metamaterial,” in Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium (PIERS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 658–661.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The scheme of optimize silicon nanostrip array placed on FR-4 substrate. (b) The top view of a unit cell, where a = 9 μm, b = 4.05 μm and p = 14 μm in both x and y directions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a), (b) Transmission coefficients of CPL with θ=±45°φ=±45°incidences, t , t + , t + , t ++ represent left-to-left, left-to-right, right-to-left, right-to-right transmitted circularly polarized light, respectively. (c), (d) Transmission spectra with θ=±45°, φ=±45°incidences, (e), (f) Asymmetry parameters spectra with θ=±45°, φ=±45° incidences.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), (b), (c), (d) The distributions for electric field magnitude driven by RCP light backwards and forwards, respectively (by FDTD). (a'), (b'), (c'), (d') The field vectors distributions of a unit cell by CST, the black dashed line frame marks a strip in one unit cell.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) A diagram of silicon-graphene hybrid metasurface with frequency-tunable AT effects, (b) Solid and dashed lines represent the ATs of RCP and LCP light with different Fermi energies.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transmission spectra for sensing polarization state of incident light as a polarization sensor, (b) Transmission spectra for generating desired CPL as a circular polarizer.

Equations (3)

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t x = 1 ( k 0 /2) 2 α ex α my 1+ ( k 0 /2) 2 α ex α my i k 0 ( α my α ex )/2 , t y = 1 ( k 0 /2) 2 α mx α ey 1+ ( k 0 /2) 2 α mx α ey +i k 0 ( α ey α mx )/2 .
σ(ω)= 2 e 2 ω T π i ω+i τ 1 log[ 2cosh( ω F 2 ω T ) ]+ e 2 4 [ H( ω 2 )+i 2ω π 0 H( ω' 2 )H( ω 2 ) ω 2 ω ' 2 dω' ]
Δω ω 0 = V dV[(Δ μ H 0 ) H 0 * +(Δ ε E 0 ) E 0 * ] V dV (μ H 0 H 0 * +ε E 0 E 0 * ) = Δ W m +Δ W e W m + W e

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