Abstract

Monolithic stacked InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) connected by a polarization-enhanced GaN/AlN-based tunnel junction is demonstrated experimentally in this study. The typical stacked LEDs exhibit 80% enhancement in output power compared with conventional single LEDs because of the repeated use of electrons and holes for photon generation. The typical operation voltage of stacked LEDs is higher than twice the operation voltage of single LEDs. This high operation voltage can be attributed to the non-optimal tunneling junction in stacked LEDs. In addition to the analyses of experimental results, theoretical analysis of different schemes of tunnel junctions, including diagrams of energy bands, diagrams of electric fields, and current-voltage relation curves, are investigated using numerical simulation. The results shown in this paper demonstrate the feasibility in developing cost-effective and highly efficient tunnel-junction LEDs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  4. Y.-K. Kuo and J.-Y. Chang, “Investigation of degraded efficiency in blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 9357, 93571L (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Piprek, “Origin of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using tunnel-junction-cascaded active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051118 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. F. Schubert, “Interband tunnel junctions for wurtzite III-nitride semiconductors based on heterointerface polarization charges,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035303 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233504 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  11. S.-J. Chang, W.-H. Lin, and W.-S. Chen, “Cascaded GaN light-emitting diodes with hybrid tunnel junction layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 3300505 (2015).
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  12. F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  22. M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S.-J. Chang, W.-H. Lin, and W.-S. Chen, “Cascaded GaN light-emitting diodes with hybrid tunnel junction layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 3300505 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kuo and J.-Y. Chang, “Investigation of degraded efficiency in blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 9357, 93571L (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Piprek, “Origin of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using tunnel-junction-cascaded active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051118 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233504 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, “Interband tunnel junctions for wurtzite III-nitride semiconductors based on heterointerface polarization charges,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035303 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akatsuka, Y.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.-Y.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kuo and J.-Y. Chang, “Investigation of degraded efficiency in blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 9357, 93571L (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-J.

S.-J. Chang, W.-H. Lin, and W.-S. Chen, “Cascaded GaN light-emitting diodes with hybrid tunnel junction layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 3300505 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.-M.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-S.

S.-J. Chang, W.-H. Lin, and W.-S. Chen, “Cascaded GaN light-emitting diodes with hybrid tunnel junction layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 3300505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chi, G.-C.

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Esposto, M.

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fay, P.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goodman, K.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ino, M.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaga, M.

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koide, N.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kosel, T.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kou, C.-H.

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krames, M.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233504 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-K.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kuo and J.-Y. Chang, “Investigation of degraded efficiency in blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 9357, 93571L (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuwano, Y.

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.-C.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.-L.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.-H.

S.-J. Chang, W.-H. Lin, and W.-S. Chen, “Cascaded GaN light-emitting diodes with hybrid tunnel junction layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 3300505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Makarona, E.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Makimoto, T.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morita, T.

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nath, D. N.

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nurmikko, A. V.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ozden, I.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, P. S.

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233504 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Origin of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using tunnel-junction-cascaded active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051118 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rajan, S.

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233504 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, “Interband tunnel junctions for wurtzite III-nitride semiconductors based on heterointerface polarization charges,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035303 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shei, S.-C.

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J.-K.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shih, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

Simon, J.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.-K.

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takasuka, D.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J.-M.

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wen, T.-C.

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xing, H.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagi, K.

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, K.

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, and S. Rajan, “GaN-based three-junction cascaded light-emitting diode with low-resistance InGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082103 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Takasuka, Y. Akatsuka, M. Ino, N. Koide, T. Takeuchi, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions with graded layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 081005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Origin of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using tunnel-junction-cascaded active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051118 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233504 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN/GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J.-K. Sheu, J.-M. Tsai, S.-C. Shei, W.-C. Lai, T.-C. Wen, C.-H. Kou, Y.-K. Su, S.-J. Chang, and G.-C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga 0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.-J. Chang, W.-H. Lin, and W.-S. Chen, “Cascaded GaN light-emitting diodes with hybrid tunnel junction layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 3300505 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

Y.-H. Shih, J.-Y. Chang, J.-K. Sheu, Y.-K. Kuo, F.-M. Chen, M.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Lai, “Design of hole-blocking and electron-blocking layers in AlxGa1–xN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1141–1147 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Kaga, T. Morita, Y. Kuwano, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “GaInN-based tunnel junctions in n–p–n light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH06 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. F. Schubert, “Interband tunnel junctions for wurtzite III-nitride semiconductors based on heterointerface polarization charges,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y.-K. Kuo and J.-Y. Chang, “Investigation of degraded efficiency in blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 9357, 93571L (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Piprek, Nitride Semiconductor Devices: Principles and Simulation (Wiley-VCH verlag, 2007), pp. 423–445.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006), pp 137–141.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structures of (a) TJLED-1 and (b) TJLED-2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) L-I and (b) I-V characteristics as a function of injection current of TJLED-1 and TJLED-2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy band diagrams and electric fields of (a) (c) TJ-1 and (b) (d) TJ-2 at equilibrium.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated electrical characteristics of TJ-1 and TJ-2 in the reversed bias regime.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic device structures and light-emission images of (a) SLED, (b) TLED, and (c) TJLED chips.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) L-I, (b) I-V, (c) EQE, WPE (inset), and (d) EL spectral characteristics of SLED, TLED, and TJLED.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Layer composition, thickness d (nm), and doping concentration Ndop (1/cm3) of the TJ.

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