Abstract

Light extraction efficiency significantly affects the final performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLED) devices. Surface engineering of the substrate has been proved to be an effective method to increase the light extraction efficiency. However, a facile, low cost, and scalable process to modify the QLED substrate’s surface remains a perpetual topic, which calls for further study. We herein use the wet chemical etching process to roughen the substrate’s surface, and a “multi-pits” like exit surface is formed. These “multi-pits” act as scattering centers that benefits homogeneity of the output light. On the other hand, they also give a rise in output coupling efficiency by inhibiting light propagation of the internally generated photons, owing to the suppressed optical waveguide mode. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of QLED with a roughened surface shows a 12% increase in maximum value, and over 2.2 fold increase at a high driving voltage than that without surface roughening.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. L. Sun, J. J. Choi, D. Stachnik, A. C. Bartnik, B. R. Hyun, G. G. Malliaras, T. Hanrath, and F. W. Wise, “Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 369–373 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Bozyigit, O. Yarema, and V. Wood, “Origins of Low Quantum Efficiencies in Quantum Dot LEDs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(24), 3024–3029 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Yang, L. Qian, P. Holloway, and J. Xue, “High Efficiency Light-Emitting Devices based on Quantum Dots,” Nat. Photonics 9, 259–266 (2015).
  7. J. Li, L. Xu, T. Wang, J. Song, J. Chen, J. Xue, Y. Dong, B. Cai, Q. Shan, B. Han, and H. Zeng, “50-Fold EQE Improvement up to 6.27% of Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via Surface Ligand Density Control,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 27882606 (2017).
  8. X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
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  13. X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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  14. J. R. Manders, L. Qian, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. Tokarz-Scott, K. P. Acharya, Y. Yang, W. Cao, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “High efficiency and ultra-wide color gamut quantum dot LEDs for next generation displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(11), 523–528 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, and H. Yang, “Performance Improvement of Quantum Dot-Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by an Alloyed ZnMgO Nanoparticle Electron Transport Layer,” Chem. Mater. 27(1), 197–204 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9019–9026 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S. T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of Colloidal Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Using Large-Scale Nanopillar Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Do, J. Oh, D. Choi, and K. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from green quantum dot light-emitting diodes by attaching microstructure arrayed films,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 1 (2015).
  24. C. Huh, K.-S. Lee, E.-J. Kang, and S.-J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of thep-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. A. C. M. Spierings and J. van Dijk, “The dissolution of Na2O-MgO-CaO-SiO2 glass in aqueous HF solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 22(5), 1869–1874 (1987).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

J. Li, L. Xu, T. Wang, J. Song, J. Chen, J. Xue, Y. Dong, B. Cai, Q. Shan, B. Han, and H. Zeng, “50-Fold EQE Improvement up to 6.27% of Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via Surface Ligand Density Control,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 27882606 (2017).

2015 (6)

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Yang, L. Qian, P. Holloway, and J. Xue, “High Efficiency Light-Emitting Devices based on Quantum Dots,” Nat. Photonics 9, 259–266 (2015).

J. R. Manders, L. Qian, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. Tokarz-Scott, K. P. Acharya, Y. Yang, W. Cao, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “High efficiency and ultra-wide color gamut quantum dot LEDs for next generation displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(11), 523–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, and H. Yang, “Performance Improvement of Quantum Dot-Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by an Alloyed ZnMgO Nanoparticle Electron Transport Layer,” Chem. Mater. 27(1), 197–204 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Do, J. Oh, D. Choi, and K. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from green quantum dot light-emitting diodes by attaching microstructure arrayed films,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 1 (2015).

2014 (5)

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S. T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of Colloidal Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Using Large-Scale Nanopillar Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Bozyigit, O. Yarema, and V. Wood, “Origins of Low Quantum Efficiencies in Quantum Dot LEDs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(24), 3024–3029 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9019–9026 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. Sun, J. J. Choi, D. Stachnik, A. C. Bartnik, B. R. Hyun, G. G. Malliaras, T. Hanrath, and F. W. Wise, “Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. Huh, K.-S. Lee, E.-J. Kang, and S.-J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of thep-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

G. A. C. M. Spierings and J. van Dijk, “The dissolution of Na2O-MgO-CaO-SiO2 glass in aqueous HF solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 22(5), 1869–1874 (1987).
[Crossref]

Acharya, K. P.

J. R. Manders, L. Qian, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. Tokarz-Scott, K. P. Acharya, Y. Yang, W. Cao, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “High efficiency and ultra-wide color gamut quantum dot LEDs for next generation displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(11), 523–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ai, N.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

An, K.-S.

J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, and H. Yang, “Performance Improvement of Quantum Dot-Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by an Alloyed ZnMgO Nanoparticle Electron Transport Layer,” Chem. Mater. 27(1), 197–204 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anikeeva, P. O.

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, W. K.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9019–9026 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartnik, A. C.

L. Sun, J. J. Choi, D. Stachnik, A. C. Bartnik, B. R. Hyun, G. G. Malliaras, T. Hanrath, and F. W. Wise, “Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bozyigit, D.

D. Bozyigit, O. Yarema, and V. Wood, “Origins of Low Quantum Efficiencies in Quantum Dot LEDs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(24), 3024–3029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Breen, C.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cai, B.

J. Li, L. Xu, T. Wang, J. Song, J. Chen, J. Xue, Y. Dong, B. Cai, Q. Shan, B. Han, and H. Zeng, “50-Fold EQE Improvement up to 6.27% of Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via Surface Ligand Density Control,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 27882606 (2017).

Cao, H.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

J. R. Manders, L. Qian, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. Tokarz-Scott, K. P. Acharya, Y. Yang, W. Cao, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “High efficiency and ultra-wide color gamut quantum dot LEDs for next generation displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(11), 523–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Yang, L. Qian, P. Holloway, and J. Xue, “High Efficiency Light-Emitting Devices based on Quantum Dots,” Nat. Photonics 9, 259–266 (2015).

Cao, Y.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Char, K.

J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9019–9026 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Li, L. Xu, T. Wang, J. Song, J. Chen, J. Xue, Y. Dong, B. Cai, Q. Shan, B. Han, and H. Zeng, “50-Fold EQE Improvement up to 6.27% of Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via Surface Ligand Density Control,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 27882606 (2017).

Chen, L.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, H.

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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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Y. Do, J. Oh, D. Choi, and K. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from green quantum dot light-emitting diodes by attaching microstructure arrayed films,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 1 (2015).

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
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J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, and H. Yang, “Performance Improvement of Quantum Dot-Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by an Alloyed ZnMgO Nanoparticle Electron Transport Layer,” Chem. Mater. 27(1), 197–204 (2015).
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H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
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Luo, Z.

Malliaras, G. G.

L. Sun, J. J. Choi, D. Stachnik, A. C. Bartnik, B. R. Hyun, G. G. Malliaras, T. Hanrath, and F. W. Wise, “Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 369–373 (2012).
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W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Yang, L. Qian, P. Holloway, and J. Xue, “High Efficiency Light-Emitting Devices based on Quantum Dots,” Nat. Photonics 9, 259–266 (2015).

J. R. Manders, L. Qian, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. Tokarz-Scott, K. P. Acharya, Y. Yang, W. Cao, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “High efficiency and ultra-wide color gamut quantum dot LEDs for next generation displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(11), 523–528 (2015).
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W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Yang, L. Qian, P. Holloway, and J. Xue, “High Efficiency Light-Emitting Devices based on Quantum Dots,” Nat. Photonics 9, 259–266 (2015).

J. R. Manders, L. Qian, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. Tokarz-Scott, K. P. Acharya, Y. Yang, W. Cao, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “High efficiency and ultra-wide color gamut quantum dot LEDs for next generation displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(11), 523–528 (2015).
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X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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Zhou, J.

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Zhou, Z.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
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Zhu, R.

ACS Nano (3)

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9019–9026 (2013).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Wet etching process used to roughen the glass surface of ITO/glass substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3D interferometric morphology images of etched glass surface for 0, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 min, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Morphology image of etched glass surface for 5-min. (a)The top view interferometric profile image, and (b) cross-section of the interferometric profile corresponding to the blue line of (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images (a), XRD pattern (b) and the absorption and emission spectra (c) of CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image and schematic device structre of surface roughened QLEDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The light has (a) three escape modes for surface roughened QLED and (b) two escape modes for conventional QLED in glass substrate.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Illuminance maps (a), polar candela distribution plots (b) and the ratios of different light propagation modes (c) for conventional QLED and surface roughened QLED devices.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The relation between QLED performance and driving voltage. (a) The EQE-voltage characteristics, (b) the luminance-voltage characteristics, (c) the current density-voltage characteristics, (d) the EL-voltage characteristics of surface roughened QLED, (e) the EL-voltage characteristics of conventional QLED, and (f) the wavelength shift-voltage characteristics.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The measurement approach and properties of QD films. (a) The schematic diagram of measuring approach of QD film samples, (b) the PL spectrum of the excitation source, blue LED, (c) the relation between luminous flux and driving current for the blue LED, (d) PL spectra of the QD film for untreated ITO glass and (e) PL spectra of the QD film for treated ITO glass under different excitation intensities.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 2D roughness parameters

Equations (1)

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λ = a + b V

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