Abstract

We have developed a tabletop intense broadband terahertz (THz) source in the medium frequency range (≤ 20 THz) based on the interaction of a high-intensity femtosecond laser with solid targets at relativistic laser intensities. When an unpolished copper target is irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser, a maximum of ~2.2 μJ of THz pulse energy is collected and detected with a calibrated pyroelectric detector. The THz spectrum was measured by using a series of bandpass filters, showing a bandwidth of ~7.8 THz full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with a peak at ~6 THz. With tight focusing to reach high field strengths, we have demonstrated THz nonlinearity exemplified by THz absorption bleaching in a heavily n-doped InGaAs thin film, which enabled us to estimate the peak electric field of the THz pulses. We simulated the experimentally observed bleaching by employing a THz pulse having a bandwidth similar to that measured in our experiments and a temporal profile recoded in single-shot electro-optic detection. Through the simulations, we estimate a peak electric field associated with the THz pulses to be 2.5 MV/cm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (2)

S. Mondal, Q. Wei, W. J. Ding, H. A. Hafez, M. A. Fareed, A. Laramée, X. Ropagnol, G. Zhang, S. Sun, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zhang, and T. Ozaki, “Aligned copper nanorod arrays for highly efficient generation of intense ultra-broadband THz pulses,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40058 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Balakin, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. N. Esaulkov, I. A. Zhvaniya, K. A. Ivanov, I. A. Kotelnikov, N. A. Kuzechkin, I. A. Ozheredov, V. Y. Panchenko, A. B. Savelev, M. B. Smirnov, P. M. Solyankin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Interaction of high-intensity femtosecond radiation with gas cluster beam: effect of pulse duration on joint terahertz and x-ray emission,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(1), 70–79 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, C. Li, S. Mondal, H. A. Hafez, M. A. Fareed, T. Ozaki, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Terahertz emission from two-plasmon-decay induced transient currents in laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 23(1), 013104 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. J. Ding and Z. M. Sheng, “Sub GV/cm terahertz radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions via coherent transition radiation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 93(6), 063204 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, Y. H. Zhang, H. Liu, X. L. Ge, S. Yang, W. Q. Wei, X. H. Yuan, Y. Q. Deng, B. J. Zhu, Z. Zhang, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, L. M. Chen, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Demonstration of coherent terahertz transition radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 205003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Hafez, X. Chai, A. Ibrahim, S. Mondal, D. Férachou, X. Ropagnol, and T. Ozaki, “Intense terahertz radiation and their applications,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093004 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

A. Poyé, S. Hulin, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. L. Dubois, J. Ribolzi, D. Raffestin, M. Bardon, F. Lubrano-Lavaderci, E. D’Humières, J. J. Santos, P. Nicolaï, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Physics of giant electromagnetic pulse generation in short-pulse laser experiments,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(4), 043106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, C. Li, L. N. Su, Y. Zheng, M. Liu, W. M. Wang, Z. D. Hu, W. C. Yan, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. Hunter, Y. Liu, X. Wang, L. M. Chen, J. L. Ma, X. Lu, Z. Jin, R. Kodama, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Bursts of terahertz radiation from large-scale plasmas irradiated by relativistic picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 255001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Hafez, I. Al-Naib, M. M. Dignam, Y. Sekine, K. Oguri, F. Blanchard, D. G. Cooke, S. Tanaka, F. Komori, H. Hibino, and T. Ozaki, “Nonlinear terahertz field-induced carrier dynamics in photoexcited epitaxial monolayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 91(3), 035422 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Chen and A. Pukhov, “High field terahertz emission from relativistic laser-driven plasma wakefields,” Phys. Plasmas 22(10), 103105 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Shalaby and C. P. Hauri, “Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

Z. Wu, A. S. Fisher, J. Goodfellow, M. Fuchs, D. Daranciang, M. Hogan, H. Loos, and A. Lindenberg, “Intense terahertz pulses from SLAC electron beams using coherent transition radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 022701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gopal, P. Singh, S. Herzer, A. Reinhard, A. Schmidt, U. Dillner, T. May, H. G. Meyer, W. Ziegler, and G. G. Paulus, “Characterization of 700 μJ T rays generated during high-power laser solid interaction,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4705–4707 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Ding, Z. M. Sheng, and W. S. Koh, “High-field half-cycle terahertz radiation from relativistic laser interaction with thin solid targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204107 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gopal, S. Herzer, A. Schmidt, P. Singh, A. Reinhard, W. Ziegler, D. Brömmel, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, U. Dillner, T. May, H.-G. Meyer, and G. G. Paulus, “Observation of Gigawatt-Class THz Pulses from a Compact Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 074802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Macchi, M. Borghesi, and M. Passoni, “Ion acceleration by superintense laser-plasma interaction,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(2), 751–793 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, G. Lambert, R. Fitour, V. Malka, A. Rousse, A. Beck, and E. Lefebvre, “Femtosecond x rays from laser-plasma accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(1), 1–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

I. Grguraš, A. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, X. Ropagnol, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, and T. Ozaki, “Improved terahertz two-color plasma sources pumped by high intensity laser beam,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6044–6052 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2767–2769 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear Optics, and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
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V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser–plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys. 4(6), 447–453 (2008).
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2007 (3)

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, “Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laser–plasma interactions,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 58–62 (2007).
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X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141104 (2007).
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K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
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2005 (2)

Z. M. Sheng, K. Mima, and J. Zhang, “Powerful terahertz emission from laser wake fields excited in inhomogeneous plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 12(12), 123103 (2005).
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Z. M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, “Emission of electromagnetic pulses from laser wakefields through linear mode conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(9), 095003 (2005).
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2004 (1)

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
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2002 (3)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
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M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
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G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature 420(6912), 153–156 (2002).
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1999 (1)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
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1998 (1)

H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonequilibrium electrons in a gold nanoparticle system,” Phys. Rev. B 57(18), 11334–11340 (1998).
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1995 (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
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1994 (1)

J. C. Kieffer and M. Chaker, “X-ray sources based on subpicosecond-laser-produced plasmas,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 4(4), 312–322 (1994).
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1993 (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, “Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(17), 2725–2728 (1993).
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1985 (1)

S. R. Ahmed, B. R. Nag, and M. D. Roy, “Hot-electron transport in In0.53Ga0.47As,” Solid-State Electron. 28(12), 1193–1197 (1985).
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Ahmed, S. R.

S. R. Ahmed, B. R. Nag, and M. D. Roy, “Hot-electron transport in In0.53Ga0.47As,” Solid-State Electron. 28(12), 1193–1197 (1985).
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Almási, G.

Al-Naib, I.

H. A. Hafez, I. Al-Naib, M. M. Dignam, Y. Sekine, K. Oguri, F. Blanchard, D. G. Cooke, S. Tanaka, F. Komori, H. Hibino, and T. Ozaki, “Nonlinear terahertz field-induced carrier dynamics in photoexcited epitaxial monolayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 91(3), 035422 (2015).
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Andreoli, P. L.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
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Ayesheshim, A.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
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Bailly-Grandvaux, M.

A. Poyé, S. Hulin, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. L. Dubois, J. Ribolzi, D. Raffestin, M. Bardon, F. Lubrano-Lavaderci, E. D’Humières, J. J. Santos, P. Nicolaï, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Physics of giant electromagnetic pulse generation in short-pulse laser experiments,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(4), 043106 (2015).
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Balakin, A. V.

A. V. Balakin, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. N. Esaulkov, I. A. Zhvaniya, K. A. Ivanov, I. A. Kotelnikov, N. A. Kuzechkin, I. A. Ozheredov, V. Y. Panchenko, A. B. Savelev, M. B. Smirnov, P. M. Solyankin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Interaction of high-intensity femtosecond radiation with gas cluster beam: effect of pulse duration on joint terahertz and x-ray emission,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(1), 70–79 (2017).
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Bandulet, H. C.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
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Bardon, M.

A. Poyé, S. Hulin, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. L. Dubois, J. Ribolzi, D. Raffestin, M. Bardon, F. Lubrano-Lavaderci, E. D’Humières, J. J. Santos, P. Nicolaï, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Physics of giant electromagnetic pulse generation in short-pulse laser experiments,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(4), 043106 (2015).
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Beck, A.

S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, G. Lambert, R. Fitour, V. Malka, A. Rousse, A. Beck, and E. Lefebvre, “Femtosecond x rays from laser-plasma accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(1), 1–48 (2013).
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Behrens, C.

I. Grguraš, A. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 852–857 (2012).
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Blanchard, F.

H. A. Hafez, I. Al-Naib, M. M. Dignam, Y. Sekine, K. Oguri, F. Blanchard, D. G. Cooke, S. Tanaka, F. Komori, H. Hibino, and T. Ozaki, “Nonlinear terahertz field-induced carrier dynamics in photoexcited epitaxial monolayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 91(3), 035422 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, X. Ropagnol, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, and T. Ozaki, “Improved terahertz two-color plasma sources pumped by high intensity laser beam,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6044–6052 (2009).
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Borghesi, M.

A. Macchi, M. Borghesi, and M. Passoni, “Ion acceleration by superintense laser-plasma interaction,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(2), 751–793 (2013).
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Brömmel, D.

A. Gopal, S. Herzer, A. Schmidt, P. Singh, A. Reinhard, W. Ziegler, D. Brömmel, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, U. Dillner, T. May, H.-G. Meyer, and G. G. Paulus, “Observation of Gigawatt-Class THz Pulses from a Compact Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 074802 (2013).
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Budzyn, F.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Burgy, F.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, G. L.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature 420(6912), 153–156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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Cavalieri, A. L.

I. Grguraš, A. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 852–857 (2012).
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Chai, X.

H. A. Hafez, X. Chai, A. Ibrahim, S. Mondal, D. Férachou, X. Ropagnol, and T. Ozaki, “Intense terahertz radiation and their applications,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093004 (2016).
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Chaker, M.

J. C. Kieffer and M. Chaker, “X-ray sources based on subpicosecond-laser-produced plasmas,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 4(4), 312–322 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. M.

G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, Y. H. Zhang, H. Liu, X. L. Ge, S. Yang, W. Q. Wei, X. H. Yuan, Y. Q. Deng, B. J. Zhu, Z. Zhang, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, L. M. Chen, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Demonstration of coherent terahertz transition radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 205003 (2016).
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G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, C. Li, L. N. Su, Y. Zheng, M. Liu, W. M. Wang, Z. D. Hu, W. C. Yan, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. Hunter, Y. Liu, X. Wang, L. M. Chen, J. L. Ma, X. Lu, Z. Jin, R. Kodama, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Bursts of terahertz radiation from large-scale plasmas irradiated by relativistic picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 255001 (2015).
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Chen, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Chen and A. Pukhov, “High field terahertz emission from relativistic laser-driven plasma wakefields,” Phys. Plasmas 22(10), 103105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cipriani, M.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, R. J.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, “Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laser–plasma interactions,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 58–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consoli, F.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
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Cooke, D. G.

H. A. Hafez, I. Al-Naib, M. M. Dignam, Y. Sekine, K. Oguri, F. Blanchard, D. G. Cooke, S. Tanaka, F. Komori, H. Hibino, and T. Ozaki, “Nonlinear terahertz field-induced carrier dynamics in photoexcited epitaxial monolayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 91(3), 035422 (2015).
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P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
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Corde, S.

S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, G. Lambert, R. Fitour, V. Malka, A. Rousse, A. Beck, and E. Lefebvre, “Femtosecond x rays from laser-plasma accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(1), 1–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Costello, J. T.

I. Grguraš, A. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cristofari, G.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Humières, E.

A. Poyé, S. Hulin, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. L. Dubois, J. Ribolzi, D. Raffestin, M. Bardon, F. Lubrano-Lavaderci, E. D’Humières, J. J. Santos, P. Nicolaï, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Physics of giant electromagnetic pulse generation in short-pulse laser experiments,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(4), 043106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Daranciang, D.

Z. Wu, A. S. Fisher, J. Goodfellow, M. Fuchs, D. Daranciang, M. Hogan, H. Loos, and A. Lindenberg, “Intense terahertz pulses from SLAC electron beams using coherent transition radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 022701 (2013).
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De Angelis, R.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
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Degert, J.

E. Freysz and J. Degert, “Nonlinear optics: Terahertz Kerr effect,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 131–132 (2010).
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Deng, Y. Q.

G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, Y. H. Zhang, H. Liu, X. L. Ge, S. Yang, W. Q. Wei, X. H. Yuan, Y. Q. Deng, B. J. Zhu, Z. Zhang, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, L. M. Chen, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Demonstration of coherent terahertz transition radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 205003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Giorgio, G.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dignam, M. M.

H. A. Hafez, I. Al-Naib, M. M. Dignam, Y. Sekine, K. Oguri, F. Blanchard, D. G. Cooke, S. Tanaka, F. Komori, H. Hibino, and T. Ozaki, “Nonlinear terahertz field-induced carrier dynamics in photoexcited epitaxial monolayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 91(3), 035422 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dillner, U.

A. Gopal, S. Herzer, A. Schmidt, P. Singh, A. Reinhard, W. Ziegler, D. Brömmel, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, U. Dillner, T. May, H.-G. Meyer, and G. G. Paulus, “Observation of Gigawatt-Class THz Pulses from a Compact Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 074802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gopal, P. Singh, S. Herzer, A. Reinhard, A. Schmidt, U. Dillner, T. May, H. G. Meyer, W. Ziegler, and G. G. Paulus, “Characterization of 700 μJ T rays generated during high-power laser solid interaction,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4705–4707 (2013).
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Ding, W. J.

S. Mondal, Q. Wei, W. J. Ding, H. A. Hafez, M. A. Fareed, A. Laramée, X. Ropagnol, G. Zhang, S. Sun, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zhang, and T. Ozaki, “Aligned copper nanorod arrays for highly efficient generation of intense ultra-broadband THz pulses,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40058 (2017).
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W. J. Ding and Z. M. Sheng, “Sub GV/cm terahertz radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions via coherent transition radiation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 93(6), 063204 (2016).
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W. J. Ding, Z. M. Sheng, and W. S. Koh, “High-field half-cycle terahertz radiation from relativistic laser interaction with thin solid targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dubois, J. L.

A. Poyé, S. Hulin, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. L. Dubois, J. Ribolzi, D. Raffestin, M. Bardon, F. Lubrano-Lavaderci, E. D’Humières, J. J. Santos, P. Nicolaï, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Physics of giant electromagnetic pulse generation in short-pulse laser experiments,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(4), 043106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, C. Li, L. N. Su, Y. Zheng, M. Liu, W. M. Wang, Z. D. Hu, W. C. Yan, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. Hunter, Y. Liu, X. Wang, L. M. Chen, J. L. Ma, X. Lu, Z. Jin, R. Kodama, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Bursts of terahertz radiation from large-scale plasmas irradiated by relativistic picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 255001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Düsterer, S.

I. Grguraš, A. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duvillaret, L.

F. Consoli, R. De Angelis, L. Duvillaret, P. L. Andreoli, M. Cipriani, G. Cristofari, G. Di Giorgio, F. Ingenito, and C. Verona, “Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dzhidzhoev, M. S.

A. V. Balakin, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. N. Esaulkov, I. A. Zhvaniya, K. A. Ivanov, I. A. Kotelnikov, N. A. Kuzechkin, I. A. Ozheredov, V. Y. Panchenko, A. B. Savelev, M. B. Smirnov, P. M. Solyankin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Interaction of high-intensity femtosecond radiation with gas cluster beam: effect of pulse duration on joint terahertz and x-ray emission,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(1), 70–79 (2017).
[Crossref]

Esarey, E.

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
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Esaulkov, M. N.

A. V. Balakin, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. N. Esaulkov, I. A. Zhvaniya, K. A. Ivanov, I. A. Kotelnikov, N. A. Kuzechkin, I. A. Ozheredov, V. Y. Panchenko, A. B. Savelev, M. B. Smirnov, P. M. Solyankin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Interaction of high-intensity femtosecond radiation with gas cluster beam: effect of pulse duration on joint terahertz and x-ray emission,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(1), 70–79 (2017).
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Faccio, D.

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B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
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R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
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Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
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M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
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Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
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H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
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Z. M. Sheng, K. Mima, and J. Zhang, “Powerful terahertz emission from laser wake fields excited in inhomogeneous plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 12(12), 123103 (2005).
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G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, Y. H. Zhang, H. Liu, X. L. Ge, S. Yang, W. Q. Wei, X. H. Yuan, Y. Q. Deng, B. J. Zhu, Z. Zhang, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, L. M. Chen, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Demonstration of coherent terahertz transition radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 205003 (2016).
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G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, C. Li, L. N. Su, Y. Zheng, M. Liu, W. M. Wang, Z. D. Hu, W. C. Yan, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, J. Hunter, Y. Liu, X. Wang, L. M. Chen, J. L. Ma, X. Lu, Z. Jin, R. Kodama, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Bursts of terahertz radiation from large-scale plasmas irradiated by relativistic picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 255001 (2015).
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G. Q. Liao, Y. T. Li, Y. H. Zhang, H. Liu, X. L. Ge, S. Yang, W. Q. Wei, X. H. Yuan, Y. Q. Deng, B. J. Zhu, Z. Zhang, W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, L. M. Chen, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Demonstration of coherent terahertz transition radiation from relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 205003 (2016).
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A. V. Balakin, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. N. Esaulkov, I. A. Zhvaniya, K. A. Ivanov, I. A. Kotelnikov, N. A. Kuzechkin, I. A. Ozheredov, V. Y. Panchenko, A. B. Savelev, M. B. Smirnov, P. M. Solyankin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Interaction of high-intensity femtosecond radiation with gas cluster beam: effect of pulse duration on joint terahertz and x-ray emission,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(1), 70–79 (2017).
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A. Gopal, P. Singh, S. Herzer, A. Reinhard, A. Schmidt, U. Dillner, T. May, H. G. Meyer, W. Ziegler, and G. G. Paulus, “Characterization of 700 μJ T rays generated during high-power laser solid interaction,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4705–4707 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141104 (2007).
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G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
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Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
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H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
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Biopolymers (1)

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear Optics, and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
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A. V. Balakin, M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. M. Gordienko, M. N. Esaulkov, I. A. Zhvaniya, K. A. Ivanov, I. A. Kotelnikov, N. A. Kuzechkin, I. A. Ozheredov, V. Y. Panchenko, A. B. Savelev, M. B. Smirnov, P. M. Solyankin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Interaction of high-intensity femtosecond radiation with gas cluster beam: effect of pulse duration on joint terahertz and x-ray emission,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(1), 70–79 (2017).
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M. Shalaby and C. P. Hauri, “Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5976 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
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I. Grguraš, A. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 852–857 (2012).
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V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser–plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys. 4(6), 447–453 (2008).
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L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, “Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laser–plasma interactions,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 58–62 (2007).
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J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
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G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature 420(6912), 153–156 (2002).
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Opt. Express (3)

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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
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Phys. Plasmas (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for high electric field THz pulse generation. In the inset THz transmission through HRFZ-Si filter and UHMWPE window is plotted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Comparison of THz pulse energy with laser intensity from various target materials. (b) THz pulse energy generated from unpolished Cu and with low pass filters (≤ 5 THz) at various laser intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimentally measured power spectrum of the generated THz pulses at the position of pyroelectric detector after filtering with UHMWPE window. The spectrum was measured with a series of bandpass filters. (b) THz pulse (green curve) in the time domain generated by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the spectrum shown in Fig. 3(a), Mathematically generated pulse (orange curve) that is used in the simulations presented in the next section, with a Gaussian envelope (blue curve), which is used in the simulations presented in the next section,.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of open aperture nonlinear THz transmission measurement. InGaAs thin film on InP substrate is scanned in and out through the focus and THz transmission is measured (b) Schematic diagram to describe nonlinear absorption bleaching. Conduction band of the InGaAs contains several satellite valleys, Γ, X & L valley. Carriers in Γ-valley inside the conduction band bleached to X-valley and L-valley when an InGaAs thin film is exposed to intense THz pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Absolute transmission of THz pulses through InGaAs thin film for a numerically generated THz pulse shown in Fig. 3. The color axis corresponds to percentage of transmission. (b) Normalized THz transmission (normalized to THz transmission at −6 mm) through InGaAs thin film as a function of different peak field and carrier envelope phase (φCEP). (c) THz peak electric field at focus as a function of CEP of THz pulses for two different spectral ranges ≤ 3 THz and ≤ 20 THz. The THz field is calculated using the experimentally recorded THz transmission at focus shown in Fig. 5 (d). Experimentally (green) and numerically (red) obtained (d) absolute THz transmission and (e) normalized THz transmission through InGaAs thin film while the sample is scanned through focus.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Single-shot THz measurement setup developed at INRS-ALLS. The THz measurement technique is based on electro-optic sampling using a 1 mm thick zinc telluride (ZnTe) crystal. The temporal delay has been incorporated by using reflective echelon mirror and a CCD camera has been used as a space resolved detector. (b) THz transmission through 1 mm thick ZnTe, which is calculated using data from [50], Gallot, et al.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

THz pulses in (a) temporal domain and (b) in frequency domain measured in single-shot THz measurement for 20 successive laser shots. THz pulse profile (c) temporal domain & (d) frequency domain for shot no. 7.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 THz peak field estimated by using experimentally obtained THz pulse profile in a single-shot electro-optic THz detection.

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