Abstract

Coupling of light into multi-core fibers (MCF) for spatially resolved spectroscopy is of great importance to astronomical instrumentation. To achieve high coupling efficiencies along with fill-fractions close to unity, micro-optical elements are required to concentrate the incoming light to the individual cores of the MCF. In this paper we demonstrate facet-attached lens arrays (LA) fabricated by two-photon polymerization. The LA provide close to 100% fill-fraction along with efficiencies of up to 73% (down to 1.4 dB loss) for coupling of light from free space into an MCF core. We show the viability of the concept for astrophotonic applications by integrating an MCF-LA assembly in an adaptive-optics test bed and by assessing its performance as a tip/tilt sensor.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

19 September 2017: A typographical correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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  1. J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).
  2. A. Bechter, J. Crass, R. Ketterer, J. R. Crepp, R. O. Reynolds, E. Bechter, P. Hinz, F. Pedichini, M. Foley, E. Runburg, and E. Onuma, “On-sky single-mode fiber coupling measurements at the Large Binocular Telescope,” in SPIE Astronomical Telescopes+ Instrumentation (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), paper 99092X.
  3. J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5902–5909 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. I. Spaleniak, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, M. J. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation II: the multimode to single mode transition,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27197–27208 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).
  6. S. Shaklan and F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27(11), 2334–2338 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, C. Arcidiacono, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, G. Agapito, L. Busoni, L. Fini, J. Argomedo, A. Gherardi, G. Brusa, D. Miller, J. C. Guerra, P. Stefanini, and P. Salinari, “Large Binocular Telescope Adaptive Optics System: new achievements and perspectives in adaptive optics,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications IV, R. K. Tyson and M. Hart, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), paper 814902.
  8. N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Glück, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Investigations of an Accelerometer-based Disturbance Feedforward Control for Vibration Suppression in Adaptive Optics of Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129(976), 65001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. R. Gillingham, S. Miziarski, and U. Klauser, “Mechanical features of the OzPoz fiber positioner for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 914 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. P.-I. Dietrich, I. Reuter, M. Blaicher, S. Schneider, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Zander, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Lenses for Low-Loss Chip-to-Fiber and Fiber-to-Fiber Coupling Fabricated by 3D Direct-Write Lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO’16) (OSA, 2016), paper SM1G.4.
    [Crossref]
  13. Zemax, “OpticStudio - Zemax,” http://www.zemax.com/os/opticstudio .
  14. Fibercore, “Product - Multicore Fiber,” http://fibercore.com/product/multicore-fiber .
  15. Nanoscribe GmbH, “IP Photoresists,” http://www.nanoscribe.de/en/products/ip-photoresists/ .
  16. R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

M. Glück, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Investigations of an Accelerometer-based Disturbance Feedforward Control for Vibration Suppression in Adaptive Optics of Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129(976), 65001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

P. R. Gillingham, S. Miziarski, and U. Klauser, “Mechanical features of the OzPoz fiber positioner for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 914 (2000).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allington-Smith, J. R.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basden, A. G.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Betters, C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Birks, T.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5902–5909 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, G.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryant, J. J.

J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
[Crossref]

Campbell, S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Choudhury, D.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cvetojevic, N.

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Edvell, G.

Englund, M.

Gelatt, C. D.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gendron, E.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gillingham, P. R.

P. R. Gillingham, S. Miziarski, and U. Klauser, “Mechanical features of the OzPoz fiber positioner for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 914 (2000).
[Crossref]

Glück, M.

M. Glück, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Investigations of an Accelerometer-based Disturbance Feedforward Control for Vibration Suppression in Adaptive Optics of Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129(976), 65001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

Guyon, O.

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Halverson, S.

S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).

Harris, R. J.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haynes, R.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Ireland, M. J.

Jovanovic, N.

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Spaleniak, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, M. J. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation II: the multimode to single mode transition,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27197–27208 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klauser, U.

P. R. Gillingham, S. Miziarski, and U. Klauser, “Mechanical features of the OzPoz fiber positioner for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 914 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, J.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Lawrence, J. S.

Leon-Saval, S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Leon-Saval, S. G.

J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
[Crossref]

MacLachlan, D. G.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mahadevan, S.

S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).

Martinache, F.

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miziarski, S.

P. R. Gillingham, S. Miziarski, and U. Klauser, “Mechanical features of the OzPoz fiber positioner for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 914 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morris, T. J.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Byrne, J. W.

J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pope, B.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Pott, J.-U.

M. Glück, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Investigations of an Accelerometer-based Disturbance Feedforward Control for Vibration Suppression in Adaptive Optics of Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129(976), 65001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Robertson, G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

Roddier, F.

Roy, A.

S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).

Sawodny, O.

M. Glück, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Investigations of an Accelerometer-based Disturbance Feedforward Control for Vibration Suppression in Adaptive Optics of Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129(976), 65001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwab, C.

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).

Shaklan, S.

Spaleniak, I.

Thomson, R. R.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withford, M. J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

S. Halverson, A. Roy, S. Mahadevan, and C. Schwab, ““Modal-noise” in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments,” Astrophys. J. 814, 6 (2015).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450(1), 428–434 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Bryant, J. W. O’Byrne, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Characterization of hexabundles: initial results,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415(3), 2173–2181 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 7735ON (2010).

P. R. Gillingham, S. Miziarski, and U. Klauser, “Mechanical features of the OzPoz fiber positioner for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 914 (2000).
[Crossref]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, and F. Martinache, “Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 128(970), 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Glück, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Investigations of an Accelerometer-based Disturbance Feedforward Control for Vibration Suppression in Adaptive Optics of Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129(976), 65001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

P.-I. Dietrich, I. Reuter, M. Blaicher, S. Schneider, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Zander, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Lenses for Low-Loss Chip-to-Fiber and Fiber-to-Fiber Coupling Fabricated by 3D Direct-Write Lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO’16) (OSA, 2016), paper SM1G.4.
[Crossref]

Zemax, “OpticStudio - Zemax,” http://www.zemax.com/os/opticstudio .

Fibercore, “Product - Multicore Fiber,” http://fibercore.com/product/multicore-fiber .

Nanoscribe GmbH, “IP Photoresists,” http://www.nanoscribe.de/en/products/ip-photoresists/ .

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, C. Arcidiacono, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, G. Agapito, L. Busoni, L. Fini, J. Argomedo, A. Gherardi, G. Brusa, D. Miller, J. C. Guerra, P. Stefanini, and P. Salinari, “Large Binocular Telescope Adaptive Optics System: new achievements and perspectives in adaptive optics,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications IV, R. K. Tyson and M. Hart, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), paper 814902.

A. Bechter, J. Crass, R. Ketterer, J. R. Crepp, R. O. Reynolds, E. Bechter, P. Hinz, F. Pedichini, M. Foley, E. Runburg, and E. Onuma, “On-sky single-mode fiber coupling measurements at the Large Binocular Telescope,” in SPIE Astronomical Telescopes+ Instrumentation (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), paper 99092X.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

3D freeform lens array fabricated on the facet of a multi-core fiber (MCF). The center core use to capture the main signal for spectral analysis, whereas the adjacent cores are used to measure error signals for tip/tilt correction. Mechanical dimensions and mode-field diameters (MFDs) are indicated in µm. (a) 3D model of the MCF and the fabricated lens array. For better illustration of beam path (red) and error signal (orange), the lens array and part of the fiber are cut away. Inset: Simulated and measured coupling efficiency of the main signal and of the error signal. Note that, due to the available lenses and for avoiding an iris diaphragm, the MFD of the measured signal was only 21 µm instead of the optimum 26 µm; this explains the discrepancy between simulation and measurement. (b) 3D topography of the lens array measured with a white-light interferometer. The maximum distance d of the lens surfaces from the MCF facet are indicated. (c) Electron microscopy image at a 45° angle of the lens array in situ printed on the MCF facet. The fiber has a diameter of 125 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the beam path used for testing the lens array attached to the multi-core fiber (MCF). The common input beam is shown in red (1550 nm from a single mode fiber, SMF) and blue (633 nm from a multimode fiber, MMF). The 633nm beam is used for feedback control of the deformable mirror while the 1550nm beam is focused onto the MCF lens-array (MCF-LA). The beam position is scanned using the deformable mirror that is operated with an optical feedback from the Shack-Hartmann sensor. The amount of light coupled into individual fiber cores of the MCF can be obtained by observing the rear facet of the MCF with an infrared (IR) camera. To monitor the beam quality, a reference beam (yellow) is split off from the main beam (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Seven plots showing the relative power coupled into of each of the seven single-mode fiber cores as a function of test beam position on the lens array (LA) at the input facet. All plots are on the same scale and normalized to the central core. Yellow corresponds to a maximum coupling to the given core. The red dots represent the positions of the observed core, and the white circles show the position of the micro-lenses. The red circle has a diameter of 130 µm, beyond this circle, no light is coupled into the fiber cores.

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