Abstract

We employed a patterned current blocking layer (CBL) to enhance light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) was used to form patterned CBLs (a diameter of 260 nm, a period of 600, and a height of 180 nm). LEDs (chip size: 300 × 800 µm2) fabricated with no CBL, a conventional SiO2 CBL, and a patterned SiO2 CBL, respectively, exhibited forward-bias voltages of 3.02, 3.1 and 3.1 V at an injection current of 20 mA. The LEDs without and with CBLs gave series resistances of 9.8 and 11.0 Ω, respectively. The LEDs with a patterned SiO2 CBL yielded 39.6 and 11.9% higher light output powers at 20 mA, respectively, than the LEDs with no CBL and conventional SiO2 CBL. On the basis of emission images and angular transmittance results, the patterned CBL-induced output enhancement is attributed to the enhanced light extraction and current spreading.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  3. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).
  20. H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Enhancement of Light Output Power of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by a Reflective Current Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 986–988 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. J.-S. Park, J. Han, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 83, 361–366 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. M. Hessel, E. J. Henderson, and J. G. C. Veinot, “Hydrogen Silsesquioxane: A Molecular Precursor for Nanocrystalline Si-SiO2 Composites and Freestanding Hydride-surface-terminated silicon nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6139–6146 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  31. J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J.-S. Park, J. Han, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 83, 361–366 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, Y.-T. Moon, S. K. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, “High efficiency and ESD of GaN-based LEDs with patterned ion-damaged current blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 149–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Enhancement of Light Output Power of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by a Reflective Current Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 986–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W.-L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39(1), 155–180 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: An old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. M. Hessel, E. J. Henderson, and J. G. C. Veinot, “Hydrogen Silsesquioxane: A Molecular Precursor for Nanocrystalline Si-SiO2 Composites and Freestanding Hydride-surface-terminated silicon nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6139–6146 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).

2001 (1)

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bae, D.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. R.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-C.

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chiou, Y. Z.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-O.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, J. H.

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. K.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. J.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Costner, E. A.

E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W.-L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39(1), 155–180 (2009).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
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S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.-M.

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J.-S. Park, J. Han, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 83, 361–366 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Henderson, E. J.

C. M. Hessel, E. J. Henderson, and J. G. C. Veinot, “Hydrogen Silsesquioxane: A Molecular Precursor for Nanocrystalline Si-SiO2 Composites and Freestanding Hydride-surface-terminated silicon nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6139–6146 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hessel, C. M.

C. M. Hessel, E. J. Henderson, and J. G. C. Veinot, “Hydrogen Silsesquioxane: A Molecular Precursor for Nanocrystalline Si-SiO2 Composites and Freestanding Hydride-surface-terminated silicon nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6139–6146 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hong, H.-G.

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsu, J.-T.

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. K.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).

Hung, I.-H.

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. M.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Im, J. S.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jen, W.-L.

E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W.-L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39(1), 155–180 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H. H.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-H.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y. K.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jou, M. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Enhancement of Light Output Power of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by a Reflective Current Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 986–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-J.

C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).

Kim, D.-Y.

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. G.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-Y.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-K.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-S.

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ko, T. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwak, J. S.

K. H. Lee, Y.-T. Moon, S. K. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, “High efficiency and ESD of GaN-based LEDs with patterned ion-damaged current blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 149–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kweon, H.-S.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, M.-K.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-M.

C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, Y.-T. Moon, S. K. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, “High efficiency and ESD of GaN-based LEDs with patterned ion-damaged current blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 149–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-D.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-N.

H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Enhancement of Light Output Power of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by a Reflective Current Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 986–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. W.

E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W.-L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39(1), 155–180 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mitani, T.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, D.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, Y.-T.

K. H. Lee, Y.-T. Moon, S. K. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, “High efficiency and ESD of GaN-based LEDs with patterned ion-damaged current blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 149–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Na, J.-Y.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Niki, I.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. K.

K. H. Lee, Y.-T. Moon, S. K. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, “High efficiency and ESD of GaN-based LEDs with patterned ion-damaged current blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 149–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, S.-M.

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, E. H.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-S.

J.-S. Park, J. Han, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 83, 361–366 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, Q.-H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).

Park, Y.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, N.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piccardo, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roh, Y.-G.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schift, H.

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: An old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seo, M.-K.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seong, T.-Y.

J.-S. Park, J. Han, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 83, 361–366 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shei, S. C.

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, C. F.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shioji, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sonabe, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-H.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.-O.

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Enhancement of Light Output Power of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by a Reflective Current Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 986–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-A.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tu, R.-C.

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

Veinot, J. G. C.

C. M. Hessel, E. J. Henderson, and J. G. C. Veinot, “Hydrogen Silsesquioxane: A Molecular Precursor for Nanocrystalline Si-SiO2 Composites and Freestanding Hydride-surface-terminated silicon nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6139–6146 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

Wang, S. C.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Willson, C. G.

E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W.-L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39(1), 155–180 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

Yang, C.-C.

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-P.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, R.-C.

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yen, C.-C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, E.

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K. H.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

Zhang, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

Zhao, Y.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Acta Mater. (1)

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

E. A. Costner, M. W. Lin, W.-L. Jen, and C. G. Willson, “Nanoimprint lithography materials development for semiconductor device fabrication,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39(1), 155–180 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C. Huh, J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 2248–2250 (2002).

J. K. Sheu, I.-H. Hung, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, and M. L. Lee, “Enhancement in output power of blue gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with omnidirectional metal reflector under electrode pads,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103507 (2008).
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H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Metallization contacts to nonpolar a-plane n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032105 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 062103 (2005).
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H.-G. Hong, S.-S. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, T. Lee, J.-O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 014314 (2008).

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. M. Hessel, E. J. Henderson, and J. G. C. Veinot, “Hydrogen Silsesquioxane: A Molecular Precursor for Nanocrystalline Si-SiO2 Composites and Freestanding Hydride-surface-terminated silicon nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 18(26), 6139–6146 (2006).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (2)

H. H. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, Y. K. Jeong, K. K. Choi, J.-O. Song, Y.-H. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improvement of the light output power of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes by a current blocking layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(7), H237–H239 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, T. K. Ko, C. T. Kuo, K. H. Yu, S. C. Shei, and Y. Z. Chiou, “Nitride-Based LEDs with an Insulating SiO2 Layer Underneath p-Pad Electrodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), H175–H177 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

S.-M. Pan, R.-C. Tu, Y.-M. Fan, R.-C. Yeh, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured ITO transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

M.-A. Tsai, P. Yu, J. R. Chen, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Wang, “Improving light output power of the GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by Mg+ implanted current blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(11), 688–690 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Enhancement of Light Output Power of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by a Reflective Current Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 986–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, Y.-T. Moon, S. K. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, “High efficiency and ESD of GaN-based LEDs with patterned ion-damaged current blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 149–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: An old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonabe, K. Deduchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

J.-J. Kim, J. Lee, S.-P. Yang, H. G. Kim, H.-S. Kweon, S. Yoo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2994–3000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Moon, D. Moon, J. Jang, J.-Y. Na, J.-H. Song, M.-K. Seo, S. Kim, D. Bae, E. H. Park, Y. Park, S.-K. Kim, and E. Yoon, “Microstructured air cavities as high-index contrast substrates with strong diffraction for light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3301–3308 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. H. Kim, K.-D. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, and S.-J. Park, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055306 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

J.-S. Park, J. Han, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 83, 361–366 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of an LED with a patterned SiO2 CBL. (b) A plan-view SEM image of NIL-patterned SiO2 layer on p-GaN. Inset in (b) shows a cross-section image.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of blue (440 nm) LEDs with and without CBLs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Light output-current (L-I) properties and (b) EL spectra of LEDs fabricated with and without CBLs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plan-view emission images obtained from LEDs with (a) no CBL, (b) conventional SiO2 CBL, and (c) patterned SiO2 CBL. The images taken at 0.3 mA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Typical camera images showing light incident into and reflected from planar and patterned SiO2 structures for θ = 45°. (b) Measured angular transmittance of four structures.

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