Abstract

In high power laser systems, precision micro-machining is an effective method to mitigate the laser-induced surface damage growth on potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. Repaired surfaces with smooth spherical and Gaussian contours can alleviate the light field modulation caused by damage site. To obtain the optimal repairing structure parameters, finite element method (FEM) models for simulating the light intensification caused by the mitigation pits on rear KDP surface were established. The light intensity modulation of these repairing profiles was compared by changing the structure parameters. The results indicate the modulation is mainly caused by the mutual interference between the reflected and incident lights on the rear surface. Owing to the total reflection, the light intensity enhancement factors (LIEFs) of the spherical and Gaussian mitigation pits sharply increase when the width-depth ratios are near 5.28 and 3.88, respectively. To achieve the optimal mitigation effect, the width-depth ratios greater than 5.3 and 4.3 should be applied to the spherical and Gaussian repaired contours. Particularly, for the cases of width-depth ratios greater than 5.3, the spherical repaired contour is preferred to achieve lower light intensification. The laser damage test shows that when the width-depth ratios are larger than 5.3, the spherical repaired contour presents higher laser damage resistance than that of Gaussian repaired contour, which agrees well with the simulation results.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, and M. W. Bowers, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, and T. A. Land, “Large optics for the national ignition facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 614–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, and M. C. Nostrand, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser–induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, M. Chen, W. Liao, H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Li, “Fabrication of spherical mitigation pit on KH2PO4 crystal by micro-milling and modeling of its induced light intensification,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16799–16813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. J. Stolz, “The national ignition facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 370(1973), 4115–4129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, M. J. Nostrand, and P. J. Wegner, “An improved method of mitigating laser–induced surface damage growth in fused silica using a rastered pulsed CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 7842(1), 784220 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, and M. D. Crisp, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(10), 487–489 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adams, J. J.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, and M. W. Bowers, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atherton, L. J.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, and T. A. Land, “Large optics for the national ignition facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 614–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baisden, P. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, and T. A. Land, “Large optics for the national ignition facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 614–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bass, I. L.

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, M. J. Nostrand, and P. J. Wegner, “An improved method of mitigating laser–induced surface damage growth in fused silica using a rastered pulsed CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 7842(1), 784220 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boling, N. L.

N. L. Boling, M. D. Crisp, and G. Dubé, “Laser induced surface damage,” Appl. Opt. 12(4), 650–660 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, and M. D. Crisp, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(10), 487–489 (1972).
[Crossref]

Borden, M. R.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bostedt, C.

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, M. W.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, and M. W. Bowers, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brusasco, R. M.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bumham, A.

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burnham, A. K.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. W.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carr, W.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Chen, M. J.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-J.

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, M. Chen, W. Liao, H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Li, “Fabrication of spherical mitigation pit on KH2PO4 crystal by micro-milling and modeling of its induced light intensification,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16799–16813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crisp, M. D.

N. L. Boling, M. D. Crisp, and G. Dubé, “Laser induced surface damage,” Appl. Opt. 12(4), 650–660 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, and M. D. Crisp, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(10), 487–489 (1972).
[Crossref]

De Yoreo, J. J.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

DeMange, P.

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Donohue, E. E.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Draggoo, V.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
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N. L. Boling, M. D. Crisp, and G. Dubé, “Laser induced surface damage,” Appl. Opt. 12(4), 650–660 (1973).
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N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, and M. D. Crisp, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(10), 487–489 (1972).
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Duchateau, G.

Feit, M. D.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
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S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high-reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C373–C381 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ferriera, J. L.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Génin, F. Y.

Geraghty, P.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
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Grundler, W.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
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Guss, G. M.

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, M. J. Nostrand, and P. J. Wegner, “An improved method of mitigating laser–induced surface damage growth in fused silica using a rastered pulsed CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 7842(1), 784220 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hackel, R.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

Hackel, R. P.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
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J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haupt, D. L.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hawley, R. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, and T. A. Land, “Large optics for the national ignition facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 614–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hawley-Fedder, R.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

He, S.-B.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hollingsworth, W. G.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

Hrubesh, L.

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hrubesh, L. W.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hutcheon, I. D.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jarboe, J. A.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.-D.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johnson, M. A.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kinney, J. H.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, M. R.

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kucheyev, S. O.

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lamaignère, L.

Land, T. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, and T. A. Land, “Large optics for the national ignition facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 614–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Li, M. Q.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.-Q.

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, W.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, M. Chen, W. Liao, H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Li, “Fabrication of spherical mitigation pit on KH2PO4 crystal by micro-milling and modeling of its induced light intensification,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16799–16813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindsey, E. F.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Locke, S.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mailhiot, C.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

Manes, K. R.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, and M. W. Bowers, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M. J.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

McBurney, M.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Menapace, J. A.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, E.

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Molander, W. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Monterrosa, A. M.

Natoli, J. Y.

Negres, R. A.

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Negress, R. A.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nelson, A. J.

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Norton, M.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

Norton, M. A.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M. C.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, and M. C. Nostrand, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser–induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M. J.

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, M. J. Nostrand, and P. J. Wegner, “An improved method of mitigating laser–induced surface damage growth in fused silica using a rastered pulsed CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 7842(1), 784220 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pistor, T. V.

Qiu, S. R.

Radousky, H. B.

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Raman, R. N.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reyné, S.

Riley, M. O.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Runkel, M.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Runkel, M. J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salleo, A.

Sell, W. D.

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shirk, M. D.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Spaeth, M. L.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, and M. W. Bowers, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, and M. C. Nostrand, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser–induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stanley, J. A.

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, “The national ignition facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 370(1973), 4115–4129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high-reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C373–C381 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strodtbeck, S. R.

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, and M. C. Nostrand, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser–induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thompson, S.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thompson, S. L.

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Van Buuren, T.

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, H. J.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-J.

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. H.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegner, P.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P. J.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, and M. C. Nostrand, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser–induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, M. J. Nostrand, and P. J. Wegner, “An improved method of mitigating laser–induced surface damage growth in fused silica using a rastered pulsed CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 7842(1), 784220 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whitman, P.

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

Whitman, P. K.

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, J. E.

Wong, J.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiang, X.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, M. Chen, W. Liao, H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Li, “Fabrication of spherical mitigation pit on KH2PO4 crystal by micro-milling and modeling of its induced light intensification,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16799–16813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. D.

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X.-D.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W.-G.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zu, X.-T.

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, and M. D. Crisp, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(10), 487–489 (1972).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Negres, S. O. Kucheyev, P. DeMange, C. Bostedt, T. Van Buuren, A. J. Nelson, and S. G. Demos, “Decomposition of KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (2)

L. Li, X. Xiang, X.-T. Zu, X.-D. Yuan, S.-B. He, X.-D. Jiang, and W.-G. Zheng, “Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface,” Chin. Phys. B 21(4), 351–356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiao, M.-J. Chen, J. Cheng, W. Liao, H.-J. Wang, and M.-Q. Li, “Effect of structural parameters of Gaussian repaired pit on light intensity distribution inside KH2PO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 23(8), 540–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fus. Sci. Technol. (3)

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, and M. C. Nostrand, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser–induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, and M. W. Bowers, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, and T. A. Land, “Large optics for the national ignition facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 614–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Int. Mater. Rev. (1)

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negress, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

C. J. Stolz, “The national ignition facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 370(1973), 4115–4129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (8)

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, M. J. Nostrand, and P. J. Wegner, “An improved method of mitigating laser–induced surface damage growth in fused silica using a rastered pulsed CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 7842(1), 784220 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using singl–ecrystal diamond micro–machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[Crossref]

L. W. Hrubesh, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. A. Molander, S. L. Thompson, S. R. Strodtbeck, P. K. Whitman, M. D. Shirk, P. J. Wegner, M. C. Nostrand, and A. K. Burnham, “Methods for mitigating growth of laser-initiated surface damage on DKDP optics at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 180–191 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Hawley-Fedder, P. Geraghty, S. Locke, M. McBurney, M. Runkel, T. Suratwala, S. Thompson, P. Wegner, and P. Whitman, “NIF Pockels cell and frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 121–126 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341(10), 84–101 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, L. L. Chase, A. Bumham, and H. B. Radousky, “Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 277–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Hrubesh, J. J. Adams, M. D. Feit, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, E. Miller, S. L. Thompson, P. K. Whitman, and R. P. Hackel, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single–crystal diamond micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 273–280 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. J. Chen, J. Cheng, X. D. Yuan, W. Liao, H. J. Wang, J. H. Wang, Y. Xiao, and M. Q. Li, “Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. M. Jin and J. G. Wang, Finite Element Method in Electromagnetic Field (Xi'an Electronic and Science University, 1998).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of repaired mitigation pits on KDP surface. (a) 3D model for mitigation pits. (b) Cross-section of spherical mitigation pit. (c) Cross-section of Gaussian mitigation pit.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 2D models of mitigation pit. (a) Spherical mitigation pit. (b) Gaussian mitigation pit.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Distribution of electric field intensity with the plan wave normalized to 1V/m irradiating from air to ideal KDP surface in the normal direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of total reflection at the repaired surfaces. (a) Spherical mitigation pit. (b) Gaussian mitigation pit.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the machining process for repairing the surface flaws on KDP crystal with micro-machining method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Stereoscopic images of fabricated mitigation pits on KDP crystals and the insets are the cross-sectional profiles of the fabricated mitigation pits tested using surface profiler. (a) The spherical mitigation pit with 1000μm width and 50μm depth. (b) The spherical mitigation pit with 500μm width and 50μm depth. (c) The Gaussian mitigation pit with 1000μm width and 50μm depth. (d) The Gaussian mitigation pit with 500μm width and 50μm depth.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Diagram of light path for testing the LIDTs of KDP crystal.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Modulation of electric field intensity caused by rear surface spherical mitigation pit. (a) w = 10μm, d = 0.2μm. (b) w = 8μm, d = 2.4μm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Evolution of LIEFs versus structural parameters of spherical mitigation contours. The curves of LIEFs caused by spherical mitigation pit with three widths as a function of depth (a) and width-depth ratio (b).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Modulation of electric field intensity caused by rear surface Gaussian mitigation pit. (a) w = 10μm, d = 0.2μm. (b) w = 8μm, d = 3μm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Evolution of LIEFs versus structural parameters of Gaussian mitigation contours. The curves of LIEFs caused by Gaussian mitigation pit with three widths as a function of depth (a) and width-depth ratio (b).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Comparison of the LIEFs caused by spherical and Gaussian mitigation pits with various structural parameters. (a) w = 6μm. (b) w = 8μm. (c) w = 10μm.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Comparison of the measured LIDTs for KDP crystal with ideal surface and repaired surface with spherical and Gaussian mitigation pits in different sizes.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 SEM images of the damage sites around the mitigation pits on rear KDP surface initiated by 532nm-wavelength light. The images show the whole area of the mitigation pits with laser damage. The insets are the enhanced microscope images showing a small region of damage. (a) The spherical mitigation pit with 1000μm width and 50μm depth. (b) The spherical mitigation pit with 500μm width and 50μm depth. (c) The Gaussian mitigation pit with 1000μm width and 50μm depth. (d) The Gaussian mitigation pit with 500μm width and 50μm depth.

Equations (7)

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x 2 + (z(Rd)) 2 = R 2
z=dexp(16 x 2 / w 2 )
R=0.5d+0.125 w 2 /d
×(×E) k 2 ε r E=0
LIEF= I max / I 0
k S,max = 4wd w 2 4 d 2 = 4ζ ζ 2 4
k G,max = 1 ζ 4 2 e 0.5

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