Abstract

We evaluate the linearity of three electric measurement techniques of the initial electron density in laser filaments by comparing their results for a pair of filaments and for the sum of each individual filament. The conductivity measured between two plane electrodes in a longitudinal configuration is linear within 2 % provided the electric field is kept below 100 kV/m. Furthermore, simulations show that the signal behaves like the amount of generated free electrons. The slow ionic current measured with plane electrodes in a parallel configuration is representative of the ionic charge available in the filament, after several μs, when the free electrons have recombined. It is linear within 2 % with the amount of ions and is insensitive to misalignment. Finally, the fast polarization signal in the same configuration deviates from linearity by up to 80 % and can only be considered as a semi-qualitative indication of the presence of charges, e.g., to characterize the filament length.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  42. W. Ettoumi, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 033902 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
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  44. E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 μm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

W. Ettoumi, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 033902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photon. 9, 543–548 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, D. V. Mokrousova, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and E. S. Sunchugasheva, “Plasma channels under filamentation of infrared and ultraviolet double femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 016002 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 244102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Alshershby, Y. Ren, J. Qin, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Diagnosis of femtosecond plasma filament by channeling microwaves along the filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 204101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Polynkin, “Mobilities of O+ 2 and O2− ions in femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 164102 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19, 6829 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Measuring easily electron plasma densities in gases produced by ultrashort lasers and filaments,” Opt. Express 19, 16866–16871 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T. Xi, F. Liu, J. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18, 26007–26017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct measurement of the electron density of extended femtosecond laser pulse-induced filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215005 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Contribution of water droplets to charge release by laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, A. Couairon, G. Tamoasuskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Accurate retrieval of pulse-splitting dynamics of a femtosecond filament in water by time-resolved shadowgraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3020–3022 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Vujičić, H. Skenderović, T. Ban, D. Aumiler, and G. Pichler, “Low-density plasma channels generated by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 377–382 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 519–523 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Centurion, Y. Pu, Z. Liu, D. Psaltis, and T. W. Hänsch, “Holographic recording of laser-induced plasma,” Opt. Lett. 29, 772 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. P. Wolf, “Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7117 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided ir femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdollahpour, D.

Ackermann, R.

Akösbek, N.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aleksandrov, N.

Alisauskas, S.

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alshershby, M.

M. Alshershby, Y. Ren, J. Qin, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Diagnosis of femtosecond plasma filament by channeling microwaves along the filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 204101 (2013).
[Crossref]

André, Y. B.

André, Y.-B.

Antonsen, T. M.

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct measurement of the electron density of extended femtosecond laser pulse-induced filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arantchouk, L.

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
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Aumiler, D.

N. Vujičić, H. Skenderović, T. Ban, D. Aumiler, and G. Pichler, “Low-density plasma channels generated by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 377–382 (2005).
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Baltuska, A.

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
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Ban, T.

N. Vujičić, H. Skenderović, T. Ban, D. Aumiler, and G. Pichler, “Low-density plasma channels generated by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 377–382 (2005).
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Baronavski, A. P.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Béjot, P.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
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Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
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Berti, N.

D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
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N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bock, S.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bodrov, S.

Bondiou-Clergerie, A.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Botton, M.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 244102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boutou, V.

Braun, A.

Brelet, Y.

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brisset, J.-G.

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bukin, V.

Carbonnel, J.

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Centurion, M.

Chen, L.-M.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-Y.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct measurement of the electron density of extended femtosecond laser pulse-induced filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. Y.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
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B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chien, C.-Y.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 519–523 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
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S. Minardi, A. Gopal, A. Couairon, G. Tamoasuskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Accurate retrieval of pulse-splitting dynamics of a femtosecond filament in water by time-resolved shadowgraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3020–3022 (2009).
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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
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Courjaud, A.

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

Couture, P.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Desparois, A.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
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F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
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Diels, J.-C.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
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Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
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Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
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Encrenaz, P.

Ettoumi, W.

W. Ettoumi, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 033902 (2015).
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N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Favre, C.

Ferland, B.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, B. L.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, B. La

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Pantalano, Y. B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1944–1946 (2002).
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S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided ir femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Franco, M. A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gallimberti, I.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Garnov, S.

Geffroy, S.

Gérin, F.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gheudin, M.

Girardi, P. G.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gopal, A.

Gordon, D.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 244102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grounds, P. W.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, H.-N.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Y.-J.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hao, Z.

M. Alshershby, Y. Ren, J. Qin, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Diagnosis of femtosecond plasma filament by channeling microwaves along the filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 204101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Henin, S.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Contribution of water droplets to charge release by laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
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Hermelin, S.

N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 519–523 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hou, L.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houard, A.

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 μm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437 (2016).
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Ionin, A. A.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, D. V. Mokrousova, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and E. S. Sunchugasheva, “Plasma channels under filamentation of infrared and ultraviolet double femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 016002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jarry, G.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jochmann, A.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johnson, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Johnston, T. W.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ju, J.

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jukna, V.

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ettoumi, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 033902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Contribution of water droplets to charge release by laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. P. Wolf, “Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7117 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J.-C.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-Y.

Kiselev, D.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Contribution of water droplets to charge release by laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klingebiel, S.

Kolesik, M.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photon. 9, 543–548 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kraft, S. D.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kudryashov, S. I.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, D. V. Mokrousova, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and E. S. Sunchugasheva, “Plasma channels under filamentation of infrared and ultraviolet double femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 016002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ladouceur, H. D.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[Crossref]

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leisner, T.

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-T.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, G.-Q.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

M. Alshershby, Y. Ren, J. Qin, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Diagnosis of femtosecond plasma filament by channeling microwaves along the filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 204101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, X.-L.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Lohrmann, D.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T. Xi, F. Liu, J. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18, 26007–26017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 519–523 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Ma, J.-L.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, F.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M.

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mawassi, R.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Méchain, G.

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mercure, H. P.

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Metzger, T.

Michel, K.

Milchberg, H. M.

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct measurement of the electron density of extended femtosecond laser pulse-induced filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Minardi, S.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mokrousova, D. V.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, D. V. Mokrousova, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and E. S. Sunchugasheva, “Plasma channels under filamentation of infrared and ultraviolet double femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 016002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photon. 9, 543–548 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mondelain, D.

Mongin, D.

D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

Munier, J. M.

Murzanev, A.

Mysyrowicz, A.

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 μm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Pantalano, Y. B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1944–1946 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided ir femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakaema, W.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakaema, W. M.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Panagiotopoulos, P.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photon. 9, 543–548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pantalano, G.

Papazoglou, D. G.

Papeer, J.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 244102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pépin, H.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petit, Y.

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Pohl, T.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
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J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
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H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
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H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
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D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
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S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided ir femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
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S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
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[Crossref]

Wolf, J. P.

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
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J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. P. Wolf, “Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7117 (2003).
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Wolf, J.-P.

D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
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E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
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N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Contribution of water droplets to charge release by laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wöste, L.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xi, T.

Xu, Z.

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yellampalle, B.

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16, 5757–5763 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 519–523 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. P. Wolf, “Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7117 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T. Xi, F. Liu, J. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18, 26007–26017 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zigler, A.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 244102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (7)

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Alisauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugzlys, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and A. Baltuska, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-IR laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 519–523 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Vujičić, H. Skenderović, T. Ban, D. Aumiler, and G. Pichler, “Low-density plasma channels generated by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 377–382 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Contribution of water droplets to charge release by laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819–821 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, “Mobilities of O+ 2 and O2− ions in femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 164102 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 244102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Alshershby, Y. Ren, J. Qin, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Diagnosis of femtosecond plasma filament by channeling microwaves along the filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 204101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canadian J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, D. V. Mokrousova, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and E. S. Sunchugasheva, “Plasma channels under filamentation of infrared and ultraviolet double femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 016002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, W. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photon. 9, 543–548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ultrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided ir femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

N. Berti, W. Ettoumi, S. Hermelin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Nonlinear synthesis of complex laser waveforms at remote distances,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, W. M. Nakaema, P. Béjot, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, “1-J white-light continuum from 100-TW laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

W. Ettoumi, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 033902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mongin, E. Schubert, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Gas-solid phase transition in laser multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 133902 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct measurement of the electron density of extended femtosecond laser pulse-induced filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 85, 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. (a) General layout. L: f = 2 m lens; BS: 70/30 beam splitter; HV: high voltage supply; C: capacitor; R: resistor. Main configurations of electrodes used: (b) parallel configuration, (c) transverse configuration, (d) longitudinal configuration and (e) parallel configuration with spherical electrodes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical shape of the raw signal. (a) parallel configuration [Fig. 1(b)]; (b) longitudinal configuration (electronic current measurement, Fig. 1(d)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Configuration for the measurement of the (b) total collected charge and (c) peak ionic current.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transverse configuration; (b) Effect of the distance between the filaments on the ionic current for an electric field of 5 × 105 kV/m
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Parallel configuration for the measurement of the fast polarization signal and (b) its magnitude as a function of the applied voltage.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Longitudinal configuration and (b) peak electronic current as function of the applied external field in this configuration.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Energy dependence of the electric measurement techniques of filament plasma: electronic current in the longitudinal configuration, ionic current and fast polarization signal in the parallel configuration. (b) Simulated energy dependence of the electrons and ions amount produced by a filament between the electrodes, as well as the ion density after 100 μs ionized volume.

Equations (3)

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d n ions d t = β n ions 2
n ions = n 0 1 + n 0 β t 1 β t
E ind ( z 0 , d , t ) = a e n e ( t ) μ e E t 4 π ε 0 z 0 l z 0 d z ( d 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2

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