Abstract

We demonstrate a self-referencing method to reduce noise in a single-shot terahertz detection scheme. By splitting a single terahertz pulse and using a reflective echelon, both the signal and reference terahertz time-domain waveforms were measured using one laser pulse. Simultaneous acquisition of these waveforms significantly reduces noise originating from shot-to-shot fluctuations. We show that correlation function based referencing, which is not limited to polarization dependent measurements, can achieve a noise floor that is comparable to state-of-the-art polarization-gated balanced detection. Lastly, we extract the DC conductivity of a 30 nm free-standing gold film using a single THz pulse. The measured value of σ0 = 1.3 ± 0.4 × 107 S m−1 is in good agreement with the value measured by four-point probe, indicating the viability of this method for measuring dynamical changes and small signals.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed. (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 1998), pp. 7–50.
    [Crossref]
  2. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1779 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 471–473 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Jiang and X. C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1114–1116 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. H. Matlis, G. R. Plateau, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, “Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of ultrashort THz waveforms using temporal electric-field cross correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 23–27 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Wang, Y. Fei, and L. Li, “Detection of the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse based on spectral holography,” Chinese Phys. B 23(6), 064202 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 426–428 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “High-temporal-resolution, single-shot characterization of terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1710–1712 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, K. Akiyama, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot terahertz spectroscopy using pulse-front tilting of an ultra-short probe pulse,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11228–11235 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. T. Noe, I. Katayama, F. Katsutani, J. J. Allred, J. A. Horowitz, D. M. Sullivan, Q. Zhang, F. Sekiguchi, G. L. Woods, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Nojiri, J. Takeda, and J. Kono, “Single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in pulsed high magnetic fields,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30328–30337 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  25. K.-J. Kim, K. T. McDonald, G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, “Comment on “Coherent acceleration by subcycle laser pulses”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3210 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. A. Werley, Q. Wu, K.-H. Lin, C. R. Tait, A. Dorn, and K. A. Nelson, “Comparison of phase-sensitive imaging techniques for studying terahertz waves in structured LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), 2350–2359 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, “Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(3), 313–317 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. D. J. Brunner, J. A. Johnson, S. Grübel, A. Ferrer, S. L. Johnson, and T. Feurer, “Distortion-free enhancement of terahertz signals measured by electro-optic sampling I Theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(4), 904–910 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. A. Johnson, F. D. J. Brunner, S. Grübel, A. Ferrer, S. L. Johnson, and T. Feurer, “Distortion-free enhancement of terahertz signals measured by electro-optic sampling II Experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(5), 1035–1040 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Tinkham, “Energy gap interpretation of experiments on infrared transmission through superconducting films,” Phys. Rev. 104(3), 845–846 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, and J. Waldman, “High-precision reflectometer for submillimeter wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(2), 212–219 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  34. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  35. N. Kaiser, “Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3053–3060 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. V. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14(20), 1128–1130 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

G. T. Noe, I. Katayama, F. Katsutani, J. J. Allred, J. A. Horowitz, D. M. Sullivan, Q. Zhang, F. Sekiguchi, G. L. Woods, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Nojiri, J. Takeda, and J. Kono, “Single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in pulsed high magnetic fields,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30328–30337 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1779 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Kaiser, “Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3053–3060 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

M. Tinkham, “Energy gap interpretation of experiments on infrared transmission through superconducting films,” Phys. Rev. 104(3), 845–846 (1956).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, K.

Allred, J. J.

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bakker, H. J.

Bartels, L.

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 426–428 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brunner, F. D. J.

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cooke, D. G.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

Elsaesser, T.

Exter, M. V.

Fattinger, C.

Fei, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Fei, and L. Li, “Detection of the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse based on spectral holography,” Chinese Phys. B 23(6), 064202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrer, A.

Feurer, T.

Freeman, M. R.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gatesman, A. J.

Giles, R. H.

Gillespie, W. A.

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. V. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14(20), 1128–1130 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grübel, S.

Hajar, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, Y.

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hegmann, F. A.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 426–428 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirori, H.

Hoffmann, M. C.

Horiuchi, K.

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, J. A.

Jamison, S. P.

Jaroszynski, D. A.

Jeon, T.-I.

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang and X. C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1114–1116 (1998).
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. A.

Johnson, S. L.

Kadoya, Y.

Kaiser, N.

Katayama, I.

G. T. Noe, I. Katayama, F. Katsutani, J. J. Allred, J. A. Horowitz, D. M. Sullivan, Q. Zhang, F. Sekiguchi, G. L. Woods, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Nojiri, J. Takeda, and J. Kono, “Single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in pulsed high magnetic fields,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30328–30337 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Katsutani, F.

Kawada, Y.

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-J.

K.-J. Kim, K. T. McDonald, G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, “Comment on “Coherent acceleration by subcycle laser pulses”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoesel, E.

Kono, J.

Laman, N.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leemans, W. P.

Li, J.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

X. Wang, Y. Fei, and L. Li, “Detection of the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse based on spectral holography,” Chinese Phys. B 23(6), 064202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.-R.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K.-H.

Liu, Q.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

MacLeod, A. M.

Masuda, K.

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matlis, N. H.

McDonald, K. T.

K.-J. Kim, K. T. McDonald, G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, “Comment on “Coherent acceleration by subcycle laser pulses”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, K.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minami, Y.

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nahata, A.

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 426–428 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, A.

Nelson, K. A.

S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Werley, Q. Wu, K.-H. Lin, C. R. Tait, A. Dorn, and K. A. Nelson, “Comparison of phase-sensitive imaging techniques for studying terahertz waves in structured LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), 2350–2359 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nienhuys, H.-K.

Noe, G. T.

Nojiri, H.

Nuss, M.

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed. (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 1998), pp. 7–50.
[Crossref]

Nuss, M. C.

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ofori-Okai, B. K.

S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orenstein, J.

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed. (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 1998), pp. 7–50.
[Crossref]

Peng, Q.-X.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Planken, P. C. M.

Plateau, G. R.

Reider, G. A.

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1779 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sekiguchi, F.

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 426–428 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shen, J.

Sherstan, C.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. P.

Stupakov, G. V.

K.-J. Kim, K. T. McDonald, G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, “Comment on “Coherent acceleration by subcycle laser pulses”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, D. M.

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tait, C. R.

Takahashi, H.

Takeda, J.

G. T. Noe, I. Katayama, F. Katsutani, J. J. Allred, J. A. Horowitz, D. M. Sullivan, Q. Zhang, F. Sekiguchi, G. L. Woods, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Nojiri, J. Takeda, and J. Kono, “Single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in pulsed high magnetic fields,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30328–30337 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Tanaka, K.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teo, S. M.

S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tinkham, M.

M. Tinkham, “Energy gap interpretation of experiments on infrared transmission through superconducting films,” Phys. Rev. 104(3), 845–846 (1956).
[Crossref]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Tilborg, J.

Waldman, J.

Walther, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Fei, and L. Li, “Detection of the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse based on spectral holography,” Chinese Phys. B 23(6), 064202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

Weling, A. S.

Wenckebach, T.

Werley, C. A.

S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Werley, Q. Wu, K.-H. Lin, C. R. Tait, A. Dorn, and K. A. Nelson, “Comparison of phase-sensitive imaging techniques for studying terahertz waves in structured LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), 2350–2359 (2010).
[Crossref]

Woerner, M.

Woods, G. L.

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Yasuda, T.

Yellampalle, B.

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, X. C.

Z. Jiang and X. C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1114–1116 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.-H.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, S.-C.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.-G.

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zolotorev, M. S.

K.-J. Kim, K. T. McDonald, G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, “Comment on “Coherent acceleration by subcycle laser pulses”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Real-Time, Subwavelength Terahertz Imaging,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43(July), 237–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, K. Horiuchi, K. Masuda, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, Y. Hayashi, J. Takeda, and I. Katayama, “Single-shot measurement of a terahertz electric-field waveform using a reflective echelon mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 150–152 (1996).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1779 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chinese Phys. B (1)

X. Wang, Y. Fei, and L. Li, “Detection of the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse based on spectral holography,” Chinese Phys. B 23(6), 064202 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves (1)

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. Tinkham, “Energy gap interpretation of experiments on infrared transmission through superconducting films,” Phys. Rev. 104(3), 845–846 (1956).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K.-J. Kim, K. T. McDonald, G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, “Comment on “Coherent acceleration by subcycle laser pulses”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(14), 3210 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Measurements of terahertz electrical conductivity of intense laser-heated dense aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 135002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 051301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhai, S.-C. Zhong, J. Li, L.-G. Zhu, K. Meng, J. Li, Q. Liu, Q.-X. Peng, Z.-R. Li, and J.-H. Zhao, “Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed. (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 1998), pp. 7–50.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the setup. The THz field was split into two arms – one probed the sample in transmission mode while the other served as a reference. The readout sampling beam was reflected off the echelon and split. Two of the arms measured (a) probing and (b) reference THz waveforms. The remaining arm (c) monitored shot-to-shot fluctuations. The horizontal stripes result from imperfections in the imaging system. Images (a), (b) and (c) are the raw images taken on a single shot by the 3 CCD cameras labeled (a), (b), and (c) in the schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five individual single-shot THz waveforms obtained from a THz field: (a), (c), transmitted through a 30 nm gold film, and (b),(d) reflected using a silicon wafer. In (a) and (b) I0 was measured at a much later time, while (c) and (d) used the image correlation functions to estimate I0. The mean of the traces were subtracted to center them around 0. The same color THz waveforms in (a) and (b) were taken in a same shot. (e) Test of the spectral correlation function. The green dashed line is the experimentally measured transmitted THz (|Et (ω)|) from a single shot spectrum; the red line is the reflected THz spectrum (|Er (ω)|) measured from the same shot and the blue line is the correlation function (|C(ω)|) between the transmitted and reflected THz; the black line is the product of |Er (ω)| and |C(ω)|.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Echelon ratio images and extracted THz waveforms for (a)s-polarized and (b) p-polarized images. The sign of the THz field is opposite between the two cases. (c) Polarization balanced echelon image and corresponding THz waveform. (d) Spectrum of balanced THz waveform.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images and time traces illustrating the noise performance when referencing with a reference pulse measured (a) at a different time, (b)/(c) at the same time and corrected using a correlation function, and (d) at a different time and corrected using polarization gated balancing. The values in the lower right corner of each image are the average and standard deviation of the RMS deviation over 20 measurements. (e) Plot of the average RMS deviation of the 20 noise traces in the four different cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conductivity of 30nm freestanding Au measured using 4-point probe and single shot THz detection using the correlation function and polarization gated balancing schemes. The dashed line is the conductivity measured by four-point-probe. (a) 5 single-shot conductivity measurements using a correlation function with colors corresponding to the same shots in Fig. 2. (b) and (c) show the average of 20 measurements using a correlation and polarization-gated balancing respectively. σ′(ω) and σ″(ω) are the real and imaginary parts of the THz conductivity, |σ(ω)| is the corresponding absolute value, and “DC only” represents the valued measured by 4-point probe.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ I a , b I 0 = I a , b I 0 c I C a , b 1 .
Δ I a , b I 0 = sin 2 ( Δ ϕ / 2 + Γ / 2 ) sin 2 ( Γ / 2 ) η + sin 2 ( Γ / 2 ) 1 2 ( Δ ϕ ) ( Γ ) η + Γ 2 / 4 ,
Δ ϕ = 2 π λ n 3 r 41 E 0 ,
C ˜ ( ω ) = E ˜ T ( ω ) / E ˜ R ( ω ) .
Δ I ± I 0 ± = I ± I 0 ± 1 = ± sin ( Δ ϕ ) .
σ ˜ ( ω ) = 2 Z 0 d ( 1 t ˜ ( ω ) 1 ) ,
σ ( ω ) = σ 0 1 i ω τ ,

Metrics