Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultra-compact silicon photonic crystal nanobeam (PCN) cavity with an energy-efficient graphene micro-heater. Owing to the PCN cavity with an ultra-small optical mode volume of 0.145 µm3, the light-matter interaction is greatly enhanced and the thermo-optic (TO) tuning efficiency is increased. The TO tuning efficiency is measured to be as high as 1.5 nm/mW, which can be further increased to 3.75 nm/mW based on numerical simulations with an optimized structure. The time constants with a rise time constant of τrise = 1.11 μs and a fall time constant of τfall = 1.47 μs are obtained in the experiment.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

C. Qiu, T. Pan, W. Gao, R. Liu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Proposed high-speed micron-scale spatial light valve based on a silicon-graphene hybrid structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4480–4483 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Casalino, M. Iodice, L. Sirleto, I. Rendina, and G. Coppola, “Asymmetric MSM sub-bandgap all-silicon photodetector with low dark current,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28072–28082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Song, J. K. Park, O. J. Sul, and B. J. Cho, “Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3887–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2008 (3)

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical switching on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2867–2869 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Liu, I. Watanabe, K. Yoshida, and M. Atsuta, “Joint strength of laser-welded titanium,” Dent. Mater. 18(2), 143–148 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Andrei, E. Y.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atsuta, M.

J. Liu, I. Watanabe, K. Yoshida, and M. Atsuta, “Joint strength of laser-welded titanium,” Dent. Mater. 18(2), 143–148 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barker, A.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Calizo, I.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casalino, M.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chmielak, B.

Cho, B. J.

S. M. Song, J. K. Park, O. J. Sul, and B. J. Cho, “Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3887–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coppola, G.

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, D. X.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, J.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Du, X.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Frandsen, L. H.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gan, S.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X. T.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

Gao, Y. D.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giesecke, A. L.

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, T. Y.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, S. L.

Heinz, T. F.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iodice, M.

Janz, S.

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kurz, H.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Lau, C. N.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Li, J.

Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1790–1798 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Lin, S.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
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Lin, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1790–1798 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, I. Watanabe, K. Yoshida, and M. Atsuta, “Joint strength of laser-welded titanium,” Dent. Mater. 18(2), 143–148 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Liu, R.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
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Matson, D. W.

Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1790–1798 (2010).
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Mcmillan, J. F.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
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X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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Miao, F.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
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Mohsin, M.

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Mortensen, N. A.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumaier, D.

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
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Otto, M.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Pan, T.

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, J. K.

S. M. Song, J. K. Park, O. J. Sul, and B. J. Cho, “Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3887–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrone, N.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
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Post, E.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

Rendina, I.

Sagade, A. A.

Schall, D.

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shao, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1790–1798 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepard, K.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. C.

L. H. Yu, Y. L. Yin, Y. C. Shi, D. X. Dai, and S. L. He, “Thermally tunable silicon photonic microdisk resonator with transparent graphene nanoheaters,” Optica 3(2), 159–166 (2016).
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Y. G. Zhang and Y. C. Shi, “Ultra-low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity based on suspended ridge waveguides,” in Conference on Nanoelectronics (IEEE, 2016), paper 7589347.
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Shiue, R. J.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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Sirleto, L.

Skachko, I.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S. M.

S. M. Song, J. K. Park, O. J. Sul, and B. J. Cho, “Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3887–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

Su, Y.

Suckow, S.

Sul, O. J.

S. M. Song, J. K. Park, O. J. Sul, and B. J. Cho, “Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3887–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teweldebrhan, D.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. C.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
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Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1790–1798 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, I.

J. Liu, I. Watanabe, K. Yoshida, and M. Atsuta, “Joint strength of laser-welded titanium,” Dent. Mater. 18(2), 143–148 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, S.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Y. L.

Yoshida, K.

J. Liu, I. Watanabe, K. Yoshida, and M. Atsuta, “Joint strength of laser-welded titanium,” Dent. Mater. 18(2), 143–148 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L. H.

Yu, M. B.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zande, A. V. D.

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Y.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. G.

Y. G. Zhang and Y. C. Shi, “Ultra-low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity based on suspended ridge waveguides,” in Conference on Nanoelectronics (IEEE, 2016), paper 7589347.
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

Zhu, X.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1790–1798 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dent. Mater. (1)

J. Liu, I. Watanabe, K. Yoshida, and M. Atsuta, “Joint strength of laser-welded titanium,” Dent. Mater. 18(2), 143–148 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Song, J. K. Park, O. J. Sul, and B. J. Cho, “Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3887–3892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. Mcmillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Science (2)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.
[Crossref]

Y. G. Zhang and Y. C. Shi, “Ultra-low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity based on suspended ridge waveguides,” in Conference on Nanoelectronics (IEEE, 2016), paper 7589347.
[Crossref]

C. T. Derose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2 × 2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Conference on Optical Networking and Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OThM3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Three-dimensional schematic illustration of the device based on a silicon PCN cavity structure and a graphene micro-heater. The graphene micro-heater is shown by the red dashed lines. (b) Schematic showing the PCN cavity which is symmetric with respect to its center, where ri (i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) is the radius of the hole and ai is the distance between the two holes. (c) Simulated electric field distribution of the PCN cavity structure at the resonance wavelength. (d) The cross-section of the proposed device corresponding to the yellow dashed line in (a). Here the graphene micro-heater is suspended over the trenches whose widths (Wt) are both set to 1 µm. (e) Equivalent circuit of the device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of the device. (b) Zoom-in view for the nanobeam waveguide with the graphene micro-heater on top. (c) Raman spectrum of transferred graphene.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized transmission spectra of the device with a gap of 70 nm. (b) Normalized transmission spectra at different heating powers. (c) Fitting curve of the resonance wavelength shift Δλ as a function of the applied heating power Pheating. η: TO tuning efficiency. (d) Dynamic response of the heater measured by detecting the transmitted light. (e) Zoom-in view of the output signal. The distorted region is shown by the red dashed lines.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Electric-field distribution of TE mode of the PCN cavity with PMMA-covered graphene corresponding to the black dashed-line position in Fig. 1(a). (b) Electric-field distribution of TE mode of the PCN cavity without graphene.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Three-dimensional temperature distribution of the device in the experiment. (b) Corresponding thermal distribution of xy cross section of the device in (a). The graphene micro-heater is shown by the yellow solid lines. (c) Three-dimensional schematic illustration of the optimized structure. The length of the graphene micro-heater is reduced to 2 µm. (d) Thermal distribution of xy cross section of this optimized device in (c). The graphene micro-heater is shown by the white solid lines.

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