Abstract

We present a coherent erbium fiber frequency comb that achieves low phase noise operation through the active suppression of amplitude fluctuations within the laser oscillator. The amplitude noise servo has a bandwidth of 550 kHz and is achieved by current actuation of the laser pump diode. This servo reduces the integrated phase noise of the carrier envelope offset frequency of the comb, fceo, due to the strong coupling of amplitude and phase noise in the laser oscillator. Additionally, we use a composite error signal that utilizes information from both the amplitude noise and the fceo error signal to actuate the pump diode current, which further increases the coherence of the comb. With this locking scheme, the integrated phase noise on fceo is measured to be 270 mrad from 10 Hz to 1.5 MHz, indicating 93% of the optical carrier power is in the coherent signal. A simultaneous phase lock to a narrow-linewidth continuous-wave laser is achieved by actuating on the cavity length, and shows an integrated phase noise of 44 mrad.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Full stabilization and characterization of an optical frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser with GHz repetition rate

Sargis Hakobyan, Valentin J. Wittwer, Pierre Brochard, Kutan Gürel, Stéphane Schilt, Aline S. Mayer, Ursula Keller, and Thomas Südmeyer
Opt. Express 25(17) 20437-20453 (2017)

Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye
Opt. Lett. 37(12) 2196-2198 (2012)

Carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization of a thin-disk laser oscillator operating in the strongly self-phase modulation broadened regime

Norbert Modsching, Clément Paradis, Pierre Brochard, Nayara Jornod, Kutan Gürel, Christian Kränkel, Stéphane Schilt, Valentin J. Wittwer, and Thomas Südmeyer
Opt. Express 26(22) 28461-28468 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Gill, “Optical Frequency Standards,” Metrologia 42(3), S125–S137 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Fehrenbacher, P. Sulzer, A. Liehl, T. Kälberer, C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Free-running performance and full control of a passively phase-stable Er:fiber frequency comb,” Optica 2(10), 917–923 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. T.-H. Wu, K. Kieu, N. Peyghambarian, and R. J. Jones, “Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5313–5318 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13769–13776 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C.-C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. Kuse, C.-C. Lee, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-low noise all polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs facilitated with a graphene modulator,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24342–24350 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 24(3), 3095–3102 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10622–10633 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Elimination of pump-induced frequency jitter on fiber-laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 1997–1999 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1756–1770 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5041–5054 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and I. Freitag, “Intensity-noise dependence of Nd:YAG lasers on their diode-laser pump source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(11), 2936–2945 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 24(3), 3095–3102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5041–5054 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10622–10633 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gill, “Optical Frequency Standards,” Metrologia 42(3), S125–S137 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, and I. Freitag, “Intensity-noise dependence of Nd:YAG lasers on their diode-laser pump source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(11), 2936–2945 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abgrall, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bachor, H.-A.

Barber, Z. W.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Benko, C.

Bergquist, J. C.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bethge, J.

Bize, S.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cingöz, A.

Clairon, A.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cleff, C.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobner, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Doubek, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eikema, K. S. E.

English, E. M. L.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fehrenbacher, D.

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freitag, I.

Gill, P.

P. Gill, “Optical Frequency Standards,” Metrologia 42(3), S125–S137 (2005).
[Crossref]

Giunta, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guéna, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harb, C. C.

Hartl, I.

Hati, A.

Haus, H. A.

S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

Hoogland, H.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hosaka, K.

Hoyt, C. W.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huntington, E. H.

Inaba, H.

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Iwakuni, K.

Jiang, H.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. J.

Jørgensen, C. G.

Jung, I. D.

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kälberer, T.

Kartner, F. X.

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K.

Kobayashi, T.

Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kundermann, S.

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuse, N.

Le Coq, Y.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lecomte, S.

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-C.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Liehl, A.

Lours, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marcinkevicius, A.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. J.

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mayer, P.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

McClelland, D. E.

McFerran, J. J.

Millo, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mohr, C.

Nakajima, Y.

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Onae, A.

Oskay, W. H.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5041–5054 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Portuondo-Campa, E.

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ralph, T. C.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riek, C.

Rieker, G. B.

Ruehl, A.

Santarelli, G.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

Schmid, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seletskiy, D. V.

Sinclair, L. C.

Steinmetz, T.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sulzer, P.

Suzuki, S.

Swann, W. C.

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tobar, M. E.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Wilpers, G.

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-H.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yost, D. C.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 743–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123(1), 41–47 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Namiki and H. A. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: part I—theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, S. A. Diddams, W. H. Oskay, and J. C. Bergquist, “Optical frequency/wavelength references,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S469–S495 (2005).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

P. Gill, “Optical Frequency Standards,” Metrologia 42(3), S125–S137 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

T.-H. Wu, K. Kieu, N. Peyghambarian, and R. J. Jones, “Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5313–5318 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13769–13776 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5041–5054 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10622–10633 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kuse, C.-C. Lee, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-low noise all polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs facilitated with a graphene modulator,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24342–24350 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 24(3), 3095–3102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic layout of laser system. SA, Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; BW, Brewster Window; HWP, half wave plate; EDF, erbium doped fiber; OC, output coupler; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; LD, 976 nm laser diode; PD, photodiode; RIN, relative intensity noise servo; Iso, optical isolator; HNLF, highly nonlinear fiber; CW, continuous wave, single mode laser; BPF, optical bandpass filter; PPLN, periodically-poled lithium niobate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) RINcomb vs RIN’, noisy regime. The dotted line (200 kHz) indicates end of pump limited intensity noise. (b) RINcomb vs RIN’, quiet regime. The dotted line (80 kHz) indicates end of pump limited intensity noise. (c) Measured intensity noise for both quiet and noisy regimes, as well as with the RIN servo active. (d) fceo with the RIN servo on and off (421 and 811 mrad r.m.s. phase noise respectively).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of RIN servo and fceo Frequency lock model. Δt, 50 ns line delay; PD, Photodetector; Syn., digital frequency synthesizer; PI, Proportional-Integral Amplifier; δt, 10 ns line delay; P, Proportional amplifier; LD, pump laser diode; Oscillator, laser oscillator. Dashed lines delineate subsystems of the system (feedback loops and the laser oscillator). (b) Model amplitude response of the frequency lock, RIN servo, and composite signal (c) Model phase response of the frequency lock, RIN servo, and composite signal showing the increased phase margin obtained by utilizing the RIN information.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Final measured in-loop RF spectrum of fceo (1 kHz RBW) (b) Measured Inloop RF spectra of fbeat with composite lock on and off (1 kHz RBW).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RIN'( ω )=H( ω )RI N pump ( ω )

Metrics