Abstract

We demonstrate 53-dB phase noise reduction in a compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL), which uses 4-m erbium-doped-fiber (EDF) providing both the Brillouin gain and linear gain. A 360-kHz-linewidth laser diode is used as the Brillouin pump (BP) and excites the Brillouin Stokes light. The linewidth of the BEFL is estimated 1.8-Hz based on the correlation between the linewidth and phase noise. Experimental result demonstrates 6-Hz linewidth by beating the emission of two compact BEFLs. This fiber laser provides a simple and effective method to reduce laser phase noise and realize ultra-narrow-linewidth light. It presents many applications in such as interferometric fiber sensing, coherent optical communications, optical clocks, and precise spectroscopy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6803–6808 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  22. L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Chen, Z. Meng, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultranarrow-linewidth Brillouin/erbium fiber laser based on 45-cm erbium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1500606 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6803–6808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Brillouin fiber laser with significantly reduced gain medium length operating in L-band region,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 8, 143–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Musha, F. L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16459–16466 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, “Quantum dunamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 281–324 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth-narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Boschung, P. A. Robert, and L. Thévenaz, “High-accuracy measurement of the linewidth of a Brillouin fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1488–1489 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, S. Kruger, and P. A. Mcgrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurement with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1647–1653 (1982).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, “CW Brillouin laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(10), 608–609 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Brillouin fiber laser with significantly reduced gain medium length operating in L-band region,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 8, 143–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

Blatt, R.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, “Quantum dunamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 281–324 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boschung, J.

J. Boschung, P. A. Robert, and L. Thévenaz, “High-accuracy measurement of the linewidth of a Brillouin fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1488–1489 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brilliant, N. A.

Bush, J.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chen, W.

M. Chen, Z. Meng, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultranarrow-linewidth Brillouin/erbium fiber laser based on 45-cm erbium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1500606 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6803–6808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Strong linewidth reduction by compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 1502107 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, C. Sun, M. Chen, W. Chen, and Z. Meng, “Characteristics of a Brillouin-erbium fiber laser based on Brillouin pump preamplification,” Appl. Opt. 51(29), 7046–7051 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coddington, I.

Cowle, G. J.

Cromer, C.

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1647–1653 (1982).
[Crossref]

Debut, A.

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Experimental and theoretical study of linewidth narrowing in Brillouin fiber ring lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(4), 556–567 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth-narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dimyati, K.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Brillouin fiber laser with significantly reduced gain medium length operating in L-band region,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 8, 143–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ezekiel, S.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1647–1653 (1982).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

Harun, S. W.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Brillouin fiber laser with significantly reduced gain medium length operating in L-band region,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 8, 143–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, “CW Brillouin laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(10), 608–609 (1976).
[Crossref]

Hong, F. L.

Hu, Y.

Jain, R.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, “CW Brillouin laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(10), 608–609 (1976).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, “CW Brillouin laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(10), 608–609 (1976).
[Crossref]

Kofler, J.

Kruger, S.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, S. Kruger, and P. A. Mcgrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurement with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leibfried, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, “Quantum dunamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 281–324 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Libatique, N.

Ludlow, A. D.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

Mandelberg, H. I.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, S. Kruger, and P. A. Mcgrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurement with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mcgrath, P. A.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, S. Kruger, and P. A. Mcgrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurement with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mehnert, A.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meng, Z.

Mols, P.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Monroe, C.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, “Quantum dunamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 281–324 (2003).
[Crossref]

Musha, M.

Nakagawa, K.

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Peik, E.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petron, G.

Randoux, S.

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Experimental and theoretical study of linewidth narrowing in Brillouin fiber ring lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(4), 556–567 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth-narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

Richter, L. E.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, S. Kruger, and P. A. Mcgrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurement with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

Robert, P. A.

J. Boschung, P. A. Robert, and L. Thévenaz, “High-accuracy measurement of the linewidth of a Brillouin fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1488–1489 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rzaewski, K.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, P. O.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shahi, S.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Brillouin fiber laser with significantly reduced gain medium length operating in L-band region,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 8, 143–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Siala, S.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

Smith, S. P.

Stepanov, D. Y.

Stolpner, L.

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Swann, W. C.

Sweeney, C.

Tans, P. P.

Thévenaz, L.

J. Boschung, P. A. Robert, and L. Thévenaz, “High-accuracy measurement of the linewidth of a Brillouin fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1488–1489 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1647–1653 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

Wang, J.

M. Chen, Z. Meng, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultranarrow-linewidth Brillouin/erbium fiber laser based on 45-cm erbium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1500606 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6803–6808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Strong linewidth reduction by compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 1502107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Luo, Z. Meng, and Y. Hu, “Experiemental research of an all-polarization-maintaining optical fiber vector hydrophone,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(8), 1178–1184 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wineland, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, “Quantum dunamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 281–324 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zarinetchi, F.

Zemmouri, J.

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Experimental and theoretical study of linewidth narrowing in Brillouin fiber ring lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(4), 556–567 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth-narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

M. Chen, Z. Meng, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultranarrow-linewidth Brillouin/erbium fiber laser based on 45-cm erbium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1500606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zolot, A. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, “CW Brillouin laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(10), 608–609 (1976).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Boschung, P. A. Robert, and L. Thévenaz, “High-accuracy measurement of the linewidth of a Brillouin fiber ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1488–1489 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1647–1653 (1982).
[Crossref]

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, S. Kruger, and P. A. Mcgrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurement with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

M. Chen, Z. Meng, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Strong linewidth reduction by compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 1502107 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. Meng, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. Chen, “Ultranarrow-linewidth Brillouin/erbium fiber laser based on 45-cm erbium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1500606 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, and J. Zemmouri, “Linewidth-narrowing in Brillouin lasers: theoretical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023803 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42(9), 5514–5521 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Stolpner, S. Lee, S. Li, A. Mehnert, P. Mols, S. Siala, and J. Bush, “Low noise planar external cavity laser for interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 700457 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. (1)

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Brillouin fiber laser with significantly reduced gain medium length operating in L-band region,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 8, 143–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, “Quantum dunamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 281–324 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007), Chap. 9, pp. 331.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the compact BEFL: BP, Brillouin pump; EDF, erbium-doped fiber; TOF, tunable optical filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulations of BP threshold when the EDF is with 0, 3 dB and 10 dB linear gain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of the BP and BEFL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for phase noise measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase noise spectra of BP and BEFL of 4-m EDF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase noise spectra of BEFL of 1.5-m and 4-m EDF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase noise spectra of BEFL of 4-m EDF, 1.5-m EDF and the two BEFLs cascaded.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase noise spectra of low-noise external cavity LD (blue) and BEFL (red).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup to measure the Hz-range linewidth of the BEFL.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Beat note of two BEFLs with 4 m EDF and 1.5 m EDF.

Equations (8)

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P th 21 A eff g B L eff
d P 0 dz =g P 0 g B P 0 P 1 A eff
d P 1 dz =g P 1 g B P 1 P 0 A eff
P 0 (z)= P 0 (0)exp(gz)
ln[ P 1 (L) P 1 (0) ]=lnG g B L A eff lnG P 1 (0)[G1]
[ln( ηG P th P N )ln(G)] ln(G) g B A eff 1 G 1 =GL P th
P th = ln(RG)lnG (1G) A eff g B L
E{ P Φ 1 (f)} E{ P Φ 0 (f)} = Δ ν 1 Δ ν 0 = 1 K 2

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