Abstract

We propose the concept of organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs), which incorporate various functions needed for optical signal processing into a flexible organic membrane. We describe the structure of several devices used within the proposed OMPICs (e.g., transmission lines, I/O couplers, phase shifters, photodetectors, modulators), and theoretically investigate their characteristics. We then present a method of fabricating the photonic devices monolithically in an organic membrane and demonstrate the operation of transmission lines and I/O couplers, the most basic elements of OMPICs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

T. Kanazawa, T. Amemiya, A. Ishikawa, V. Upadhyaya, K. Tsuruta, T. Tanaka, and Y. Miyamoto, “Few-layer HfS2 Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chhowalla, D. Jena, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional semiconductors for transistors,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(11), 16052 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (4)

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, and M. Smit, “Highly efficient metal grating coupler for membrane-based integrated photonics,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2786–2789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kwon, “Discussion of the epsilon-near-zero effect of graphene in a horizontal slot waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Analytical expressions for the electromagnetic dyadic Green’s function in graphene and thin layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4600611 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. A. Coldren, S. C. Nicholes, L. Johansson, S. Ristic, R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, and U. Krishnamachari, “High performance InP-based photonic ICs—A tutorial,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 554–570 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

E. H. Hwang and S. D. Sarma, “Single-particle relaxation time versus transport scattering time in a two-dimensional graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195412 (2008).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H.-S. Kim, T.-H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1993 (1)

R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Laser Technol. 25(6), 347–365 (1993).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Y. Suematsu, “Integrated Optics,” Convention Record Four Institutes Electrical Eng.  1223, 430 (1971).

1969 (2)

S. E. Miller, “Integrated Optics: An Introduction,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 48(7), 2059–2069 (1969).
[Crossref]

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 48(7), 2071–2102 (1969).
[Crossref]

Absil, P. P.

Agnarsson, B.

Ahn, J.-H.

D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H.-S. Kim, T.-H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alici, K. B.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amemiya, T.

Arai, S.

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455 (2001).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnfinnsdottir, N. B.

Atsuji, Y.

Avramopoulos, H.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bach, H.-G.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, S.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beadie, G.

Beretta, A.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brindza, M.

Butrie, T.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cangini, G.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-W.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Laser Technol. 25(6), 347–365 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chhowalla, M.

M. Chhowalla, D. Jena, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional semiconductors for transistors,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(11), 16052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.-H.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. M.

D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H.-S. Kim, T.-H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coldren, L. A.

Corzine, S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Danto, S.

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Dede, A.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dentai, A.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dolores-Calzadilla, V.

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
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Drack, M.

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T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ooba, N.

Pantouvaki, M.

Park, H.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, S. I.

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pleumeekers, J.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Purtseladze, D.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, S.

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rahn, J.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramasubramaniam, A.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reeder, J.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reffle, M.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ristic, S.

Rogers, J. A.

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H.-S. Kim, T.-H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, A.

Runge, P.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ruoff, R. S.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarma, S. D.

E. H. Hwang and S. D. Sarma, “Single-particle relaxation time versus transport scattering time in a two-dimensional graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schell, M.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, D.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schwödiauer, R.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekitani, T.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shi, M.

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirk, J. S.

Shvets, G.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smit, M.

Someya, T.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H.-S. Kim, T.-H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suematsu, Y.

Y. Suematsu, “Integrated Optics,” Convention Record Four Institutes Electrical Eng.  1223, 430 (1971).

Suk, J. W.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sysak, M.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tamura, S.

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

T. Kanazawa, T. Amemiya, A. Ishikawa, V. Upadhyaya, K. Tsuruta, T. Tanaka, and Y. Miyamoto, “Few-layer HfS2 Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatar, K.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokuhara, T.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomaru, S.

Tsai, H.-S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsuruta, K.

T. Kanazawa, T. Amemiya, A. Ishikawa, V. Upadhyaya, K. Tsuruta, T. Tanaka, and Y. Miyamoto, “Few-layer HfS2 Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Upadhyaya, V.

T. Kanazawa, T. Amemiya, A. Ishikawa, V. Upadhyaya, K. Tsuruta, T. Tanaka, and Y. Miyamoto, “Few-layer HfS2 Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vannucci, A.

Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

Welch, D.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, K.-T.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, B.

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yokota, T.

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, R.

Zhang, H.

M. Chhowalla, D. Jena, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional semiconductors for transistors,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(11), 16052 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Z. Zhang, D. Felipe, V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, C. Kouloumentas, H. Avramopoulos, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, A. Dede, A. Beretta, A. Vannucci, G. Cangini, R. Dinu, D. Schmidt, M. Moehrle, P. Runge, J.-H. Choi, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Hybrid photonic integration on a polymer platform,” Photonics 2(3), 1005–1026 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ziari, M.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

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Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Lee, J. Wu, M. Shi, J. Yoon, S. I. Park, M. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 986–991 (2011).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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S. E. Miller, “Integrated Optics: An Introduction,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 48(7), 2059–2069 (1969).
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E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 48(7), 2071–2102 (1969).
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Convention Record Four Institutes Electrical Eng (1)

Y. Suematsu, “Integrated Optics,” Convention Record Four Institutes Electrical Eng.  1223, 430 (1971).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
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S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
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M. S. Kwon, “Discussion of the epsilon-near-zero effect of graphene in a horizontal slot waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 1–9 (2014).
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Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Chhowalla, D. Jena, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional semiconductors for transistors,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(11), 16052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Sekitani, J. Reeder, T. Yokota, K. Kuribara, T. Tokuhara, M. Drack, R. Schwödiauer, I. Graz, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, and T. Someya, “An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics,” Nature 499(7459), 458–463 (2013).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Kanazawa, T. Amemiya, A. Ishikawa, V. Upadhyaya, K. Tsuruta, T. Tanaka, and Y. Miyamoto, “Few-layer HfS2 Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H.-S. Kim, T.-H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, D. Lambert, P. Evans, S. Corzine, V. Lal, J. Rahn, A. Nilsson, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, J. Pleumeekers, A. Dentai, H.-S. Tsai, D. Krause, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, M. Mitchell, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Terabit/s class InP photonic integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094003 (2012).
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T. Amemiya, T. Kanazawa, and S. Arai, “Organic membrane photonic integrated circuits,” PCT application No. PCT/JP2017/012136.

K. Fukukawa, M. Okazaki, Y. Sakata, T. Urakami, and A. Okubo, “Transparent Polyimide and Precursor Thereof,” PCT application No. PCT/JP2014/062474.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual diagram of OMPIC (organic membrane photonic integrated circuit).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index n and extinction coefficient k of graphene as a function of chemical potential, calculated for 1550-nm wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabricated sample of (a) graphene layer and (b) GaInAs layer, each formed on polymer film (on the part surrounded by white frame). (c) Optical micrographs of GaInAs layer near the edge (upper) and away from the edge (lower).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Process flow to monolithically fabricate OMPICs (one example). Cross section perpendicular to light traveling direction is shown, but only for I/O coupler, cross section in light traveling direction is shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission line (waveguide). (a) Device structure and (b) optical field distribution, cross section perpendicular to light traveling direction; (c) calculated equivalent refractive index of several low-order modes as a function of the width of the waveguide; (d) in-plane and vertical bending loss at 90° bending as a function bending radius R.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

I/O coupler. (a) Device structure and (b) optical field distribution, cross section in light traveling direction; (c) TE-mode and (d) TM-mode coupling efficiencies as a function of wavelength λ, with grating pitch Λ as a parameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase shifter. (a) Device structure, cross section perpendicular to light traveling direction; (b) refractive index of the waveguide modes as a function of heater power dissipation. Temperature at the center of the core is written in the figure; (c) time-dependent refractive index change with 2.6-mW heater power; (d) temperature distribution at each instant of time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photodetector. (a) Device structure and (b) TE-mode optical field distribution, cross section perpendicular to light traveling direction; (c) effective refractive index neff (dashed line) and light absorption coefficient α (solid line) as a function of chemical potential of graphene layer, calculated for 1550-nm wavelength; (d) wavelength dependence of refractive index (dashed lines) and absorption coefficient (solid lines).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical modulator. (a) Device structure and (b) TE-mode optical field distribution, cross section perpendicular to light traveling direction; (c) effective refractive index neff (dashed line) and light absorption coefficient α (solid line) as a function of chemical potential of graphene layer, calculated for 1550-nm wavelength; (d) wavelength dependence of refractive index (dashed lines) and absorption coefficient (solid lines) for TE-mode light, with graphene chemical potential μ as a parameter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Prototype of transmission line and I/O couplers. (a) Devices integrated into organic membrane; (b) photomicrograph of right half of devices; (c) transmission characteristic as a function of transmission line length L, measured for 1550-nm wavelength. Planar pattern of devices is also shown; (d) intensity of the measured output light for the experimental device with waveguide lengths of 8 mm, plotted as a function of wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance limit of various devices for OMPICs, with graphene as electronic material, calculated for 1550-nm wavelength.

Equations (3)

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ε=1+ i σ g ω ε 0 d g
σ g = e 2 4 ( 1 2 + 1 π arctan( ω2| μ | 2 k B T ) i 2π ln ( ω+2| μ | ) 2 ( ω2| μ | ) 2 + ( 2 k B T ) 2 ) + 2i e 2 k B T 2 π( ω+i τ 1 ) ln( 2cosh( | μ | 2 k B T ) )
ρC T t ( κT )=Q

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