Abstract

We demonstrate orbital-angular momentum (OAM) light up to a topological charge of l=3 behind a single mode fiber. Femtosecond 3D direct laser writing is used to fabricate spiral phase plates of l=1,2 and 3, composed of 10 discrete steps, on the tip of single mode optical fibers. These structures efficiently convert out-coupled light from the fiber at 785 nm wavelength into optical vortex beams carrying an orbital-angular momentum of lper photon. Far field intensity patterns and interferograms of the OAM beams are recorded using a CCD camera. The results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations obtained from the wave propagation method.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

S. Thiele, K. Arzenbacher, T. Gissibl, H. Giessen, and A. M. Herkommer, “3D-printed eagle eye: Compound microlens system for foveated imaging,” Sci. Adv. 3(2), e1602655 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (9)

S. Schmidt, T. Tiess, S. Schröter, R. Hambach, M. Jäger, H. Bartelt, A. Tünnermann, and H. Gross, “Wave-optical modeling beyond the thin-element-approximation,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30188–30200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, R. D. Hawley, J. B. Götte, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Achromatic vector vortex beams from a glass cone,” Nature Commun. 7, 10564 (2016).

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, M. Schmid, and H. Giessen, “Spatial beam intensity shaping using phase masks on single-mode optical fibers fabricated by femtosecond direct laser writing,” Optica 3(4), 448–451 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Thiele, T. Gissibl, H. Giessen, and A. M. Herkommer, “Ultra-compact on-chip LED collimation optics by 3D femtosecond direct laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3029–3032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11763 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Paul, V. S. Lyubopytov, M. F. Schumann, J. Cesar, A. Chipouline, M. Wegener, and F. Küppers, “Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3249–3252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, G. Ren, Y. Lian, B. Zhu, W. Jin, and S. Jian, “Tunable orbital angular momentum generation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 41(15), 3535–3538 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Niederriter, M. E. Siemens, J. T. Gopinath, and J. U. T. G. Opinath, “Continuously tunable orbital angular momentum generation using a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3213–3216 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

J. K. Hohmann, M. Renner, E. H. Waller, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional μ-printing: an enabling technology,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1488–1507 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Lightman, R. Gvishi, G. Hurvitz, and A. Arie, “Shaping of light beams by 3D direct laser writing on facets of nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4460–4463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. Sun, X. Wang, T. Xu, Z. A. Kudyshev, A. N. Cartwright, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Spinning light on the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2726–2729 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Slussarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 932–934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zeng, X. Wang, J. Sun, A. Pandey, A. N. Cartwright, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2826 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. S. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Efficient generation and multiplexing of optical orbital angular momentum modes in a ring fiber by using multiple coherent inputs,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3645–3647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. Kumar, D. Singh Mehta, A. Sachdeva, A. Garg, P. Senthilkumaran, and C. Shakher, “Generation and detection of optical vortices using all fiber-optic system,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3414–3420 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Dholakia, M. MacDonald, and G. Spalding, “Optical tweezers: the next generation,” Phys. World 15(10), 31–35 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17(3), 221–223 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

Alhassen, F.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anzolin, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aolita, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Slussarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

Arzenbacher, K.

S. Thiele, K. Arzenbacher, T. Gissibl, H. Giessen, and A. M. Herkommer, “3D-printed eagle eye: Compound microlens system for foveated imaging,” Sci. Adv. 3(2), e1602655 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H.

Beck, T.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biancalana, F.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. S. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brasselet, E.

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cartwright, A. N.

J. Sun, X. Wang, T. Xu, Z. A. Kudyshev, A. N. Cartwright, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Spinning light on the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2726–2729 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zeng, X. Wang, J. Sun, A. Pandey, A. N. Cartwright, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2826 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cesar, J.

Chipouline, A.

Chitgarha, M. R.

Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. S. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 013601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Ambrosio, V.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Slussarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dashti, P. Z.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043604 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Rotating interference patterns for l=1
» Visualization 2       Rotating interference patterns for l=2
» Visualization 3       Rotating interference patterns for l=3

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the single mode fiber delivered OAM beam. Light is coupled through a single mode fiber and passes through a spiral phase plate at the fiber tip which creates a beam with a helical phase front.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spiral phase plate composed of 10 segments with a 40 µm diameter, for l=2 and 785 nm operating wavelength on the tip of a single mode optical fiber. (a) Optical micrograph. (b) Optical micrograph (top view) taken with backside illumination. (c) Optical profilometry image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental (top) and simulated (bottom) far field intensity distributions of OAM beams with l=1,2 and 3, created by spiral phase plates composed of 10 segments on a single mode optical fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental (top and middle) and simulated (bottom) interferograms produced by interfering OAM beams with a Gaussian reference In the middle row, different arms of the spiral structure are highlighted by different colors to emphasize the different topological charges. .

Equations (2)

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h(θ)= lθλ 2π(n n 0 ) ; θ[ 0,2π ]
h m = lλ 9(n n 0 ) m

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