Abstract

We report mode-locking in holmium-doped all-fiber laser based on black phosphorus saturable absorber. The generated solitons are centered at 2094 nm with bandwidth reaching 4.2 nm and pulse duration of 1.3 ps. In harmonic mode-locking, up to 10th harmonic (290 MHz) was obtained. Properties of black phosphorus saturable absorber are investigated. Our findings validate black phosphorus suitability for ultrafast applications in mid-infrared.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

M. B. Hisyam, M. F. M. Rusdi, A. A. Latiff, and S. W. Harun, “Generation of Mode-Locked Ytterbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser Using Few-Layer Black Phosphorus as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 7454–7461 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, B. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10, 6923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang and S. Lan, “Optical properties of black phosphorus,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8, 618–655 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, N. Dong, K. Wang, D. Hanlon, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Slow and fast absorption saturation of black phosphorus: experiment and modelling,” Nanoscale 8, 17374–17382 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, M. Pawliszewska, G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Przewolka, I. Pasternak, J. Cajzl, P. Peterka, P. Honzatko, I. Kasik, W. Strupinski, and K. Abramski, “All-fiber Ho-doped mode-locked oscillator based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2592 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, Y.-H. Cha, D.-Y. Jeong, S. B. Lee, K. Lee, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6 nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 14152 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (11)

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 23, 6359 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, L. Miao, Z. Guo, X. Qi, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A56 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4280 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Woodward and E. Kelleher, “2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus a new saturable absorber material for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus-Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: An unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y.-W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. Island, K. Narasimha-Acharya, S. Blanter, D. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. Steele, J. Alvarez, H. Zandbergen, J. Palacios, and H. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, A. Ruehl, U. Grosse-Wortmann, and I. Hartl, “Sub-100 fs passively mode-locked holmium-doped fiber oscillator operating at 2.06 μm,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6859 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

Q. Wang, J. Geng, Z. Jiang, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm-Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06 μm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

V. Matsas, T. Newson, D. Richardson, and D. Payne, “Selfstarting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K.

Abramski, K. M.

Alvarez, J.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. Island, K. Narasimha-Acharya, S. Blanter, D. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. Steele, J. Alvarez, H. Zandbergen, J. Palacios, and H. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bao, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus-Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black Phosphorus-Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blanter, S.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. Island, K. Narasimha-Acharya, S. Blanter, D. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. Steele, J. Alvarez, H. Zandbergen, J. Palacios, and H. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blau, W.

K. Wang, B. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10, 6923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Buscema, M.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. Island, K. Narasimha-Acharya, S. Blanter, D. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. Steele, J. Alvarez, H. Zandbergen, J. Palacios, and H. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cajzl, J.

Carter, A.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4280 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. Island, K. Narasimha-Acharya, S. Blanter, D. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. Steele, J. Alvarez, H. Zandbergen, J. Palacios, and H. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cha, Y.-H.

Chamorovskiy, A. Y.

A. Y. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Ho-doped soliton fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 602–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

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Q. Wang, J. Geng, Z. Jiang, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm-Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06 μm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).
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Qi, X.

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Rusdi, M. F. M.

M. B. Hisyam, M. F. M. Rusdi, A. A. Latiff, and S. W. Harun, “Generation of Mode-Locked Ytterbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser Using Few-Layer Black Phosphorus as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23, 1–5 (2017).
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Shao, J.

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Nanoscale (1)

S. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, N. Dong, K. Wang, D. Hanlon, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Slow and fast absorption saturation of black phosphorus: experiment and modelling,” Nanoscale 8, 17374–17382 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 23, 6359 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, L. Miao, Z. Guo, X. Qi, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, Y.-H. Cha, D.-Y. Jeong, S. B. Lee, K. Lee, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6 nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 14152 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A56 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

V. Dvoyrin, N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, and A. Kurkov, “Graphene-mode-locked Holmium Fiber Laser Operating Beyond 2.1 μm,” in “2015 European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - European Quantum Electronics Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. CJ_7_4.

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2 μm Laser Sources and Their Possible Applications,” in “Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics,”, B. Pal, ed. (InTech, 2010).
[Crossref]

H. Song, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, and L. Li, “Mode-locked ytterbium-doped all-fiber lasers based on few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorbers,” Opt. Commun. (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Raman spectra of BP. The insets depict atomic displacements of the Raman active modes in BP [36]. (b) Atomic force microscopy image of BP flakes. (c) Cross section profiles of three BP flakes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Saturable absorption of a BPSA. Inset: Transmittance of the BPSA. (b) Experimental setup of the mode-locked, holmium-doped fiber laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical spectrum. Inset: Spectrum with CW component. (b) Pulse autocorrelation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) RF spectrum measured in 3 GHz span. (b) Fundamental frequency of 29.1 MHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Performance of the laser mode-locked at 290 MHz (10th harmonic): (a) RF spectrum. (b) Optical spectrum with FWHM of 3.4 nm. Inset: Autocorrelation of the laser pulse.

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