Abstract

Controlling the group velocity dispersion of silicon nanophotonic waveguides has been recognized as a key ingredient to enhance the development of various on-chip optical applications. However, the strong wavelength dependence of the dispersion in waveguides implemented on the high index contrast silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform substantially hinders their wideband operation, which in turn, limits their deployment. In this work, we exploit the potential of non-resonant sub-wavelength grating (SWG) nanostructures to perform a flexible and wideband control of dispersion in SOI waveguides. In particular, we demonstrated that the overall dispersion of the SWG-engineered metamaterial waveguides can be tailored across the transparency window of the SOI platform, keeping easy-to-handle single-etch step manufacturing. The SWG silicon waveguides overcladded by silicon nitride exhibit significant reduction of wavelength dependence of dispersion, yet providing intriguing and customizable synthesis of various attractive dispersion profiles. These include large normal up to low anomalous operation regimes, both of which could make a great promise for plethora of emerging applications in silicon photonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (9)

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 × 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Ashrafi, R. Adams, I. Glesk, I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30235 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, Z. Jafari, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, G. Li, J. Michel, and L. Zhang, “Bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides with four zero-dispersion wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4939–4942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, Y. He, R. Luo, and Q. Lin, “Ultra-broadband dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29444–29451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Serna, P. Colman, W. Zhang, X. Le Roux, C. Caer, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Experimental GVD engineering in slow light slot photonic crystal waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jafari and A. Zarifkar, “Fabrication-Friendly Subwavelength-Structure-Assisted Waveguide for Dispersion Engineering,” Appl. Opt. 55(32), 9084–9090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, A. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez-Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for Near- and Mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

P. Damas, X. Le Roux, D. Le Bourdais, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, T. Maroutian, P. Lecoeur, and L. Vivien, “Wavelength dependence of Pockels effect in strained silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22095–22100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. V. Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform: Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, D.-X. Xu, and J. H. Schmid, “Evanescent field waveguide sensing with subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4442–4445 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, I. Glesk, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating filtering devices,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15335–15345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 247–268 (2014).

J. M. Chavez Boggio, D. Bodenmuller, T. Fremberg, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, R. Eiserman, M. Lisker, L. Zimmermann, and M. Bohm, “Dispersion engineered silicon nitride waveguides by geometrical and refractive-index optimization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(11), 2846–2857 (2014).

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, and J. Čtyroký, “Comparison of 2D and 3D Fourier modal methods for modeling subwavelength-structured silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8306, 83060Y (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (1)

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 162–235 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (5)

2005 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1956 (1)

S. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. 2, 466–475 (1956).

Adams, R.

J. Wang, R. Ashrafi, R. Adams, I. Glesk, I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30235 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aers, G. C.

Agarwal, A. M.

Y. Guo, Z. Jafari, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, G. Li, J. Michel, and L. Zhang, “Bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides with four zero-dispersion wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4939–4942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 247–268 (2014).

Almeida, V. R.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Ashrafi, R.

J. Wang, R. Ashrafi, R. Adams, I. Glesk, I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30235 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Benedikovic, D.

Bock, P.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

Bodenmuller, D.

Bohm, M.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

Caer, C.

S. Serna, P. Colman, W. Zhang, X. Le Roux, C. Caer, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Experimental GVD engineering in slow light slot photonic crystal waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capmany, J.

J. Wang, R. Ashrafi, R. Adams, I. Glesk, I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30235 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassan, E.

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G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, A. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez-Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for Near- and Mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wangüemert-Pérez, G.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
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Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).
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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, A. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez-Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for Near- and Mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 407–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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J. Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, D.-X. Xu, and J. H. Schmid, “Evanescent field waveguide sensing with subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4442–4445 (2014).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. V. Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform: Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
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P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
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P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
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Yan, Y.

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Opt. Commun. (1)

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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Two-dimensional (2-D) cross-sectional view (x-y plane) of conventional Si strip waveguide. (b) The evolution of the waveguide dispersion as a function of wavelength for a single-mode Si strip waveguide, with different upper claddings: air (nu = 1), SiO2 (nu = 1.444), and Si3N4 (nu = 1.996). The waveguide core dimensions were: 220-nm of thickness and 500-nm of width, respectively. (c) 2-D vertical view (y-z plane) of a SWG waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of different simulation strategies for dispersion of the SWG metamaterial waveguides. For simulations, following transversal geometries were considered: (a) Hc = 220 nm and Wc = 500 nm; (b) Hc = 300 nm and Wc = 600 nm; (c) Hc = 400 nm and Wc = 800 nm; and (d) Hc = 500 nm and Wc = 1000 nm. The longitudinal dimensions of the SWG waveguide were: the period Λ = 200 nm and the duty cycle DC = 50%. Insets: Spectral evolution of the calculated fundamental Bloch-Floquet modes for various SWG metamaterial waveguides.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of the dispersion as a function of wavelength for various transversal geometries of silicon waveguides, with an aspect ratio of 1:2 (thickness to width ratio) and different duty cycles of the SWG structure. (a) DC = 25%; (b) DC = 50%; and (c) DC = 75%. Insets of (b) and (c): Detailed views on calculated spectral dispersion profile.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of waveguide losses as a function of wavelength for various transversal geometries of SWG waveguides, with an aspect ratio of 1:2 (thickness to width ratio) and different duty cycles of the SWG structure. (a) DC = 25%; (b) DC = 50%; (c) DC = 75%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The evolution of the dispersion as a function of wavelength for a SWG metamaterial waveguide with a thickness of 400-nm and 500-nm, considering different aspect ratios and various duty cycles. (a) Hc = 400 nm and DC = 25%; (b) Hc = 400 nm and DC = 50%; (c) Hc = 400 nm and DC = 75%; (d) Hc = 500 nm and DC = 25%; (e) Hc = 500 nm and DC = 50%; and (f) Hc = 500 nm and DC = 75%.

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