Abstract

The influence of B4C incorporation during magnetron sputter deposition of Cr/Sc multilayers intended for soft X-ray reflective optics is investigated. Chemical analysis suggests formation of metal: boride and carbide bonds which stabilize an amorphous layer structure, resulting in smoother interfaces and an increased reflectivity. A near-normal incidence reflectivity of 11.7%, corresponding to a 67% increase, is achieved at λ = 3.11 nm upon adding 23 at.% (B + C). The advantage is significant for the multilayer periods larger than 1.8 nm, where amorphization results in smaller interface widths, for example, giving 36% reflectance and 99.89% degree of polarization near Brewster angle for a multilayer polarizer. The modulated ion-energy-assistance during the growth is considered vital to avoid intermixing during the interface formation even when B + C are added.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

10 August 2017: A typographical correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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2017 (2)

C. Burcklen, S. de Rossi, E. Meltchakov, D. Dennetière, B. Capitanio, F. Polack, and F. Delmotte, “High-reflectance magnetron-sputtered scandium-based x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 42(10), 1927–1930 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Greczynski and L. Hultman, “C 1s Peak of Adventitious Carbon Aligns to the Vacuum Level: Dire Consequences for Material’s Bonding Assignment by Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 18(12), 1507–1512 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Q. Huang, J. Fei, Y. Liu, P. Li, M. Wen, C. Xie, P. Jonnard, A. Giglia, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, and Z. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/V multilayer with B4C barrier layer for water window wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 41(4), 701–704 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, W. Li, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31522 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Haase, S. Bajt, P. Hönicke, V. Soltwisch, and F. Scholze, “Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(6), 2161–2171 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

A. Guggenmos, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Hertrich, B. Nickel, J. Schmidt, E. M. Gullikson, M. Seibald, W. Schnick, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic CrSc multilayer mirrors for attosecond water window pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21728–21740 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11057–11065 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516(6), 982–990 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, S. Aouadi, S. Rohde, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4196–4204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. Meltchakov, V. Vidal, H. Faik, M. J. Casanove, and B. Vidal, “Performance of multilayer coatings in relationship to microstructure of metal layers. Characterization and optical properties of Mo/Si multilayers in extreme ultra-violet and x-ray ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3355–3365 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Kuhlmann, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, T. Gorelik, U. Kaiser, and W. Richter, “Chromium-scandium multilayer mirrors for the nitrogen K(α) line in the water window region,” Appl. Opt. 41(10), 2048–2052 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

T. Kenmotsu, T. Kawamura, T. Ono, and Y. Yamamura, “Dynamical simulation for sputtering of B4C,” J. Nucl. Mater. 258(263), 729–734 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, “IMD;software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Schäfers, H.-C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, “Cr /sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37(4), 719–728 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. Ono, T. Kawamura, K. Ishii, and Y. Yamamura, “Sputtering yield formula for B4C irradiated with monoenergetic ions at normal incidence,” J. Nucl. Mater. 232(1), 52–58 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. J. Whitlow, C. S. Petersson, K. J. Reeson, and P. L. F. Hemment, “Mass‐dispersive recoil spectrometry studies of oxygen and nitrogen redistribution in ion‐beam‐synthesized buried oxynitride layers in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(22), 1871–1873 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. T. W. Barbee., “Multilayers for X-ray optics,” Opt. Eng. 25(8), 893 (1986).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, and R. P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft‐x‐ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11), 1048–1050 (1980).
[Crossref]

Abrikosov, I. A.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Akil, A.

Alameda, J. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andreasson, J.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Aouadi, S.

Aquila, A.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” in 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation (2006).

Bajt, S.

A. Haase, S. Bajt, P. Hönicke, V. Soltwisch, and F. Scholze, “Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(6), 2161–2171 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, K. R. Beyerlein, and S. Bajt, “Thermal stability studies of short period Sc/Cr and Sc/B4C/Cr multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 53(10), 2126–2135 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barbee, J. T. W.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. T. W. Barbee., “Multilayers for X-ray optics,” Opt. Eng. 25(8), 893 (1986).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Beckers, M.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertilson, M.

Beyerlein, K. R.

Bibishkin, M. S.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birch, J.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516(6), 982–990 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, S. Aouadi, S. Rohde, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4196–4204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2494–2496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böhm, P.

Bontempi, E.

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burcklen, C.

Capitanio, B.

Casanove, M. J.

E. Meltchakov, V. Vidal, H. Faik, M. J. Casanove, and B. Vidal, “Performance of multilayer coatings in relationship to microstructure of metal layers. Characterization and optical properties of Mo/Si multilayers in extreme ultra-violet and x-ray ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3355–3365 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H. N.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Chkhalo, N. I.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

de Rossi, S.

Delmotte, F.

Dennetière, D.

Depero, L. E.

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

DePonte, D. P.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Fonzo, S.

Dollar, F.

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” in 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation (2006).

Eriksson, F.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516(6), 982–990 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, S. Aouadi, S. Rohde, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4196–4204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2494–2496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eriksson, M.

Faik, H.

E. Meltchakov, V. Vidal, H. Faik, M. J. Casanove, and B. Vidal, “Performance of multilayer coatings in relationship to microstructure of metal layers. Characterization and optical properties of Mo/Si multilayers in extreme ultra-violet and x-ray ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3355–3365 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fei, J.

Feigl, T.

Fischer, S.

Fleckenstein, H.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fraerman, A. A.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gaupp, A.

Ghafoor, N.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516(6), 982–990 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, S. Aouadi, S. Rohde, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4196–4204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giglia, A.

Gorelik, T.

Greczynski, G.

G. Greczynski and L. Hultman, “C 1s Peak of Adventitious Carbon Aligns to the Vacuum Level: Dire Consequences for Material’s Bonding Assignment by Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 18(12), 1507–1512 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gudat, W.

Guggenmos, A.

Gullikson, E. M.

A. Guggenmos, S. Radünz, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Venkatesan, A. Wochnik, E. M. Gullikson, S. Fischer, B. Nickel, C. Scheu, and U. Kleineberg, “Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26526–26536 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Guggenmos, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Hertrich, B. Nickel, J. Schmidt, E. M. Gullikson, M. Seibald, W. Schnick, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic CrSc multilayer mirrors for attosecond water window pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21728–21740 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, S. Aouadi, S. Rohde, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4196–4204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2494–2496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” in 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation (2006).

Haase, A.

A. Haase, S. Bajt, P. Hönicke, V. Soltwisch, and F. Scholze, “Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(6), 2161–2171 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haelbich, R. P.

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, and R. P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft‐x‐ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11), 1048–1050 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hajdu, J.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Hemment, P. L. F.

H. J. Whitlow, C. S. Petersson, K. J. Reeson, and P. L. F. Hemment, “Mass‐dispersive recoil spectrometry studies of oxygen and nitrogen redistribution in ion‐beam‐synthesized buried oxynitride layers in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(22), 1871–1873 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hertrich, S.

Hertz, H. M.

Hofstetter, M.

Holmberg, A.

Hönicke, P.

A. Haase, S. Bajt, P. Hönicke, V. Soltwisch, and F. Scholze, “Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(6), 2161–2171 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Hultman, L.

G. Greczynski and L. Hultman, “C 1s Peak of Adventitious Carbon Aligns to the Vacuum Level: Dire Consequences for Material’s Bonding Assignment by Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 18(12), 1507–1512 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516(6), 982–990 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, S. Aouadi, S. Rohde, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4196–4204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishii, K.

T. Ono, T. Kawamura, K. Ishii, and Y. Yamamura, “Sputtering yield formula for B4C irradiated with monoenergetic ions at normal incidence,” J. Nucl. Mater. 232(1), 52–58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jakubeit, C.

Jark, W.

Jobst, M.

Johansson, G. A.

Jonnard, P.

Kaiser, N.

Kaiser, U.

Kaufmann, B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, T.

T. Kenmotsu, T. Kawamura, T. Ono, and Y. Yamamura, “Dynamical simulation for sputtering of B4C,” J. Nucl. Mater. 258(263), 729–734 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ono, T. Kawamura, K. Ishii, and Y. Yamamura, “Sputtering yield formula for B4C irradiated with monoenergetic ions at normal incidence,” J. Nucl. Mater. 232(1), 52–58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kenmotsu, T.

T. Kenmotsu, T. Kawamura, T. Ono, and Y. Yamamura, “Dynamical simulation for sputtering of B4C,” J. Nucl. Mater. 258(263), 729–734 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

Kim, C. O.

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

Kreissig, U.

Kressig, U.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuhlmann, T.

Le Cann, X.

Lee, C. B.

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. E.

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leontowich, A. F. G.

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, K. R. Beyerlein, and S. Bajt, “Thermal stability studies of short period Sc/Cr and Sc/B4C/Cr multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 53(10), 2126–2135 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Li, W.

J. Peng, W. Li, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31522 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, M.

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Louis, E.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meltchakov, E.

C. Burcklen, S. de Rossi, E. Meltchakov, D. Dennetière, B. Capitanio, F. Polack, and F. Delmotte, “High-reflectance magnetron-sputtered scandium-based x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 42(10), 1927–1930 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Meltchakov, V. Vidal, H. Faik, M. J. Casanove, and B. Vidal, “Performance of multilayer coatings in relationship to microstructure of metal layers. Characterization and optical properties of Mo/Si multilayers in extreme ultra-violet and x-ray ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3355–3365 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mertin, M.

Mertins, H.-C.

Mikhaylushkin, A. S.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, A. S. Mikhaylushkin, I. A. Abrikosov, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kressig, M. Beckers, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 24(01), 79–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nickel, B.

Noever, S.

Nyholm, R.

Ono, T.

T. Kenmotsu, T. Kawamura, T. Ono, and Y. Yamamura, “Dynamical simulation for sputtering of B4C,” J. Nucl. Mater. 258(263), 729–734 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ono, T. Kawamura, K. Ishii, and Y. Yamamura, “Sputtering yield formula for B4C irradiated with monoenergetic ions at normal incidence,” J. Nucl. Mater. 232(1), 52–58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ossiander, M.

Packe, I.

Park, M. J.

K. E. Lee, J. Y. Lee, M. J. Park, J. H. Kim, C. B. Lee, and C. O. Kim, “Preparation of boron carbide thin films for HDD protecting layer,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272(3), 2197–2199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patelli, A.

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

J. Peng, W. Li, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31522 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persson, P. O. Å.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516(6), 982–990 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pestov, A. E.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

Petersson, C. S.

H. J. Whitlow, C. S. Petersson, K. J. Reeson, and P. L. F. Hemment, “Mass‐dispersive recoil spectrometry studies of oxygen and nitrogen redistribution in ion‐beam‐synthesized buried oxynitride layers in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(22), 1871–1873 (1988).
[Crossref]

Polack, F.

Prasciolu, M.

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, K. R. Beyerlein, and S. Bajt, “Thermal stability studies of short period Sc/Cr and Sc/B4C/Cr multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 53(10), 2126–2135 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, K. A.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

Radünz, S.

Rauhut, R.

Ravagnan, J.

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reeson, K. J.

H. J. Whitlow, C. S. Petersson, K. J. Reeson, and P. L. F. Hemment, “Mass‐dispersive recoil spectrometry studies of oxygen and nitrogen redistribution in ion‐beam‐synthesized buried oxynitride layers in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(22), 1871–1873 (1988).
[Crossref]

Richter, W.

Riemensberger, J.

Rife, J.

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, and R. P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft‐x‐ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11), 1048–1050 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rigato, V.

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rohde, S.

Salashchenko, N. N.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Schäfers, H.-C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, “Cr /sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37(4), 719–728 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmaso, G.

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” in 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation (2006).

Schäfers, F.

Schäffer, M.

Scheu, C.

Schmidt, J.

Schmolla, F.

Schnick, W.

Scholze, F.

A. Haase, S. Bajt, P. Hönicke, V. Soltwisch, and F. Scholze, “Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(6), 2161–2171 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segmüller, A.

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, and R. P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft‐x‐ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11), 1048–1050 (1980).
[Crossref]

Seibald, M.

Shamov, E. A.

Silvestrini, D.

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S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Optice 41(8), 1797 (2002).
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A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
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E. Meltchakov, V. Vidal, H. Faik, M. J. Casanove, and B. Vidal, “Performance of multilayer coatings in relationship to microstructure of metal layers. Characterization and optical properties of Mo/Si multilayers in extreme ultra-violet and x-ray ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3355–3365 (2006).
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E. Meltchakov, V. Vidal, H. Faik, M. J. Casanove, and B. Vidal, “Performance of multilayer coatings in relationship to microstructure of metal layers. Characterization and optical properties of Mo/Si multilayers in extreme ultra-violet and x-ray ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3355–3365 (2006).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Patelli, J. Ravagnan, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, D. Silvestrini, E. Bontempi, and L. E. Depero, “Structure and interface properties of Mo/B4C/Si multilayers deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 238(1-4), 262–268 (2004).
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A. Haase, S. Bajt, P. Hönicke, V. Soltwisch, and F. Scholze, “Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(6), 2161–2171 (2016).
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M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, A. A. Fraerman, A. E. Pestov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, and Y. A. Vainer, “Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 543(1), 333–339 (2005).
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A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Aquila, F. Stellato, R. Bean, H. Fleckenstein, M. Prasciolu, M. Liang, D. P. DePonte, A. Barty, F. Wang, J. Andreasson, J. Hajdu, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8777, 87770T (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) First order hard X-ray peak intensity and soft X-ray peak reflectivity as a function of B + C concentration. (b) Measured (symbols) and simulated (lines) soft X-ray reflectivities at λ = 3.11 nm for the multilayers without (dotted, ○) and with (solid, ∆) 23 at.% B + C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Sc 2p, (b) Cr 2p, (c) C 1s, and (d) B 1s core level XPS spectra of four films: the Cr/Sc (black) and Cr/Sc + B4C (red) multilayers shown in Fig. 1, Cr/B4C/Sc multilayer from Ref [22], and B4C sputtered film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured (lines) and simulated (symbols) reflectivity profiles performed at λ = 3.112 nm for three multilayers deposited using modulated ion assistance (solid, ○), using continuous ion assistance of Eion(Cr) = 26 eV, Eion(Sc) = 19 eV (dashed, ∆), and Eion(Cr) = 36 eV, Eion(Sc) = 29 eV(dotted, □). The modulation periods and average interface roughness values as determined by simulations are mentioned.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 TEM analysis of a Cr/Sc + (B + C) multilayer stack consisting of five multilayers with different nominal periods. (a) cross-sectional bright field micrograph, presence of areas with nanocrystallites are marked white dotted lines, (b) SAED pattern of the entire multilayer stack and, (c) the dark field micrograph recorded by selecting the average (002) reflection in the growth direction. The crystalline areas appear in both bright filed and dark field images where B4C deposition was interrupted.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polarizing properties of Cr/Sc + 23.6 at.%(B + C) multilayer with Λ = 2.26 nm and N = 150. Bragg scans for s- and p-polarizing geometries (Rs, Rp) and extinction ratios (Rs/Rp) are shown. θB is the measured Brewster angle and at θm indicates maximum s-component of the reflectivity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Predicted reflectivity performance in the energy range 100 - 600 eV for Cr/Sc and Cr/Sc:B4C multilayers containing N = 600 periods and layer thickness ratios of 0.38. The interface widths used for the calculations are the same as those obtained in the reflectivity simulations in Fig. 1, i.e, σ = 0.348 nm for Cr/Sc and 0.259 nm for Cr/Sc:(B + C). The theoretical limit is indicated by a dashed line for an ideal Cr/Sc multilayer. *marks state-of-the-art reflectivity R = 8%, at 300 eV [19]
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Multilayer period variation as a function of B4C target power. Period (squares) is determined from HXR reflectivity IMD- simulations of multilayers deposited with varying power. Red line is linear fit to the data..
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Cross sectional TEM image of the Cr/Sc multilayer containing 23 at.% of B + C and exhibing 11.65% reflectivity at Sc edge. In the upper inset SAED magnified around the central electron beam is shown. The lower inset shows the high resolution image of the substrate and the bottom of the multilayer stack.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 ERDA results, (a) For Cr/Sc multilayer containing 23 at.% of B + C and exhibiting 11.65% reflectivity at Sc edge. (b) Depth resolved ERDA of Cr/Sc + B4C multilayer stack constituting five multilayers of different nominal periods.

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