Abstract

We present our recent work on fibre-chip grating couplers operating around 1310 nm. For the first time, we demonstrate the combination of dual-etch and apodization design approaches which may achieve a coupling efficiency of 85% (−0.7 dB). Subwavelength structures were employed to modify the coupling strength of the grating. −1.9 dB efficiency was measured from a first set of fabricated structures.

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  1. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (2)

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R.-J. Essiambre, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and S. Randel, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: space-division multiplexing in multimode and multicore fibers for high-capacity optical communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0701307 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen and H. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Absil, P.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehe-Jones, T.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bafrali, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barkai, A.

Bedard, D.

Benedikovic, D.

Berroth, M.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and H. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chong, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dado, M.

Densmore, A.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and S. Randel, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: space-division multiplexing in multimode and multicore fibers for high-capacity optical communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0701307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Fontaine, N. K.

R.-J. Essiambre, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and S. Randel, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: space-division multiplexing in multimode and multicore fibers for high-capacity optical communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0701307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frish, H.

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Georgas, M.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

George, R.

Gualous, H.

Guan, H.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

Harel, O.

Hochberg, M.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, I.-W.

Janz, S.

Keyvaninia, S.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koster, A.

Kunze, A.

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

Layadi, A.

Lepage, G.

Letzkus, F.

Leu, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, S. M. G.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meade, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mehta, K.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, D.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Moss, B.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Na, N.

Nammari, K.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Novack, A.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Orobtchouk, R.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Pascal, D.

Popovic, M.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ram, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

R.-J. Essiambre, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and S. Randel, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: space-division multiplexing in multimode and multicore fibers for high-capacity optical communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0701307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Rong, H.

Ryf, R.

R.-J. Essiambre, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and S. Randel, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: space-division multiplexing in multimode and multicore fibers for high-capacity optical communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0701307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sandhu, G.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Selvaraja, S.

Selvaraja, S. K.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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Shainline, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, R.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sternberg, Z.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tehar-Zahav, O.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H.

X. Chen and H. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Vivien, L.

Vogel, W.

Wade, M.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Watts, M.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

Zaoui, W. S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y.-H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A monolithically-integrated chip-to-chip optical link in bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

R.-J. Essiambre, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and S. Randel, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: space-division multiplexing in multimode and multicore fibers for high-capacity optical communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0701307 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and H. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehe-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Grating Couplers Near 1310nm Fabricated by 248-nm DUV Lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) An illustration of the fabricated dual-etch apodised fibre-chip grating couplers. (b) A detailed illustration of the subwavelength structures in the front part of the grating coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross-section (side-view) of dual-etch grating couplers with interleaved trenches of 70nm and 120nm depth. (b) Cross-section (side-view) of dual-etch grating couplers with trenches of 70nm and 190nm depth, which can achieve better directionality. This design is fabricated and experimentally characterized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated directionality of the grating coupler for various fill factors for the deep-etched trenches f1 and fill factors for the shallow-etched trenches f2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coupling strength and grating period versus lateral fill factor fy for coupling at 1310nm wavelength with f1 = 0.2 and f2 = 0.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated coupling efficiency of the apodized dual-etch subwavelength grating coupler and a uniform dual-etch subwavelength grating coupler with fy = 0.65.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM image of a typical dual-etch apodised grating coupler.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured coupling efficiency for the dual-etch apodised grating coupler. The simulation result (in dB scale) was plotted for reference.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detailed design parameters for the optimised dual-etch subwavelength grating coupler. The coupling strength α was apodised along x-axis by adjusting fy with f1 = 0.2 and f2 = 0.5.

Equations (1)

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α ( x ) = G 2 ( x ) 2 ( 1 0 z G 2 ( t ) d t )

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