Abstract

Polarization controlling devices such as polarization splitters and rotators are critical elements in integrated-photonic circuits that function via polarization-diversity schemes. Here, we present the design of an ultra-compact nanophotonic-polarization rotator (NPR) that rotates the polarization state from TE to TM with a simulated extinction ratio of 23dB over a coupling length of 5µm and an operating bandwidth of 40nm. This all-silicon device can be fabricated in a single lithography step and we have fabricated and characterized a preliminary device exhibiting 9dB extinction ratio. To emphasize the generality of our methodology, we also designed a NPR that can rotate the polarization state from TM to TE as well. A small device footprint is enabled by the evanescent coupling of guided modes enabled by computationally designed digital metamaterials.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (6)

J. Wang, Z. Shen, and W. Wu, “Cavity-based high-efficiency and wideband 90° polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(15), 153504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photonics 1(9), 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13126 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu and J. Xiao, “Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 55(3), 611–618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

B. Shen, R. Polson, R. Menon, and R. Menon, “Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10847–10855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Metamaterial-waveguide bends with effective bend radius  λ0/2,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5750–5753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lougadakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. C. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (6)

J. Lu and J. Vučković, “Nanophotonic computational design,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13351–13367 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Caspers, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Experimental demonstration of an integrated hybrid plasmonic polarization rotator,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4054–4057 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation dynamics of vector soliton molecules in mode locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and Z. Zhou, “Ultra-compact and low-loss polarization rotator based on asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2081–2084 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

L. Liu, Y. Ding, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitting and rotating device for polarization diversity circuits,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12646–12651 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Hameed and S. S. Obayya, “Design of passive polarization rotator based on silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3133–3135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kanda, T. Higuchi, H. Shimizu, K. Konishi, K. Yoshioka, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “The vectorial control of magnetization by light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Zhu, H. Zhang, S. Chen, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “An ultracompact surface plasmon polariton-effect-based polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1606–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on a Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with dynamically fluctuating states of light polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 097903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Spanner, K. M. Davitt, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Stability of angular confinement and rotational acceleration of a diatomic molecule in an optical centrifuge,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(18), 8403–8410 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1987 (1)

Aitchison, J. S.

Allebach, J. P.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andrawis, R. R.

R. R. Andrawis, M. A. Swillam, and E. A. Soliman, “Submicron omega-shaped plasmonic polarization rotator,” J. Opt. 16(10), 105001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Babinec, T. M.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lougadakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blow, K.

S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Bostak, J. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Butrie, T.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

Caspers, J. N.

Chang, P.

C. J. Firby, P. Chang, A. S. Helmy, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Magnetoplasmonic Faraday rotators: Enabling gigahertz active polarization control for integrated plasmonics,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2344–2352 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, S.

J. Zhang, S. Zhu, H. Zhang, S. Chen, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “An ultracompact surface plasmon polariton-effect-based polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1606–1608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheong, L. L.

Dai, D.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on a Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davitt, K. M.

M. Spanner, K. M. Davitt, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Stability of angular confinement and rotational acceleration of a diatomic molecule in an optical centrifuge,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(18), 8403–8410 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dentai, A. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

Ding, Y.

Dominguez-Caballero, J.-A.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominic, V. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
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C. Lehrer, L. Frey, S. Petersen, M. Mizutani, M. Takai, and H. Ryssel, “Defects and gallium-contamination during focused ion beam micro machining,” International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, 695–698, (2000).
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S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014), doi:.
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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C. Lehrer, L. Frey, S. Petersen, M. Mizutani, M. Takai, and H. Ryssel, “Defects and gallium-contamination during focused ion beam micro machining,” International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, 695–698, (2000).
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Polson, R. C.

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. C. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, E. G. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. K. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014), doi:.
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schnieder, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Visualization of field propagation

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The nanophotonic-polarization rotator (NPR). (a) Geometry of the NPR for rotating TE to TM. (b, c) Simulated steady-state intensity distributions for input TE polarized light (b) and output TM polarized light (c) at the design wavelength of 1.55µm (see Visualization 1 for light propagation through the device). The white arrows in (a-c) show the direction of propagation of light through the device. TE is polarized in-plane and perpendicular to the direction of propagation, as illustrated by the red arrow in (a), while TM is polarized out-of-plane, as illustrated by the blue cross-in-circle in (a). (d) Simulated transmission efficiency of NPR (top) and reference device (bottom) as a function of wavelength. (e) Simulated extinction ratio as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A nanophotonic-polarization rotator (NPR) for rotating TM input to TE output. (a) Geometry of the NPR for rotating TM to TE. (b, c) Simulated steady-state intensity distributions for input TM polarized light (b) and output TE polarized light (c) at the design wavelength of 1.55µm. The white arrows in (a-c) show the direction of propagation of light through the device. TE is polarized in-plane and perpendicular to the direction of propagation, as illustrated by the yellow arrow in (a), while TM is polarized out-of-plane, as illustrated by the green cross-in-circle in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the wafer edge showing granularity in the PolySi waveguide. (b) Diagrammatic representation of the on-chip polarizer, which is a single mode silicon (black) waveguide (440nm wide) with a 10µm long horizontal air slot (white) having a 70nm offset to the center of the waveguide. The polarizer is fabricated in the top 300nm PolySi layer. The red arrow denotes the direction of light travel through the polarizer. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of the on-chip polarizer used in the experiments. (d, e) Simulation showing steady state light field patterns for TM and TE mode in the on-chip polarizer, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of the NPR. (a) Scanning-electron micrograph of the fabricated NPR. The red arrows indicate the direction of propagation of light through the device. (b) Schematic of the measurement setup used to characterize the NPR. The input and output fibers are standard single-mode lensed fibers. PC1 and PC2 are fiber polarization controllers. The polarizer is used to select either the TE or TM component of the output. Measured (c) relative transmission efficiency and (d) extinction ratio of TM output with TE input. The transmission efficiency is plotted relative to the reference device as described in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of fabrication errors. (a) Simulated normalized relative transmission efficiency and (c) simulated extinction ratio at λ = 1.55μm as a function of errors in the silicon-layer thickness. The same metrics as a function of misalignment between input and output waveguides and the NPR are shown in (b) and (d), respectively.

Metrics