Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the use of deep neural networks (DNNs) in combination with signals’ amplitude histograms (AHs) for simultaneous optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring and modulation format identification (MFI) in digital coherent receivers. The proposed technique automatically extracts OSNR and modulation format dependent features of AHs, obtained after constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalization, and exploits them for the joint estimation of these parameters. Experimental results for 112 Gbps polarization-multiplexed (PM) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 112 Gbps PM 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), and 240 Gbps PM 64-QAM signals demonstrate OSNR monitoring with mean estimation errors of 1.2 dB, 0.4 dB, and 1 dB, respectively. Similarly, the results for MFI show 100% identification accuracy for all three modulation formats. The proposed technique applies deep machine learning algorithms inside standard digital coherent receiver and does not require any additional hardware. Therefore, it is attractive for cost-effective multi-parameter estimation in next-generation elastic optical networks (EONs).

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation in multipath fading channels using deep machine learning,” IET Electron. Lett. 52(14), 1272–1274 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

P. Isautier, K. Mehta, A. J. Stark, and S. E. Ralph, “Robust architecture for autonomous coherent optical receivers,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(9), 864–874 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, “Demonstration of in-service wavelength division multiplexing optical-signal-to-noise ratio performance monitoring and operating guidelines for coherent data channels with different modulation formats and various baud rates,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1605–1608 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 7800109 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Bengio, A. Courville, and P. Vincent, “Representation learning: a review and new perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35(8), 1798–1828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “OSNR monitoring for QPSK and 16-QAM systems in presence of fiber nonlinearities for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19520–19534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1291–1294 (2012).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1164–1178 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Bengio, “Learning deep architectures for AI,” Found. Trends Mach. Learn. 2(1), 1–127 (2009).
[Crossref]

Al-Arashi, W. H.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Almaiman, A.

Anderson, T. B.

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ardakani, A.

A. Ardakani, C. Condo, and W. J. Gross, “Sparsely-connected neural networks: towards efficient VLSI implementation of deep neural networks,” in Proc. International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR, 2017).

Arlunno, V.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Azodolmolky, S.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bengio, Y.

Y. Bengio, A. Courville, and P. Vincent, “Representation learning: a review and new perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35(8), 1798–1828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bengio, “Learning deep architectures for AI,” Found. Trends Mach. Learn. 2(1), 1–127 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bilal, S. M.

Borkowski, R.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bosco, G.

Caballero, A.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Careglio, D.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Condo, C.

A. Ardakani, C. Condo, and W. J. Gross, “Sparsely-connected neural networks: towards efficient VLSI implementation of deep neural networks,” in Proc. International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR, 2017).

Courville, A.

Y. Bengio, A. Courville, and P. Vincent, “Representation learning: a review and new perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35(8), 1798–1828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daab, W.

Do, C.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faruk, M. S.

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 7800109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gross, W. J.

A. Ardakani, C. Condo, and W. J. Gross, “Sparsely-connected neural networks: towards efficient VLSI implementation of deep neural networks,” in Proc. International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR, 2017).

Hewitt, D.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Isautier, P.

P. Isautier, K. Mehta, A. J. Stark, and S. E. Ralph, “Robust architecture for autonomous coherent optical receivers,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(9), 864–874 (2015).
[Crossref]

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khaleghi, S.

Khan, F. N.

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation in multipath fading channels using deep machine learning,” IET Electron. Lett. 52(14), 1272–1274 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Kikuchi, K.

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 7800109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lau, A. P. T.

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation in multipath fading channels using deep machine learning,” IET Electron. Lett. 52(14), 1272–1274 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “OSNR monitoring for QPSK and 16-QAM systems in presence of fiber nonlinearities for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19520–19534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1291–1294 (2012).

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Lu, C.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation in multipath fading channels using deep machine learning,” IET Electron. Lett. 52(14), 1272–1274 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
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Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “OSNR monitoring for QPSK and 16-QAM systems in presence of fiber nonlinearities for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19520–19534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Mehta, K.

P. Isautier, K. Mehta, A. J. Stark, and S. E. Ralph, “Robust architecture for autonomous coherent optical receivers,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(9), 864–874 (2015).
[Crossref]

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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Monroy, I. T.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mori, Y.

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 7800109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Palkopoulou, E.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. Isautier, K. Mehta, A. J. Stark, and S. E. Ralph, “Robust architecture for autonomous coherent optical receivers,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(9), 864–874 (2015).
[Crossref]

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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, T. S. R.

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1291–1294 (2012).

Skafidas, E.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sole-Pareta, J.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stark, A. J.

P. Isautier, K. Mehta, A. J. Stark, and S. E. Ralph, “Robust architecture for autonomous coherent optical receivers,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(9), 864–874 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sui, Q.

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1291–1294 (2012).

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Tam, H.-Y.

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Tomkos, I.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Touch, J. D.

Tran, A. V.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
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Wai, P. K. A.

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
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Yu, C.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

Zhao, W.

Zhong, K.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, C.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zibar, D.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Found. Trends Mach. Learn. (1)

Y. Bengio, “Learning deep architectures for AI,” Found. Trends Mach. Learn. 2(1), 1–127 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

P. Isautier, K. Mehta, A. J. Stark, and S. E. Ralph, “Robust architecture for autonomous coherent optical receivers,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(9), 864–874 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1164–1178 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 7800109 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, T. B. Anderson, J. C. Li, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Simultaneous and independent OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using empirical moments of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1340–1350 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1291–1294 (2012).

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

Y. Bengio, A. Courville, and P. Vincent, “Representation learning: a review and new perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35(8), 1798–1828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

IET Electron. Lett. (1)

F. N. Khan, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation in multipath fading channels using deep machine learning,” IET Electron. Lett. 52(14), 1272–1274 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Sole-Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: state of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Oda, J. Y. Yang, Y. Akasaka, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “In-band OSNR monitor using an optical bandpass filter and optical power measurements for superchannel signals,” in Proc. European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper P.3.12.
[Crossref]

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), paper P6.11.
[Crossref]

A. S. Ahsan, M. S. Wang, M. R. Chitgarha, D. C. Kilper, A. E. Willner, and K. Bergman, “Autonomous OSNR monitoring and cross-Layer control in a mixed bit-rate and modulation format system using pilot tones,” in Proc. Advanced Photon. Comm. (APC, 2014), paper NT4C.3.

L. Lundberg, H. Sunnerud, and P. Johannisson, “In-band OSNR monitoring of PM-QPSK using the Stokes parameters,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC, 2015), paper W4D. 5.
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F. N. Khan, Z. Dong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring for fiber-optic communication networks,” in Enabling Technologies for High Spectral-Efficiency Coherent Optical Communication Networks, X. Zhou and C. Xie, eds. (Wiley, 2016), Chap. 14.

C. K. Chan, Optical Performance Monitoring (Academic, 2010).

C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, J. Zhao, Z. Li, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Optical performance monitoring techniques for high capacity optical networks,” in Proc. International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2010), pp. 678−681.

A. Ardakani, F. L. -Primeau, N. Onizawa, T. Hanyu, and W. J. Gross, “VLSI implementation of deep neural network using integral stochastic computing,” IEEE Transactions on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems (to be published).

F. O. -Zamorano, J. M. Jerez, I. Gómez, and L. Franco, “Deep neural network architecture implementation on FPGAs using a layer multiplexing scheme,” in Proc. International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence (DCAI, 2016), pp. 79−86.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 DSP configuraion used in the receiver with the proposed OSNR monitoring and MFI stage highlighted in red colour.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AHs for three different OSNRs for QPSK (first row), 16-QAM (second row), and 64-QAM (third row) signals after CMA equalization.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 DNNs with bin-count vectors x as inputs and estimated modulation formats/OSNRs as outputs. During testing, a suitable DNN-OSNR is chosen based on identified modulation format for the given input vector x.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for joint OSNR monitroing and MFI in coherent receivers using DNNs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Elements of output vectors v1 for (a) QPSK, (b) 16-QAM, and (c) 64-QAM modulation formats when 57 vectors x belonging to testing data set are applied at DNN-MFI’s input.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 True versus estimated OSNRs for (a) QPSK, (b) 16-QAM, and (c) 64-QAM signals using the proposed technique.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Identification accuracies for different modulation formats using the proposed technique.

Metrics