Abstract

Based on an integrated silicon platform, we present an ultracompact structure to generate optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes, where only a waveguide with a specially designed trench is involved. Single-trench waveguide can support two orthogonal LP-like modes whose optical axes are rotated by around 45° with respect to the horizontal and vertical directions. By optimizing the structure parameters, OAM modes with topological charges of + 1 and −1 can be selectively generated by combining two orthogonal LP-like modes with different propagation constants. We study the structure parameters for both x- and y-polarizations over a wide wavelength range from 1.45 µm to 1.65 µm. The average mode purities are close to 90% for x- and y-polarizations. Moreover, we design an on-chip OAM modes (de)multiplexer (OAM0, OAM ± 1) for x-polarization based on trench silicon waveguides. It is shown that the mode extinction ratio can achieve approximately 20 dB from 1.52 µm to 1.58 µm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

2016 (7)

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Jin and K. S. Chiang, “Mode converters based on cascaded long-period waveguide gratings,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3130–3133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Frellsen, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and L. H. Frandsen, “Topology optimized mode multiplexing in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16866–16873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Xu, X. Xue, and X. Zhang, “High-order mode rotator on the SOI integrated platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Ma, H. Chen, K. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Self-imaging of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in rectangular multimode interference waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5014–5026 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chen, X. Xiao, L. Wang, Y. Yu, W. Liu, and Q. Yang, “Low-loss and fabrication tolerant silicon mode-order converters based on novel compact tapers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11152–11159 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Gecevičius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Guan, R. P. Scott, C. Qin, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. Yoo, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22(1), 145–156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, T. Uematsu, N. Hanzawa, Y. Ishizaka, K. Masumoto, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, and F. Yamamoto, “PLC-based LP11 mode rotator for mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19117–19130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 932–934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10376–10382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Dynamics of microparticles trapped in a perfect vortex beam,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4919–4922 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Velasco, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Monux, J. H. Schmid, C. A. Ramos, I. M. Fernandez, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, S. Janz, and D. X. Xu, “Ultracompact polarization converter with a dual subwavelength trench built in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 365–367 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave front laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. Vanderveen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. Vanderveen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arita, Y.

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baets, R. G.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave front laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. Vanderveen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beresna, M.

M. Gecevičius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Cheben, P.

Chen, D.

Chen, H.

Chen, M.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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Chiang, K. S.

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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave front laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5), 321–327 (1994).
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D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
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Dai, D.

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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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Ding, D. S.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
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Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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M. Gecevičius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
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Du, J.

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A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
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Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

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D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
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Fernandez, I. M.

Ferrari, C.

Fontaine, N. K.

Forbes, A.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
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Frandsen, L. H.

Frellsen, L. F.

Gaburro, Z.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Gecevicius, M.

M. Gecevičius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
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Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, B.

Guo, G. C.

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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Hanzawa, N.

Huang, B.

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Janz, S.

Jiang, Y. K.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kats, M.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Gecevičius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Keller, B.

Kim, S.-H.

Klemens, F.

Kravchenko, I. I.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave front laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leung, D. M. H.

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Lin, J.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Ma, Z.

Marrucci, L.

Martens, D.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Masumoto, K.

Matsui, T.

Mazilu, M.

McLaren, M.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
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Mizumoto, T.

Mo, Q.

Moitra, P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mühlenbernd, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murauski, A.

O’Brien, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortega-Monux, A.

Ou, H.

Padgett, M. J.

Pathak, S.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

Qassim, H.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qin, C.

Rahman, B. M. A.

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramos, C. A.

Ren, X.

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

Sakamoto, T.

Santamato, E.

Schmid, J. H.

Schulz, S. A.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scott, R. P.

Scully, M.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, B. S.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
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Shi, S.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
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Shoji, Y.

Sigmund, O.

Slussarenko, S.

Sorel, M.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Strain, M. J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T.

Subramanian, A. Z.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takei, R.

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. G.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsujikawa, K.

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uematsu, T.

Upham, J.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vachon, M.

Valentine, J.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanderveen, H.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. Vanderveen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vanslembrouck, M.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Velasco, A. V.

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Xu, X. Xue, and X. Zhang, “High-order mode rotator on the SOI integrated platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 932–934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. S.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 932–934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave front laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. Vanderveen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

Wu, K.

Xiang, G. Y.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

Xie, G.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, J.

Xue, X.

J. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Xu, X. Xue, and X. Zhang, “High-order mode rotator on the SOI integrated platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

Yamamoto, F.

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. J.

Yu, N.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

Z. Ma, H. Chen, K. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Self-imaging of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in rectangular multimode interference waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5014–5026 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Yue, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Xu, X. Xue, and X. Zhang, “High-order mode rotator on the SOI integrated platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, D.

J. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Xu, X. Xue, and X. Zhang, “High-order mode rotator on the SOI integrated platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 932–934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. Y.

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Zou, C. L.

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (2)

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Gecevičius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, C. L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

D. Zhang, X. Feng, K. Cui, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Generating in-plane optical orbital angular momentum beams with silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2201206 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Numerical analysis of asymmetric silicon nanowire waveguide as compact polarization rotator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Xu, X. Xue, and X. Zhang, “High-order mode rotator on the SOI integrated platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. Vanderveen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave front laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

S.-H. Kim, R. Takei, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “Single-trench waveguide TE-TM mode converter,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11267–11273 (2009).
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S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
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B. Guan, R. P. Scott, C. Qin, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. Yoo, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22(1), 145–156 (2014).
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K. Saitoh, T. Uematsu, N. Hanzawa, Y. Ishizaka, K. Masumoto, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, and F. Yamamoto, “PLC-based LP11 mode rotator for mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19117–19130 (2014).
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Z. Ma, H. Chen, K. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Self-imaging of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in rectangular multimode interference waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5014–5026 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chen, X. Xiao, L. Wang, Y. Yu, W. Liu, and Q. Yang, “Low-loss and fabrication tolerant silicon mode-order converters based on novel compact tapers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11152–11159 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10376–10382 (2013).
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L. F. Frellsen, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and L. H. Frandsen, “Topology optimized mode multiplexing in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16866–16873 (2016).
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M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum 25 years on,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11265–11274 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photonics Res. (1)

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. S. Ding, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, S. Shi, G. Y. Xiang, X. S. Wang, Y. K. Jiang, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 050502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Concept and principle of OAM beam generator based on a single-trench waveguide. (b) Cross-section of a single-trench waveguide. (c) The field distributions of two eigenmodes of a single-trench waveguide. (d) Intensity and phase evolutions of combination of eigenmodes for x-polarization.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Trench width w, and (b) height h dependences of normalized overlap integrals of two LP-like eigenmodes for x-polarization at 1.55 µm. (c) and (d) show width w, and height h dependences of normalized overlap integral of two LP-like eigenmodes for y-polarization at 1.55 µm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The effective indices of orthogonal LP-like modes of single-trench waveguide as a function of wavelength for both x- and y-polarizations. (b) The effective index differences of orthogonal LP-like modes of single-trench waveguide as a function of wavelength for both polarizations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated near-field intensity profiles, phase distributions and (b) mode purity of OAM-1 for x-polarization from 1.45 µm to 1.65 µm. (c) Simulated intensity profiles, phase distributions and (d) mode purity of OAM+1 for y-polarization from 1.45 µm to 1.65 µm. Insets are far-field intensity and phase profiles at 1.55µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Structure dispersion relationship about the effective refractive index and width of silicon waveguide with height of H = 1 µm at a center wavelength of 1.55µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic structure of an on-chip OAM modes (de)multiplexer (OAM0, OAM ± 1).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated mode purity and extinction ratio of (a) OAM0, (b) OAM+1 and (c) OAM-1 by calculating the overlap integrals of the generated OAM beams with corresponding Laguerre-Gaussian beams from 1.52 µm to 1.58 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of structure parameters of on-chip OAM modes (de)multiplexer.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L O A M + 1 = π 2 ( β 1 β 2 ) = λ 4 Δ n
L O A M 1 = 3 L O A M + 1 = 3 λ 4 Δ n
P = | E o * ( x , y ) E t ( x , y ) d x d y | 2 | E o ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y | E t ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y ,
E t ( x , y ) = ( 2 r w ) l L p l ( 2 r 2 w 2 ) exp ( i l φ ) exp ( r 2 w 2 i k z ) ,

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