Abstract

The collection efficiency of light from a point-like emitter may be extremely poor due to aberrations induced by collection optics and the emission distribution of the source. Analyzing the aberrant wavefront (e.g., with a Shack-Hartmann sensor) and correcting accordingly can be infeasible on the single-photon level. We present a technique that uses a genetic algorithm to control a deformable mirror for correcting wavefront aberrations in single-photon signals from point emitters. We apply our technique to both a simulated point source and a real InAs quantum dot, achieving coupling increases of up to 50% and automatic reduction of system drift.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

2015 (3)

W. B. Gao, a. Imamoglu, H. Bernien, and R. Hanson, “Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 9, 363–373 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sterk, L. Luo, T. a. Manning, P. Maunz, and C. Monroe, “Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 062308 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Courteville, “Optimization of single-mode fiber coupling efficiency with an adaptive membrane mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1073 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Abellán, C.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afzelius, M.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akselrod, G. M.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, S. M.

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Almeida, M. P.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Amaya, W.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anton, C.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Arcari, M.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Argyropoulos, C.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ates, S.

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Auffeves, A.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Bader, M.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barbier, P. R.

Bernien, H.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Gao, a. Imamoglu, H. Bernien, and R. Hanson, “Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 9, 363–373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blok, M. S.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonato, C.

Bonora, S.

Brunner, N.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bussières, F.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalopin, B.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiuri, A.

Ciracì, C.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Courteville, A.

A. Courteville, “Optimization of single-mode fiber coupling efficiency with an adaptive membrane mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1073 (2002).
[Crossref]

De Santis, L.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

De Silvestri, S.

Demory, J.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Dréau, A. E.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elkouss, D.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enderlein, J.

Fang, C.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, W. B.

W. B. Gao, a. Imamoglu, H. Bernien, and R. Hanson, “Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 9, 363–373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaultney, D.

Giesz, V.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Gisin, N.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golla, A.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gomez, C.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Grange, T.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Hanson, R.

W. B. Gao, a. Imamoglu, H. Bernien, and R. Hanson, “Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 9, 363–373 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hensen, B.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heugel, S.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoang, T. B.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hornecker, G.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Huang, J.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huber, M.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, a.

W. B. Gao, a. Imamoglu, H. Bernien, and R. Hanson, “Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 9, 363–373 (2015).
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Javadi, A.

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. G.

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalb, N.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kim, T.

Kimura, N. D. L.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Lanco, L.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Lavoie, J.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E. H.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lemaitre, A.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Leuchs, G.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lindskov Hansen, S.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lita, A. E.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lodahl, P.

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loredo, J. C.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Luo, L.

J. D. Sterk, L. Luo, T. a. Manning, P. Maunz, and C. Monroe, “Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 062308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Madsen, K. H.

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
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Mahajan, V. N.

Mahmoodian, S.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maiwald, R.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Manning, T. a.

J. D. Sterk, L. Luo, T. a. Manning, P. Maunz, and C. Monroe, “Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 062308 (2012).
[Crossref]

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B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsili, F.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
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Mataloni, P.

Maunz, P.

R. Noek, G. Vrijsen, D. Gaultney, E. Mount, T. Kim, P. Maunz, and J. Kim, “High speed, high fidelity detection of an atomic hyperfine qubit,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4 (2013).
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J. D. Sterk, L. Luo, T. a. Manning, P. Maunz, and C. Monroe, “Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 062308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, M. H.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Milani, G.

Minozzi, M.

Mirin, R. P.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M. W.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, J.

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

Monroe, C.

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sterk, L. Luo, T. a. Manning, P. Maunz, and C. Monroe, “Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 062308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mount, E.

Nam, S. W.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neyenhuis, B.

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
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Nisoli, M.

Noek, R.

Pascolini, M.

Plett, M. L.

Poletto, L.

Portalupi, S. L.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Pruneri, V.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiserer, A.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruitenberg, J.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rush, D. W.

Sagnes, I.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Sansone, G.

Schouten, R. N.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senellart, P.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Sergienko, a. V.

Smith, D. R.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Söllner, I.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Somaschi, N.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Sondermann, M.

R. Maiwald, A. Golla, M. Fischer, M. Bader, S. Heugel, B. Chalopin, M. Sondermann, and G. Leuchs, “Collecting more than half the fluorescence photons from a single ion,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, J. D.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

Sterk, J. D.

J. D. Sterk, L. Luo, T. a. Manning, P. Maunz, and C. Monroe, “Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 062308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stobbe, S.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Strassmann, P. C.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
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G. N. M. Tabia, “Recursive multiport schemes for implementing quantum algorithms with photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 012323 (2016).
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Taminiau, T. H.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thyrrestrup, H.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tiranov, A.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tondello, G.

Twitchen, D. J.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallone, G.

Verma, V. B.

A. Tiranov, P. C. Strassmann, J. Lavoie, N. Brunner, M. Huber, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. Afzelius, F. Bussières, and N. Gisin, “Temporal multimode storage of entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 240506 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, R. F. L.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

Vozzi, C.

Vrijsen, G.

Wehner, S.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

Wong-Campos, J. D.

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yeo, I.

K. H. Madsen, S. Ates, J. Liu, A. Javadi, S. M. Albrecht, I. Yeo, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Efficient out-coupling of high-purity single photons from a coherent quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 155303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (4)

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8, 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Anton, J. Demory, C. Gomez, I. Sagnes, N. D. L. Kimura, A. Lemaitre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near optimal single photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2015).

J. D. Wong-Campos, K. G. Johnson, B. Neyenhuis, J. Mizrahi, and C. Monroe, “High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom,” Nat. Photonics 10, 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. B. Gao, a. Imamoglu, H. Bernien, and R. Hanson, “Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 9, 363–373 (2015).
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Nature (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the genetic algorithm. The first generation of mirror configurations is pseudo-randomly generated using a sum of gaussian distributions with variances established by the initialization procedure. Each new generation of mirror configurations is created by weighting gaussian random variables centered on each top-performing mirror configuration, according to count rate. An arbitrary number of children may be generated by sampling this mixture gaussian. The variance of the gaussian random variables is reduced in inverse proportion to configuration performance to allow the mirror generations to converge to an optimal solution. The algorithm completes when it is estimated that the mean has not statistically increased for at least 6 generations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup. Laser light at 675 nm is collected from a pinhole, collimated, and manipulated using a deformable mirror before being contracted (minification lenses M1–2) and focused into a single-mode fiber. The coupling efficiency is monitored using a photodiode, but optimized using a single-photon counter (SPC) after attenuation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Performance of the algorithm (a) for various initial count rates (in the actuator basis after first optimizing the flat-mirror coupling), showing a robustness against signals affected heavily by shot noise and (b) for optimization in the basis of the first 30 Zernike polynomials or the basis of all 69 mirror actuators. (c) A comparison of AO correction for 1”, 0.5-NA aspheric and 0.25-NA objective collection lenses using the actuator basis, normalized to the average count rate after optimization, in order to emphasize the convergence speed difference. The unnormalized final coupling efficiency with the aspheric lens (< 5%) was actually much lower with the objective (50%). (d) Performance for system misalignment where the assumed ‘best’ alignment results in a coupling of 50%. The algorithm is able to correct even severely misaligned systems, with a small cost in optimization time. Each line plots the maximum counts per generation, with the classical coupling given by the monitoring photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimizing collection from an InAs quantum dot (QD). (a) Photoluminescence light is collected from the QD and collimated with a focusing asphere (AL, Thorlabs 352330-B) before passing through two fused-silica cryostat windows (FSW, 0.2” and 0.125”, respectively). Two 5-cm focal length achromatic lenses (Thorlabs AC254-050-B-ML) are used for fine adjustment of the beam. The dot light is then filtered with a 925-nm long-pass and a 30-GHz free-spectral-range etalon to remove residual pump light. The filtered QD light is manipulated by the deformable mirror and coupled into a single-mode fiber (SM980) with an aspheric lens (Thorlabs C260TME-B). The light is then sent to a spectrometer to confirm the collection of QD photoluminescence. After tuning the system for a particular QD, the QD emission is sent to a single-photon counter for optimization using our algorithm. (b) Several optimizations of the collection from a single quantum dot, showing up to 50% improvements in coupling. The optimization rate and final count rate were dependent on the overall system alignment and temperature of the dot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Behavior of the adaptive optic system in the presence of source drift (oscillating count rates of (a) 1000 s period (1 mHz) and (b) 200-s period (5 mHz). Sinusoidal fits to measured oscillations (green data) before correction are shown in red as a guide to the eye. For slow oscillations (> 200-s period) the algorithm improved the mean photon count and was able to largely suppress the oscillation amplitude. For faster oscillations, the ability of the algorithm to reduce the oscillation amplitude and improve the mean count rate decreased approximately inversely proportionally to the “drift” rate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The results of numerically simulating the genetic algorithm while adjusting various parameters for three aberration scenarios (red, blue, green), adjusted for the final mean performance across the parameter space (i.e., ±1 represents a ±100% difference in algorithm performance from the average case). Each plot represents the coupling improvement relative to the starting efficiency using 2000 test configurations (e.g., 100 generations of 20 children). In (a)–(c), the three colored curves represent three different sets of wavefront aberrations to correct. (a) Adjusting the number of child mirror configurations per generation n while keeping the total time constant (total number of test configurations across all generations, where the number of generations is set to 2000/n) suggests that, given a constant 10 parents selected per generation, the optimal family size is 20–50 children. For all experimental tests we used 20 children per generation. (b) Selecting all 20 of the children to form the next generation (no culling) degrades performance. In order to balance speed and the final optimized coupling, in all other simulations we used 10 parents and 20 children per generation. (c) Simulations suggest ρ may be optimized for the experimental scenario (ρ as plotted has arbitrary units); for these simulations, an optimal value would be ρ = 5 – 100. (d) Finally, in the short term (solid lines, 30 test generations), large γ values (the power scaling used to determined the variance between each new generation) are better, though we have observed that the convergence may be unreliable for larger γ (not shown here). In the long term (dotted lines, 100 generations) there was no advantage for large γ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental algorithm performance as the number of children per generation is varied (holding the generation size at 20 children per generation, increasing linearly from 20 children per generation, and exponentially increasing from 20 children per generation). Each run is normalized to the final optimized value, which was comparable across all cases. The speed of optimization was worst for the linearly-increasing case.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Zernike amplitudes after optimizing collection from a single quantum dot several times in succession (optimization data presented in main text). The three runs are presented in blue, green, and red, and the solid line displays the average of the three runs. The corresponding final mirror configurations for each run are reproduced above the chart. Actuator voltages of ±0.02 V are magenta and cyan, respectively. The absolute throw per volt is dependent on the overall membrane tension and therefore cannot be estimated directly, but the peak-to-valley displacement is on the order of a few microns or less. There is significant variation in the optimal configuration for each run, which may suggest the presence of higher-order aberrations which are not fully addressable using our finite-resolution mirror.

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Y t + 1 = i = 1 k ω i N ( Y i t , a i I d ) ,

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